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Encyclopedia > France in the Middle Ages
History of France
Ancient times
  Prehistoric France
  Celtic Gaul
  Roman Gaul
  The Franks
    Merovingians (481–751)
France in the Middle Ages
  Carolingians (751–987)
  Direct Capetians (987–1328)
  Valois (direct) (1328–1498)
Early Modern France (1492–1792)
  Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)
  Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)
  House of Bourbon (1589–1792)
France in the 19th & 20th centuries
  First Republic (1792–1804)
    National Convention (1792–1795)
    Directory (1795–1799)
    Consulate (1799–1804)
  First Empire (1804–1814)
  Restoration (1814–1830)
  July Monarchy (1830–1848)
  Second Republic (1848–1852)
  Second Empire (1852–1870)
  Third Republic (1870–1940)
  Vichy France (1940–1944)
  Post-War France
    Provisional Government (1944–1946)
  Fourth Republic (1946–1958)
  Fifth Republic (1958–present)
Topical
  Historical French provinces
  Economic history
  Demographic history
  Military history
  Colonial history
  Art history
  Literary history
  French culture
Timeline of French history
French Portal
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France in the Middle Ages covers an area roughly corresponding to modern day France, from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th century. The Middle Ages in France were marked by (1) the Viking invasions and the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire by local powers, (2) the elaboration of the seigneurial economic system and the feudal system of rights and obligations between lords and vassals, (3) the growth of the region controlled by the House of Capet and their struggles with the expanding Norman and Angevin regions, (4) a period of artistic and literary outpouring from the 12th to the early 14th centuries, (5) the rise of the Valois dynasty, the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England and the catastrophic Black Death epidemic, and (6) the expansion of the French nation in the 15th century and the creation of a sense of French identity. Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814-1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X Legislature Parliament History  - Bourbon Restoration 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the coup by Louis Napoleon which initiatied the Second Empire. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Motto: Travail, famille, patrie (Work, family, country) unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic President of the Council  - 1940 - 1944 Philippe Pétain Legislature National Assembly Historical era World War II  - Battle of France June 16, 1940  - Battle of... // Main article: Provisional Government of the French Republic Between 1944 and 1946 France was ruled by the Provisional Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement provisoire de la République française, GPRF). ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... Disclaimer: It must be noted that reference to French people as an ethnic group is not present in French official terminology. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainault Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...

Contents

Geography

Discussion of the size of France in the Middle Ages is complicated by distinctions between lands personally held by the king (the "domaine royal") and lands held in homage by another lord. The notion of res publica inherited from the Roman province of Gaul was not fully maintained by the Frankish kingdom and the Carolingian Empire, and by the early years of the Direct Capetians, the French kingdom was more or less a fiction. The "domaine royal" of the Capetians was limited to the regions around Paris, Bourges and Sens. The great majority of French territory was part of Aquitaine, the Duchy of Normandy, the Duchy of Brittany, the Comté of Champagne, the Duchy of Burgundy, and other territories (for a map, see Provinces of France). In principle, the lords of these lands owed homage to the French king for their possession, but in reality the Capetian king in Paris had little control over these lands, and this was to be confounded by the uniting of Normandy, Aquitaine and England under the Plantagenet dynasty in the 12th century. Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning public thing or public matter. It is the origin of the word Republic. // The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st- and 2nd-declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Bourges is a town and commune in central France. ... Inside the cathedral of Sens, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, c. ... Location Administration Capital Bordeaux Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,309 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... The Duchy of Brittany was an independent state from 841 to 1532. ... Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... The following is a list of the Dukes of Burgundy Richard of Autun, the Justicier (880–921) Rudolph of Burgundy (king of France from 923) (921–923) Hugh the Black (923–952) Gilbert of Chalon (952–956) Odo of Paris (956-965) Otto-Henry the Great... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ...


Philippe II of France undertook a massive French expansion in the 13th century, but most of these acquisitions were lost both by the royal system of "apanage" (the giving of regions to members of the royal family to be administered) and through losses in the Hundred Years' War. Only in the 15th century would Charles VII of France and Louis XI of France gain control of most of modern day France (except for Brittany, Navarre, and parts of eastern and northern France). Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainault Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), or the Spider King, was King of France (1461–1483). ... Brittany has an expansive coastline Historical province of Brittany Flag of Brittany (Gwenn-ha-du) région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... Capital Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) Official language(s) Spanish; Basque co-official in the north of community. ...

The territorial expansion of France under Philip Augustus, 1180 to 1223; blue: royal domain, red: English fiefs, green: French fiefs.
The territorial expansion of France under Philip Augustus, 1180 to 1223; blue: royal domain, red: English fiefs, green: French fiefs.

The weather in France and Europe in the Middle Ages was significantly milder than during the periods preceding or following it. Historians refer to this as the "Medieval Warm Period", lasting from about the 10th century to about the 14th century. Part of the French population growth in this period (see below) is directly linked to this temperate weather and its effect on crops and livestock. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. ...


Demographics

France in the Middle Ages was the most populated region in Europe (and the third most populous country in the world, behind only China and India), although there were great differences in density between the populated north and the relatively unpopulated south. In the 14th century, before the arrival of the Black Death, the total population of the area covered by modern day France has been estimated at around 17 million. Paris, the largest city in Europe, may have had over 100,000 inhabitants. The Black Death killed an estimated one-third of the population from its appearance in 1348. The concurrent Hundred Years' War slowed recovery. It would be the mid-sixteenth century before the population recovered to mid-fourteenth century levels. [1] Disclaimer: It must be noted that reference to French people as an ethnic group is not present in French official terminology. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainault Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ...


In the early Middle Ages, France was a center of Jewish learning, but increasing persecution, and a series of expulsions in the 14th century, caused considerable suffering for French Jews (see History of the Jews in France). The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ...


Language

For more information of the development of the French language, see French language and History of French.

Up to roughly 1340, the Romance languages spoken in the Middle Ages in the northern half of what is today's France are collectively known as "ancien français" ("Old French") or "langues d'oïl" (languages where one says "oïl" to mean "yes"): following the Germanic invasions of France in the fifth century, these northern dialects had developed distinctly different phonetic and syntactical structures from the languages spoken in southern France, which are collectively known as "langues d'oc" or the Occitan language family (of which the largest group is the Provençal language). In the east, Francoprovençal (considered a transitional language between "langues d'oïl" and "langues d'oc") and Germanic languages were spoken; in the far south, Catalan (considered a tranistional language between Iberian languages and "langues d'oc") was spoken. The Western peninsula of Brittany spoke Breton, a Celtic language. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended from Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in Northern France. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... Occitan, known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (Occitan: occitan, lenga dòc) is a Romance language spoken in Occitania (i. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and one of several co-official languages in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (under the name Valencian). ... Brittany has an expansive coastline Historical province of Brittany Flag of Brittany (Gwenn-ha-du) région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ...


The various "Langues d'oïl" and "Langue d'oc" dialects developed into what are recognised as regional languages today. Languages that developed from dialects of Old French include: Bourguignon, Champenois, Franc-Comtois, Francien (theoretical), Gallo, Lorrain, Norman, Anglo-Norman (spoken in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066), Picard, Poitevin-Saintongeais, and Walloon. Languages that developed from dialects of the Occitan family include: Auvergnat, Gascon, Languedocien, Limousin, Provençal, and, arguably, Catalan. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country - it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Francien is a term applied to the langue doïl spoken in the Paris region (Île-de-France) before the establishment of the French language as a standard language. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... With Lorrain you may mean: Lorrain language Claude Lorrain, (Claude Gelee, ca. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Poitevin-Saintongeais (Poetevin-séntunjhaes) is a language spoken by the people in Poitou-Charentes. ... Walloon (walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Auvergnat or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... The Gascon language (Gascon, ; French, ) is a language considered by some as a dialect of what we called from only the 19th century Occitan. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and one of several co-official languages in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (under the name Valencian). ...


Because of the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, medieval French was also spoken in the Anglo-Norman realm, including England, from 1066 to the 1200s. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ...


From 1340 to the beginning of the seventeenth century, a standardised French language became clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages. This is referred to as Middle French ("moyen français") and would be the basis of Modern French. Although French gradually became an important cultural and diplomatic language, it made few inroads into Occitan and other linguistic regions other than in areas where the French monarchy had established significant control. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... Middle French (French: ) is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611 [1]. It is a period of transition during which: the French language becomes clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of...


Among educated elites, clercs, and members of the clergy, Medieval Latin was the predominant diplomatic and legal language in France until the middle of the 16th century. Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ...


Historical Overview

Royaume français
France

Kingdom of France
Flag
843 – 1492

Flag of France The Frankish Empire after the treaties of Verdun and Meerssen. ... Image File history File links Sin_bandera. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Royalist_France. ...


Flag Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (Vexillological symbol: , known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ...

France in 1154
Capital Paris
Language(s) Oïl languages (Old French), Occitan languages, Breton
Government Monarchy
King
 - 843-877 Charles the Bald
 - 1483 - 1498 Charles VIII
Legislature limited legislative role: Estates-General, Parlement
History
 - Treaty of Verdun 843
 - Hundred Years' War 1337 - 1453
 - Peace of Etaples 1492
Currency French livre
Écu
French Franc

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1241x1755, 552 KB) Изработено от User:Lotroo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): France in the Middle Ages Maps of France ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... Occitan, known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (Occitan: occitan, lenga dòc) is a Romance language spoken in Occitania (i. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Charles the Bald - Detail from a painting in the First Bible of Charles the Bald, painted ca. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: États généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainault Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War (c. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... The Peace of Etaples was signed between Charles VIII of France and Henry VII of England on November 9, 1492. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... The livre was the currency of France until 1795. ... The term écu may refer to one of several French coins. ... French Franc. ...

The Carolingian Legacy

During the latter years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of his kingdom. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining any kind of political unity and the once great empire began to crumble. Viking advances were allowed to escalate, and their dreaded longboats were sailing up the Loire and Seine Rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror. In 843 Viking invaders murdered the Bishop of Nantes, and a few years after that, they burned the Church of Saint Martin at Tours. Emboldened by their successes, in 845 the Vikings sacked Paris. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... A longboat is a large boat powered by multiple oars and carried on a ship (especially sailed merchant ships). ... Loire is a département in the east-central part of France occupying the Loire Rivers upper reaches. ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Département Loire-Atlantique (44) Région Pays-de-la-Loire Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault (PS) (since 1989) Intercommunality Urban Community of Nantes City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 65. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Events March 28 - Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Meanwhile, the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire, and Charles the Bald ruled over Western Francia, roughly corresponding to the territory of modern France. This kingdom would evolve over centuries into the modern nation state of France. Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Charles the Bald - Detail from a painting in the First Bible of Charles the Bald, painted ca. ... The Frankish Empire after the treaties of Verdun and Meerssen. ...


During the reign of Charles the Simple (898-922), Normans under Rollo were settled in an area on either side of the Seine River, downstream from Paris, that was to become Normandy. Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Events Accession of Pope John IX Accession of King Kasyapa IV of Sri Lanka Magyar army headed by Álmos besieges Kiev Magyar tribes found state of Szekesfahervar in Hungary Bologna joins Italian Kingdom End of Yodit era in Ethiopia Foundation of Bhaktapur in Nepal Births Deaths Category: ... Events Births Deaths March 26 - Al-Hallaj, Sufi writer and teacher Categories: 922 ... Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ...


See also: Franks, Carolingians, Carolingian Empire, Early Middle Ages For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... The Carolingians were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdom from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


The Capetians

See also: The Espace Plantagenet about the lands accumulated by the Angevin Kings.

The Carolingians were subsequently to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two families, the accession (987) of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established on the throne the Capetian dynasty which with its Valois and Bourbon offshoots was to rule France for more than 800 years. The Angevin Empire is a modern term applied retrospectively to the lands of the Plantagenets: Henry II, Richard I and John Lackland. ... The Carolingians were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdom from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ...

France in 1154.
France in 1154.

The Carolingian era had seen the gradual emergence of institutions which were to condition France's development for centuries to come: the acknowledgement by the crown of the administrative authority of the realm's nobles within their territories in return for their (sometimes tenuous) loyalty and military support, a phenomenon readily visible in the rise of the Capetians and foreshadowed to some extent by the Carolingians' own rise to power. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1241x1755, 552 KB) Изработено от User:Lotroo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): France in the Middle Ages Maps of France ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1241x1755, 552 KB) Изработено от User:Lotroo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): France in the Middle Ages Maps of France ...


The old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. Blois is a city in France, the préfecture (capital) city of the Loir-et-Cher département, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. ...


The area around the lower Seine, ceded to Scandinavian invaders as the Duchy of Normandy in 911, became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England in the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France (where he was still nominally subject to the Crown). Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. ... Events Autumn - Charles the Simple argees to the Treaty of St. ... William I of England (c. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ...


Worse was to follow. A protracted succession dispute among William's descendants ended in 1154 with the coronation of Henry II. Henry had inherited the Duchy of Normandy through his mother, Mathilda of England, and the County of Anjou from his father, Geoffrey of Anjou, and in 1152, he had married France's newly-divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, and in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne. The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133-6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland[], eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Anjou is a former county (c. ... Geoffrey V (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy, called Le Bel (The Fair) or Geoffrey Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Eleanor of Aquitaine For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation) Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122[1] –April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... The Revolt of 1173–1174 was a rebellion against Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine and rebel supporters. ... Brittany has an expansive coastline Historical province of Brittany Flag of Brittany (Gwenn-ha-du) région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... The Battle of Bouvines, July 27, 1214, was the first great international conflict of alliances among national forces in Europe. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Aquitaine (or Guyenne or Guienne) now forms a région in south-western France along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. ...

France in 1223.
France in 1223.

The 13th century was to bring the crown important gains also in the south, where a papal-royal crusade against the region's Albigensian or Cathar heretics (1209) led to the incorporation into the royal domain of Lower (1229) and Upper (1271) Languedoc. Philip IV's seizure of Flanders (1300) was less successful, ending two years later in the rout of his knights by the forces of the Flemish cities at the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk (Courtrai). Image File history File links France. ... Image File history File links France. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Combatants Flanders France Commanders Willem van Gullik Pieter de Coninc Guy of Namur Robert II of Artois Strength 9,000 8,000 Casualties 100 est. ... Kortrijk (French: Courtrai; Latin: Cortoriacum) is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province West Flanders. ...


The Hundred Years' War

Main article: Hundred Years' War

The death of Charles IV in 1328 without male heirs brought the House of Valois to the throne under the Salic law, though this was disputed by English kings in the Hundred Years' War. Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainault Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Charles IV the Fair (French: Charles IV le Bel) (1294 – February 1, 1328), a member of the Capetian Dynasty, reigned as King of France from 1322 to 1328. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainault Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ...


The extinction of the main Capetian line (1328) brought to the throne the related House of Valois, but as Philip IV's grandson, Edward III of England claimed the French crown for himself, this helped inaugurate the succession of conflicts known collectively as the Hundred Years' War. Under Salic law the crown couldn't pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter was Isabella, whose son was Edward III). So instead the Valois dynasty came to power - Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois, was king from 1328-1350. This, in addition to a long-standing dispute over the rights to Gascony in the south of France, and the relationship between England and the Flemish cloth towns, led to the Hundred Years' War of 1337-1453. The following century was to see devastating warfare, peasant revolts in both England (Wat Tyler's revolt of 1381) and France (the Jacquerie of 1358) and the growth of nationhood in both countries. Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... For the play, see Edward III (play). ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainault Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... Charles III of Valois (March 12, 1270 – December 16, 1325) was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ... The Jacquerie in Froissarts chronicles The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years War. ... Events Jacquerie. ...


French losses in the first phase of the conflict (1337-1360) were partly reversed in the second (1369-1396); but Henry V's shattering victory at the battle of Agincourt in 1415 against a France now bitterly divided between rival Armagnac and Burgundian factions of the royal house was to lead to his son Henry VI's recognition as king in Paris seven years later under the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, reducing Valois rule to the lands south of the Loire River. March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War (c. ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). 4/5 longbowmen, 1/5 dismounted men-at-arms. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Loire is a département in the east-central part of France occupying the Loire Rivers upper reaches. ...


France's humiliation was abruptly reversed in 1429 by the appearance of a restorationist movement symbolised by the Lorraine peasant maid Joan of Arc, who claimed the guidance of divine voices for the campaign which rapidly ended the English siege of Orléans and ended in Charles VII's coronation in the historic city of Reims. Subsequently captured by the Burgundians and sold to their English allies, her execution for heresy in 1431 redoubled her value as the embodiment of France's cause. January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army of William de la Pole, 4th Earl of Suffolk at... Joan of Arc, also known as Jeanne dArc,[1] (c. ... Orléans Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; after being pillaged by Huguenots in the 1560s, the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ...

France in 1435.
France in 1435.

Reconciliation between the king and Philippe of Burgundy (1435) removed the greatest obstacle to French recovery, leading to the recapture of Paris (1436), Normandy (1450) and Guienne (1453), reducing England's foothold to a small area around Calais (lost also in 1558). After victory over England, France's emergence as a powerful national monarchy was crowned by the "incorporation" of the Duchy of Burgundy (1477) and Brittany (1532), which had previously been independent European states. Image File history File links Hundred_years_war_france_england_1435. ... Image File history File links Hundred_years_war_france_england_1435. ... There are a number of men called Philip of Burgundy: Philip of Burgundy (1323 – 1346), son of Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy and Princess Jeanne of France. ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Aquitaine (or Guyenne or Guienne) now forms a région in south-western France along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Calais is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Brittany has an expansive coastline Historical province of Brittany Flag of Brittany (Gwenn-ha-du) région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ...


The losses of the century of war were enormous, particularly owing to the plague (the Black Death, usually considered an outbreak of bubonic plague), which arrived from Italy in 1348, spreading rapidly up the Rhone valley and thence across most of the country: it is estimated that a population of some 18-20 million in modern-day France at the time of the 1328 hearth-tax returns had been reduced 150 years later by 50% or more. Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ...


Economy

The period after the death of Charlemagne was marked by an economic crisis caused by political instability. Town life all but disappeared. However, this had changed by the eleventh century. The introduction of new crops, the improvements in the climate, and the introduction of new agricultural technologies created a large agricultural surplus. This was accompanied by the growth in town life, trade, and industry. The economy once again collapsed in the fourteenth century because of war, bad weather, and the Black Death. This is a history of the economy of France. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...


The rural economy was based on the manor; in urban areas economic activity was organized around guilds.


Government

France had a feudal system of government; the royal power was extremely limited. In rural areas feudal lords handled matters such as defense, and the maintenance of law and order. This was the result of the chaos that followed the Germanic and Viking invasions. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


In urban areas popular agitation led to the setting up of autonomous "communes" that served as units of self-government. Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ...


Literature

Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... Middle French (French: ) is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611 [1]. It is a period of transition during which: the French language becomes clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of... Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... Occitan, known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (Occitan: occitan, lenga dòc) is a Romance language spoken in Occitania (i. ... Provençal literature is much more easily defined than the Provençal language in which it is expressed. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066-1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm. ...

Art

Main article: Medieval art

Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mc Evedy, Colin, and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1978, pp. 55–58.

See also

  • Saint-Benoît-du-Sault
Middle Ages by region

Bosnia · Britain · Byzantine Empire · Czech lands · France · Germany · Italy · Kievan Rus' · Poland · Romania · Scotland · Serbia · Spain Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a little town and commune of the Indre département, in central France. ... The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century, but not for long as it was soon taken by the Czar of Bulgarians Samuil. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article describes the history of the Czech lands in the Middle Ages. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day Western Serbia and Northern Montenegro), Bosnia [1] (indistinct from Rascia until the 12th century), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and...


  Results from FactBites:
 
France in the Middle Ages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1628 words)
France in the Middle Ages is, for the purpose of this article, the history of the region roughly corresponding to modern day France from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th century.
France in the Middle Ages was the most populated region in Europe (and the third most populous country in the world, behind only China and India), although there were great differences in density between the populated north and the relatively unpopulated south.
France's humiliation was abruptly reversed in 1429 by the appearance of a restorationist movement symbolised by the Lorraine peasant maid Joan of Arc, who claimed the guidance of divine voices for the campaign which rapidly ended the English siege of Orléans and ended in Charles VII's coronation in the historic city of Reims.
Livre tournois - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (649 words)
Other francs were minted under Charles V of France, Henri III of France and Henri IV of France.
In France, the livre tournois and the currency system based on it became a standard monetary unit of accounting and continued to be used even when the "livre tournois" ceased to exist as an actual coin.
The official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549, but it had been one of the standard units of accounting in France since the 13th century.
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