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Encyclopedia > François l'Ollonais
An illustration of François l'Ollonais from a 1684 edition of The History of the Bucaniers of America

Jean-David Nau (c. 1635 - 1667), better known as François l'Ollonais, was a French pirate active in the Caribbean during the 1660s. In his 1684 account The History of the Bucaniers of America, Alexander Exquemelin notes l'Ollonais' place of birth as being Les Sables-d'Olonne. Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century Decades: 1610s 1620s 1630s 1640s 1650s - 1660s - 1670s 1680s 1690s 1700s 1710s Years: 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 Events and Trends Samuel Pepys begins his famous diary in 1660 and ends it, due to failing eyesight in 1669. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... EXQUEMELIN (or ESQUEMELING, or OEXMELIN), Alexandre Olivier (ca. ...

L'Ollonais first arrived in the Caribbean as an indentured servant during the 1650s. By 1660, his indenture was complete and he began to wander the various islands, before finally arriving in Saint-Domingue and becoming a buccaneer, preying on Spanish shipping in the region. An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century Decades: 1600s 1610s 1620s 1630s 1640s - 1650s - 1660s 1670s 1680s 1690s 1700s Years: 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... Events January 1 - colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration February 2 – George Monck and his regiment arrive in London February 23 - Charles XI becomes king of Sweden. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Buccaneer is a term that was used in the later 17th century in the Caribbean Islands. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ...

A year or two (dates regarding l'Ollonais are at best sketchy) into his piratical career, l'Ollonais was shipwrecked near Campeche, in Mexico. A party of Spanish soldiers attacked l'Ollonais and his crew, killing almost the entire party. L'Ollonais himself survived by covering himself in the blood of others and hiding amongst the dead. After the Spaniards departed, l'Ollonais, with the assistance of some slaves, escaped and made his way to Tortuga. Shortly after this, he and his crew held a town hostage, demanding a ransom from its Spanish rulers. The governor of Havana sent a ship to kill l'Ollonais' party, but l'Ollonais captured and beheaded the entire crew save one, who he spared so that a message could be delivered to Havana. In the message, l'Ollonais declared: A shipwreck is the remains of a ship after it has sunk or been beached as a result of a crisis at sea. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize, to... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells ( red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... A monument celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Wiktionary has a definition of: Slavery Slavery can mean one or more related conditions which involve control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or... Note: There is also a group of islands called the Dry Tortugas, part of the Florida Keys. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... This article is about the Cuban city. ...

"I shall never henceforward give quarter to any Spaniard whatsoever."

In 1667, l'Ollonais sailed from Tortuga with a fleet of eight ships and a crew of six hundred pirates to sack Maracaibo. En route, l'Ollonais crossed paths with a Spanish treasure ship, which he captured, along with its rich cargo of cacao, gemstones and more than 40,000 pieces of eight. Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... The city of Maracaibo, founded in 1571, is the capital of the State of Zulia and is Venezuelas second largest population center. ... Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4-8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae, native to tropical South America, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... A gemstone is a mineral, rock (as in lapis lazuli) or petrified material that when cut or faceted and polished is collectible or can be used in jewellery. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, heavy, or pound) is a silver coin which was minted in Spain after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ...

At the time, the entrance to Lake Maracaibo (and thusly the city itself) was defended by a fort of sixteen guns that was thought to be impregnable. L'Ollonais approached it from its undefended landward side and took it. His pirates then proceded to pillage the city, but found that most of the residents had fled and that their gold had been hidden. L'Ollonais' men tracked down the residents and tortured them until they revealed the location of their possessions. They also seized the fort's cannon and demolished most of the town's defence walls to ensure that a hasty retreat was possible. Lake Maracaibo is a large body of water in northwestern Venezuela. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Aspects of torture Incrimination of innocent people One well documented effect of torture is that with rare exceptions people will say or do anything to escape the situation, including untrue confessions and implication of others without genuine knowledge, who may well then be tortured in turn. ... A small cast-iron cannon on a carriage A cannon is a modern day rifled machine gun with a calibre of 20 mm or more (see autocannon). ...

L'Ollonais himself was an expert torturer, and his techniques included slicing portions of flesh off the victim with a sword, burning them alive, or "woolding", which involved tying knotted rope around the victim's head until their eyes were forced out. Diagram of a human eye. ...

Over the following two months, l'Ollonais and his men raped, pillaged and eventually burned much of Maracaibo before moving south to Gibraltar, on the southern shore of Lake Maracaibo. Despite being outnumbered, the pirates slaughtered Gibraltar's garrison of 500 soldiers and held the city for ransom. Despite the payment of the ransom (20,000 pieces of eight and five hundred cows), l'Ollonais continued to ransack the city, acquiring a total of 260,000 pieces of eight, gems, silverware, silks as well as a number of slaves. The damage l'Ollonais inflicted upon Gibraltar was so great that the city, formerly a major centre for the exportation of cacao, nearly ceased to exist by 1680. For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation). ... Cows at a small farm in Maryland. ... Starch-polyester disposable cutlery Cutlery refers to any hand utensil used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food. ... Silk (< OE sioloc probably < L. SERICVS / Gr. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ...

Word of his attack on Maracaibo and Gibraltar reached Tortuga, and l'Ollonais earnt a reputation for his ferocity and cruelty and he was given the nickname "Flail of the Spaniards" (French: Fléau des Espagnois). Seven hundred pirates enlisted with him when he mounted his next expedition, this time to the Central American mainland, later that year. After pillaging Puerto Cavello, l'Ollonais was ambushed by a large force of Spanish soldiers en route to San Pedro. Only narrowly escaping with his life, l'Ollonais captured two Spaniards. Exquemelin wrote: A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ...

"He drew his cutlass, and with it cut open the breast of one of those poor Spaniards, and pulling out his heart with his sacrilegious hands, began to bite and gnaw it with his teeth, like a ravenous wolf, saying to the rest: I will serve you all alike, if you show me not another way."

Horrified, the surviving Spaniard showed l'Ollonais a clear route. However, l'Ollonais and the few men still surviving were repelled, and retreated back to their ship. They ran aground on a sandbar in the Gulf of Honduras, and, unable to dislodge their craft, headed inland to find food, but were captured by Amerindians in Darién. Exquemelin wrote that the Amerindians: In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... Missing image Map of Belize, showing the Gulf of Honduras The Gulf or Bay of Honduras is a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea, indenting the coasts of Belize, Honduras and Guatemala. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Darién is a province in eastern Panama. ...

"tore him in pieces alive, throwing his body limb by limb into the fire and his ashes into the air."


  • Exquemelin, Alexander. The History of the Bucaniers of America. 1684.

External link

  • Pirates & Privateers: The History of Maritime Piracy - L'Ollonais (http://www.cindyvallar.com/lollonais.html)



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