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Encyclopedia > François Darlan
François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France

Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the French government of 1940-1944. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the French government of 1940-1944. ...


Darlan was born in Nérac, Lot-et-Garonne, graduating from the École Navale in 1902. During World War I, he commanded an artillery battery. He remained in the navy after the war, and was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1929. Darlan was made chief of staff in 1936 and admiral of the fleet in 1937. In 1939 he was given command of the entire French Navy. Lot-et-Garonne is a département in the southwest of France named after the Lot and Garonne rivers. ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Missing image Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... In military science, a battery is a group of artillery or cannon, so grouped in order to facilitate battlefield communication and the organization of barrages. ... Navy officers on the bridges of the frigate La Motte-Picquet French Navy summer uniforms Frigate division of the French Navy in Toulon harbour (Marine Nationale) is the naval arm of the French military and is the second-largest Western European navy (the largest being the Royal Navy). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed both in historical navies and several modern day navies of the 21st century. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Navy officers on the bridges of the frigate La Motte-Picquet French Navy summer uniforms Frigate division of the French Navy in Toulon harbour (Marine Nationale) is the naval arm of the French military and is the second-largest Western European navy (the largest being the Royal Navy). ...


When Paris was occupied in June 1940, Darlan was one of those who supported the prime minister, Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain. He was rewarded by retaining his post as minister of the navy. He ordered the majority of the fleet to French North Africa, but fearing it would fall into German hands it was destroyed by the Royal Navy at Mers El Kébir on July 3 at the cost of around 1,300 French naval dead. This act did much to confirm Darlan's Anglophobia, but he still declined to commit the remaining vessels to German control. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (April 24, 1856 - July 23, 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and Head of State of Vichy France. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Mers-el-Kebir Conflict World War II Date July 3, 1940 Place Mers-el-Kebir, French North Africa Result Decisive British victory The Destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, French North Africa (now Algeria), by the British Royal Navy took place on July 3, 1940. ... Mers-el-Kébir is a port town in northwestern Algeria, located by the Mediterranean Sea near Oran, in the Oran Province. ... July 3rd is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... Anglophobia is the fear or hatred of England, particularly its inhabitants or anything of its origin. ...


In February 1941 he replaced Pierre Laval as deputy to Pétain and was also made minister for the interior, defence and foreign affairs. He was de facto head of the government. In January 1942 he gained a number of other government posts. He was as much a "collaborationnist" as Pierre Laval, and promoted a political alliance between French Vichy Forces and German Forces, by Paris Protocols. However, the German government had become suspicious of his opportunism and "malleable loyalties" and in April he was made to surrender the majority of his responsibilities back to the more clearly pro-Nazi Laval. Darlan retained the post of Commander of the French armed forces. 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


He arrived in Algiers on November 7, to visit his son just before the beginning of Operation Torch. The day after, the 8th of November 1942, at 1 pm, following secretly made agreements in Cherchell on October 23, 1942, between Algiers resistance and the combined allied command, 400 badly armed French civilians neutralized, alone, by their Putsch of November 8, 1942, the coastal artillery of Sidi Ferruch and the Vichy XIX Army Corps of Algiers in about fifteen hours. To achieve that result, their forces, under the command of José Aboulker, Henri d'Astier de La Vigerie, and Colonel Jousse, occupied, at night, most of the strategic points of Algiers (the General Government, Prefecture, Staff headquarters, telephone central, barracks, etc.) and arrested most of the Vichy military and civil rulers. One of those groups, composed with some youngsters of the Ben-Aknoun College, under the command of cadet Pauphilet, had succeeded in arresting General Juin, Chief commandant in North Africa, as well as the Admiral Darlan. For other uses, see Algiers (disambiguation). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Operation Torch (from November 8, 1942) was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign. ...


Afterwards, Algiers having been occupied on the first day by allied forces, thanks to the French resistance, General Mark Clark compelled the Admiral François Darlan and General Juin, after 3 days of talks and threats, to order French forces to end hostilities, on November 10 in Oran and November 11 in Morocco, providing Darlan remained head of a French administration. For this he was dismissed from the Vichy government, and Vichy Southern France was 'invaded' by the German army in Operation Attila. In return General Eisenhower agreed with Darlan’s self-nomination as the High Commissioner of France for North and West Africa on November 14, a move that enraged Charles De Gaulle. On November 27 the remaining French naval vessels were scuttled at Toulon. November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... World War II During World War II, Operation Attila was the Nazi occupation of Vichy France. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year. ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ...


Most French troops in Africa followed Darlan's lead but certain elements joined the German forces in Tunisia.


On the afternoon of December 24, 1942 a 20-year-old French patriot, Ferdinand Bonnier de La Chapelle, entered Darlan's headquarters in Algiers and shot him twice. Although La Chapelle had been a member of the resistance group led by Henri d'Astier, it is believed he was acting alone. December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ...


Darlan died a few hours later and de La Chapelle was executed by firing squad on 26 December. Darlan was replaced as High Commissioner by another French flag officer, General Henri Giraud. Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ... Henri Giraud (January 18, 1879 - March 13, 1949) was a French general who fought in the First World War and escaped from German captivity during the Second World War. ...


Generally, Darlan was unpopular with the Allies — it was said that "no tears were shed" at his funeral. Unfortunately, his successor, General Giraud, was not very popular either; Giraud had asked General Eisenhower, on the 7th of November 1942, about taking over command of all Allied forces for Operation Torch, and refused to help the Allies until the operation has been successful in Algiers, where he arrived only on 9 November. He was generally considered overly pompous by the Allied generals. Giraud, despite being a real patriot, was committed to the Vichy regime. Consequently he supported Pétain’s pro-Nazi laws, and kept Vichy internees in Southern Algeria deportation camps. But the worse Giraud did was to put under arrest in the Sahara, under the false accusation of having participated in Darlan's death, 27 Resistance leaders who had risked their lives on the 8 November 1942, to prevent the French Vichy forces of Algiers opening fire on allied forces. Order: 34th President Vice President: Richard Nixon Term of office: January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961 Preceded by: Harry S. Truman Succeeded by: John F. Kennedy Date of birth: October 14, 1890 Place of birth: Denison, Texas Date of death: March 28, 1969 Place of death: Washington, D.C. First...


Sources

  • Henri Michel, Darlan, Hachette, Paris, 1993.
  • George F. Howe, North West Africa: Seizing the initiative in the West, Center of Military history, US Army, Library of Congress, 1991.
  • Arthur L. Funck, The politics of Torch, University Press of Kansas, 1974.
  • Professeur Yves Maxime Danan, La vie politique à Alger de 1940 à 1944, Paris, L.G.D.J., 1963.
  • Christine Levisse-Touzet, L'Afrique du Nord dans la guerre, 1939-1945, Paris, Albin Michel, 1998.
  • Professeur José Aboulker et Christine Levisse-Touzet, 8 novembre 1942 : Les armées américaine et anglaise prennent Alger en quinze heures, Paris, « Espoir », n° 133, Paris, 2002.


Preceded by:
César Campinchi
Minister of Marine
1940–1942
Succeeded by:
Gabriel Auphan
Preceded by:
Vice President of the Council
1941–1942
Succeeded by:
Preceded by:
Pierre Étienne Flandin
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1941–1942
Succeeded by:
Pierre Laval
Preceded by:
Marcel Peyrouton
Minister of the Interior
1941
Succeeded by:
Pierre Pucheu
Preceded by:
Charles Huntziger
Minister of National Defense
1941–1942
Succeeded by:
Eugène Bridoux


Pierre Étienne Flandin, French politician Pierre Étienne Flandin (April 12, 1889 at Paris, France-June 13, 1958 at Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France) was a French conservative politician of the Third Republic and Prime Minister of France from November 8, 1934 to May 31, 1935. ... In 1589, the four French Secretaries of State became specialized, with one of the secretaries responsible for foreign affairs. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Categories: French government | Stub ...


 
 

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