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Encyclopedia > François I
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Francis I, Renaissance prince, lover of women, patron of the arts
French Monarchy-
Capetian Dynasty
(Valois-Angoulême branch)

Francis I
Children
   Henry II
   Madeleine of Valois,    Queen consort of Scot.
Henry II
Children
   Francis II
   Elizabeth of Valois
   Queen consort of Spain
   Charles IX
   Henry III
   Marguerite of Valois
   (a.k.a. "Queen Margot")
   François, Duke of Anjou
Francis II
Charles IX
Henry III

Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. Download high resolution version (805x1026, 160 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (805x1026, 160 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Self-designed File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Madeleine de Valois, born August 10, 1520 at St. ... Madeleine de Valois, born August 10, 1520 at St. ... Henry II of France Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 - July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from 1547 until his death. ... Elizabeth of Valois (April 2, 1545 - October 3, 1568) was a daughter of Henry II of France. ... Elizabeth of Valois (April 2, 1545 - October 3, 1568) was a daughter of Henry II of France. ... Marguerite de Valois (1553 - 1615), Queen Margot, Queen of France and Navarre. ... François, Duke of Anjou François Hercule, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, ( March 18, 1555 - June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... François II Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 - December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 - 1560). ... Charles IX ( June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) was born Charles-Maximilien, the son of King Henri II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Henry III (French: Henri III; Polish: Henryk III Walezy; September 19, 1551 - August 2, 1589) was King of Poland (1573-1574) and subsequently King of France (1574-1589). ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... Events January 25 - Alfonso II becomes King of Naples. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Events June - Invasion of Persia by Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire. ... Location within France Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ...


Francis I, a member of the Valois Dynasty, was born at Cognac, Charente, the son of Charles d'Angoulême (1459January 1, 1496), 1st cousin of King Louis XII, and of Louise of Savoy (September 11, 1476September 22, 1531). He married Claude of France, the daughter of Louis XII. Because of the Salic Law that stated that women could not inherit the throne of France, the throne passed to Francis I at the death of Louis XII, as he was the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty. Claude of France became queen Consort. The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... This article is about the city in France. ... Charente is a département in central France named after the Charente River. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events January 3 - Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine. ... Louis XII Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 - January 1, 1515) was King of France from 1498-January 1, 1515. ... Louise of Savoy (1476-1531) was the mother of Francis I of France, and during his absences, acted as regent on his behalf. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years). ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years). ... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ... Claude de France (14 October 1499 – 20 July 1524), French queen by marriage and duchess of Brittany in her own right, was the eldest daughter of King Louis XII of France and Anne, the heiress of Brittany. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the Military Chiefs who formed his Treuste, or armed Court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ...


Francis I is considered to be France's first Renaissance monarch. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances. He was a contemporary of King Henry VIII of England and of Charles V ruler of a multinational European empire, his great rivals. By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V ( 24 February 1500– 21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of Castile who died...


When young Francis ascended the throne in 1515 he was a king with unprecedented humanist credentials. While his two predecessors, Charles VIII and Louis XII, had spent much of their reigns concerned with Italy they did not much embrace the new intellectual movements coming out of it. Both monarchs continued in the same patterns of behavior that had dominated the French monarchy for centuries. They are considered the last of the medieval French monarchs, but they did lay the groundwork for the Renaissance to come into full swing in France. Events June - Invasion of Persia by Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire. ... Humanism is a general term for many different lines of thought that focus on humanity and issues that are common to human beings. ... Charles VIII of France (June 30, 1470–April 7, 1498; French: Charles VIII de France), nicknamed the Affable (lAffable), was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Louis XII Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 - January 1, 1515) was King of France from 1498-January 1, 1515. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ...


Contact between the French and Italians in the long running series of wars under Charles and Louis had brought new ideas to France by the time the young Francis was receiving his education. Thus a number of his tutors, such as Desmoulins, his Latin instructor, and Christophe de Longeuil were schooled in the new ways of thinking and they attempted to imbue Francis with it. Francis' mother also had a great interest in Renaissance art, which she passed down to her son. One certainly cannot say that Francis received a humanist education; most of his teachers had not yet been affected by the Renaissance. One can, however, state that he clearly received an education more oriented towards humanism than any previous French king.


By the time Francis ascended the throne in 1515 the Renaissance had clearly arrived in France, and Francis was an important supporter of the change. Francis became a major patron of the arts. He lent his support to many of the greatest artists of his time and encouraged them to come to France. Some did work for him, including such greats as Andrea del Sarto, and Leonardo da Vinci, who Francis convinced to leave Italy in the last and least productive part of his life. While Leonardo did little painting in his years in France, he brought with him many of his great works, such as the Mona Lisa, and these stayed in France upon his death. Events June - Invasion of Persia by Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire. ... A self portrait Andrea del Sarto (Andrea dAgnolo di Francesco di Luca di Paolo del Migliore, Gualfonda, Florence, 1487 - Florence, 1531). ... Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ... The Mona Lisa is an oil painting on poplar wood. ...


Other major artists who Francis employed include the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini, and the painters Rosso and Primaticcio, all of whom were heavily employed in decorating Francis' various palaces. Francis employed a number of agents in Italy who endeavoured to procure artworks by Italian masters such as Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael and ship them to France. These agents had some notable successes, even if plans to try to move Leonardo's Last Supper to France proved impractical. When Francis ascended the throne the royal palaces were decorated with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture either ancient or modern. It is during Francis' reign that the magnificent art collection of the French kings that can still be seen in the Louvre was truly begun. Benvenuto Cellini - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Michelangelo Buonarroti, by Marcello Venusti Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564*) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Titian. ... This page is about the artist. ... The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper (in Italian, Il Cenacolo or LUltima Cena) is a painting by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Duke Lodovico Sforza. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ...


Francis was also renowned as a man of letters. When Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Castiglione's Book of the Courtier, it is as the great hope to bring culture to the war-obsessed French nation. Not only did Francis support a number of major writers of the period, he was a poet himself, if not one of immense quality. Francis worked hard at improving the royal library. He appointed the great French humanist Guillaume Budé as chief librarian, and began to expand the collection. Francis employed agents in Italy looking for rare books and manuscripts, just as he had looking for art works. During his reign the size of the library increased greatly. Not only did Francis expand the library, there is also, according to Knecht, evidence that he read the books he bought for it, a much rarer feat in the royal annals. Francis set an important precedent by opening his library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge. An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Baldassare Castiglione, count of Novellata (December 6, 1478 - February 2, 1529), one of the most important renaissance authors and a diplomat. ... The Book of the Courtier (Italian Il Cortegiano) was written by Baldassare Castiglione in 1528. ... Guillaume Budé (Latin: Guglielmus Budaeus) (1467 - August 23, 1540) was a French scholar. ...


Francis was an impressive builder and he poured vast amounts of money into new structures. He continued the work of his predecessors on the Château d'Amboise and also started renovations on the Château de Blois. Early in his reign he also began construction of the magnificent Château de Chambord, very obviously inspired by the styles of the Italian renaissance, and perhaps even designed by Leonardo. Francis rebuilt the Louvre, turning it from a gloomy medieval fortress into a building of renaissance splendour. Francis financed the building of a new City Hall (Hôtel de Ville) for Paris in order to have control over the building's design. He constructed the Château de Madrid and rebuilt the Château de St-Germain-en-Laye. The largest of Francis' building projects was the reconstruction and expansion of the royal château of Fontainebleau, which quickly became his favourite place of residence. Each of Francis' projects was luxuriously decorated both inside and outside. Fontainebleau, for instance, had a gushing fountain in its courtyard where quantities of wine were mixed with the water. The Royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France. ... The Royal Château de Blois is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France. ... The Royal Château at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France, is one of the most recognizable châteaux in the world because of its very distinct French Renaissance architecture that blends traditional medieval forms with classical Italian structures. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... In French, a hôtel de ville or mairie is a town hall (and not a hotel). ... Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a city west of Paris, in the Yvelines d partement (of which it is a sous-pr fecture), in the Ile-de-France r gion, in France. ... The central range of Fontainebleau The Royal Château of Fontainebleau (in the Seine-et-Marne département), the largest of the French royal châteaux, introduced to France the Italian Mannerist style in interior decoration and in gardens, and transformed them in the translation. ...


Militarily and politically, Francis' reign was less successful; he tried and failed to become Holy Roman Emperor, and pursued a series of wars in Italy - see Italian Wars. His most devastating defeat occurred at the Battle of Pavia where he was captured by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Francis was held captive in Madrid and forced to make major concessions to Charles before he was freed. Upon his return to France, however, Francis argued that his agreement with Charles was made under duress and he repudiated it. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In 1525 during The Battle of Pavia, Charles V (1500-1558), The Holy Roman Emperor, defeated Francis I (1494-1547), King of France, taking him prisoner for ransom, and confining him in Spain. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Coat of arms The Plaza de España square Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ...


As King, in 1524, he assisted the citizens of Lyon to finance the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazano to North America; on this expedition, Verrazano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown. In 1534, he sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find certaines îles et pays où l'on dit qu'il se doit trouver grande quantité d'or et autres riches choses ("certain islands and lands where it is said there are great quantities of gold and other riches"). Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... This article is about the French city. ... Giovanni da Verrazano (his last name is also spelled Verrazzano) was born, on his familys castle, Castello Verrazzano, near Val di Greve, 30 miles south of Florence. ... This is about the island in Canada. ... Events May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... Jacques Cartier (Saint-Malo, France, December 31, 1491 - January 19, 1557) was a French explorer who is popularly thought of one of the major discoverers of Canada, or more specifically, the interior region that would be part of the first area that could become that nation. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article describes the Canadian province. ...


In his castle in Villers-Cotterêts, Aisne, in 1539, Francis signed the edict which made French the administrative language instead of Latin. The same edict required priests to register births and establish a registry office. Villers-Cotterêts is a commune of the Aisne département in the Picardie (Picardy) région in northern France. ... Aisne is a département in the northern part of France named after the Aisne River. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by François I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts. ...


An important change Francis brought to European history was that he came to an understanding with the Ottoman Turks. No formal treaties with the 'infidels' were signed, but high-level meetings between the two powers let them collude against Charles V, and in 1543 the two powers even combined for a joint naval assault on Nice. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkic people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events February 11 - Battle of Wayna Daga - Ethiopian/Portuguese? troops defeat the armies of Adal and the Ottoman Empire. ... This article is about the city. ...


While Francis left France strewn with magnificent palaces he caused severe harm to the nation's economic well-being in order to do so. In his old age, Louis XII worried that Francis, his successor, "would spoil everything." Francis' father-in-law had left France in good shape with the monarchy ascendant over the feudal lords and the economy prospering. While Francis continued to strengthen the crown, he succeeded in undermining the nation's economy. Palaces were extremely expensive, as were wars against the Hapsburgs. To pay for these efforts, Francis undermined the nation's fiscal security. Taxes went up: the taille, the tax on peasants, more than doubled, while the gabelle, the salt tax, was tripled. Francis also used new ways to raise revenues. He sold many of the crown jewels and began alienating crown lands, disposing of important liquid assets. Francis also began the process of selling offices for quick revenue. While he did not practice the selling of offices extensively he did begin the trend that would eventually undermine the entire French government. Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ...


Francis' older sister, Marguerite (14921549), Queen of Navarre, wrote the classic, Heptameron. Marguerite of Navarre (April 11, 1492 - December 21, 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angouleme and Margaret of Navarre, was the queen consort of King Henry II of Navarre. ... Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Navarre (Spanish Navarra, Basque Nafarroa) is an autonomous community and province of Spain. ... The Heptameron is a collection of 72 stories written in French by Marguerite of Navarre and patterened after the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio. ...


Francis' legacy is a mixed one. He achieved great cultural feats, but they came at the expense of France's economic well being.


Francis I died at the Château de Rambouillet and is interred with his first wife, Claude de France, Duchess of Bretagne, in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, Henri II. The Château de Rambouillet, is located in the town of Rambouillet, Yvelines departement, France, 50 km (30 miles) southwest of Paris. ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... Henry II of France Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 - July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from 1547 until his death. ...


Marriages

On May 18, 1514, he married (1) Claude of France (October 13, 1499July 20, 1524), the daughter of King Louis XII of France and Anne de Bretagne. May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Events March - Louis XII of France makes peace with Emperor Maximilian. ... Claude de France (14 October 1499 – 20 July 1524), French queen by marriage and duchess of Brittany in her own right, was the eldest daughter of King Louis XII of France and Anne, the heiress of Brittany. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years). ... Events July 22 - Battle of Dornach - The Swiss decisively defeat the Imperial army of Emperor Maximilian I. July 28 - First Battle of Lepanto - The Turkish navy wins a decisive victory over the Venetians. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Louis XII Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 - January 1, 1515) was King of France from 1498-January 1, 1515. ... Court of the Ladies of Queen Anne of Brittany, Miniature representing this lady weeping on account of the absence of her husband during the Italian war. ...


Children:

  1. Louise (August 19, 1515September 21, 1517)
  2. Charlotte (October 23, 1516September 8, 1524)
  3. François (February 28, 1518August 10, 1536)
  4. Henri II (March 31, 1519July 10, 1559)
  5. Madeleine (August 10, 1520July 2, 1537) married James V of Scotland
  6. Charles (January 22, 1522September 9, 1545)
  7. Marguerite (June 5, 1523September 14, 1574)

On August 7, 1530, he married (2) Eléonore of Austria, with no children. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events June - Invasion of Persia by Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola (Nature 433, 32 (06 January 2005); doi:10. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Argentina. ... Henry II of France Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 - July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from 1547 until his death. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years). ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Madeleine de Valois, born August 10, 1520 at St. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 18 - King Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... James V (April 10, 1512 - December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 - December 14, 1542). ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Events December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Births Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Italian (Ferrarese) composer of madrigals, also an organist and influential teacher Giulio Caccini, Italian (Florentine) composer, sometimes called the founder of opera Deaths October 18 - John Taverner, composer... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Events April - Battle of Villalors - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years). ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Eleonore of Austria (November 15, 1498 - February 25, 1558) was Archduchess of Austria, queen of Portugal (1518-1521) and of France, also duchess of Touraine (1547-1558). ...


Francis I in fiction

The amorous exploits of Francis inspired the 1832 play by Victor Hugo (1802-1885), Le Roi s'amuse (The King Enjoys Himself), in turn inspiring the 1851 opera of Giuseppe Verdi (18131901), Rigoletto. 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Victor Hugo Victor Hugo (February 26, 1802 - May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. ... Events March 16 - West Point is established. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Events January 23 - The flip of a coin determines whether a new city in Oregon is named after Boston, Massachusetts, or Portland, Maine, with Portland winning. ... Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (October 10, 1813 – January 27, 1901) was one of the great composers of Italian opera. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1901 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Rigoletto is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. ...


Francis was first played in a George Méliès movie by an unknown actor in 1907, and has also been played by Claude Garry (1910), Aimé Simon-Girard (1937), Sacha Guitry (1937), Gérard Oury (1953), Jean Marais (1955), Pedro Armendáriz (1956), Claude Titre (1962), Bernard Pierre Donnadieu (1990). Georges Méliès (December 8, 1861 – January 21, 1938), full name Maries-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest cinema. ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sacha Guitry, born February 21, 1885 in St. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Jean Marais, born Jean-Villain Marais (December 11, 1913 - November 8, 1998) was a French actor, and the lover of Jean Cocteau. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... 1956 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...



Preceded by:
Louis XII
King of France
January 1, 1515July 31, 1547
Succeeded by:
Henry II


Louis XII Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 - January 1, 1515) was King of France from 1498-January 1, 1515. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events June - Invasion of Persia by Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Henry II of France Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 - July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from 1547 until his death. ...


 
 

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