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Encyclopedia > Fragmentation (biology)

Fragmentation or Clonal Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split into fragments. The splitting may or may not be intentional. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are a clone of the original organism. If the organism is split any further the process is repeated. Fragmentation is a term that occurs in several fields and describes a process of something breaking or being divided into pieces (fragments). ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... For other uses, see clone. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ...


Fragmentation is seen in many organisms such as molds, some annelid worms, and starfish. Binary fission of single-celled organisms such bacteria, protozoa and many algae is a type of fragmentation. It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata*    Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc. ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... Binary fission Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ...


Molds, yeast, and mushrooms, all of which are part of the Fungi kingdom, produce tiny filaments called hyphae. These hyphae obtain food and nutrients from the body of other organisms to grow and fertilize. Then a piece of hyphae breaks off and grows into a new individual and the cycle continues. Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Ernst Haeckels presentation of a three-kingdom system (Plantae, Protista, Animalia) in his 1866 Generelle Morphologie der Organismen). ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ...


Fragmentation is observed in nonvascular plants as well, liverworts and mosses. Divisions Simple nonvascular plants   Green algae Complex nonvascular plants   Bryophyta, mosses   Marchantiophyta, liverworts   Anthocerotophyta, hornworts Non-vascular plants is a general term for those plants (including the green algae) without a vascular system (xylem and phloem). ...


Plants

Fragmentation is a very common type of vegetative reproduction in plants. Many trees, shrubs, nonwoody perennials, and ferns form clonal colonies by producing new rooted shoots, which increases the diameter of the colony. If a rooted shoot becomes detached from the colony, then fragmentation has occurred. There are several other mechanisms of natural fragmentation in plants. Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... A clonal colony is a group of plants (or fungi) that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a given single ancestor. ...

  • A few plants produce adventitious plantlets on their leaves, which drop off and form independent plants, e.g. Tolmiea menziesii and Kalanchoe daigremontiana.
  • Some woody plants naturally shed twigs, termed cladoptosis, e.g. willow. The twigs may form roots in a suitable environment to establish a new plant.
  • River currents often tear off branch fragments from certain cottonwood species growing on riverbanks. Fragments reaching suitable environments can root and establish new plants. [1]
  • Small pieces of moss "stems" or "leaves" are often scattered by wind, water or animals. If a moss fragment reaches a suitable environment, it can establish a new plant. [2]
  • Some cacti and other plants have jointed stems. When a stem segment, called a pad, falls off, it can root and form a new plant.
  • Leaves of some plants readily root when they fall off, e.g. Sedum and Echeveria.

People use fragmentation to artificially propagate many plants via division, layering, cuttings, grafting, micropropagation and storage organs, such as bulbs, corms, tubers and rhizomes. Adventitious, in botany, refers to structures that develop in an unusual place, and in medicine, it refers to conditions acquired after birth. ... Binomial name Kalanchoe daigremontiana Kalanchoe daigremontiana is a succulent plant in the Crassulaceae family that is unusual in that it produces baby plants along the edges of its leaves which then drop to the soil below and take root. ... an abscission scar on the trunk of Castilla where a branch has been shed Cladoptosis (Greek: clados - a branch, ptosis - falling; it is sometimes pronounced with the p silent) refers to the phenomenon in botany of the regular shedding of branches. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Subfamilies Cactoideae Maihuenioideae Opuntioideae Pereskioideae See also taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ... Species See text Sedum is a large genus of the Crassulaceae, representing about 400 species of leaf succulents, found throughout the northern hemisphere, varying from annual groundcovers to shrubs. ... Echeveria is a large genus of succulents in the Crassulaceae family, native from Mexico to northwestern South America. ... Division, in horticulture and gardening, is a method of asexual plant propagation, where the plant (usually an herbaceous perennial) is broken up into two or more parts. ... Layering is a technique for plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem is encouraged to grow roots while still attached to the parent plant, and then removed and planted as a new plant. ... Plant cuttings are a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... In vitro culture of plants in a controlled, sterile environment Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants, using modern plant tissue culture methods. ... A storage organ is a part of a plant specifically modified for storage of energy (generally in the form of starch) or water. ... Shallot bulbs A bulb is an underground vertical shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases) that is used as food storage organs by a dormant plant. ... Taro corms for sale in a Réunion market A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation). ... For fungal genus, see tuber (genus). ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ...


Corals

Within the reef aquarium hobby, enhusiasts reguarly fragment corals for a multitude of purposes including shape control; selling to, trading with, or sharing with others; regrowth experiments; and minimizing damage to natural coral reefs. Both hard and soft corals can be fragmented, with the level of success depending on the skill of the aquarist, method used, tolerance of the specific species, and conditions of care. Species that have shown to be highly tolerant of fragmentation include acropora, montipora, pocillopora, euphyllia, and caulastrea among many others. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Marine aquarium. ... Species Acropora cytherea Acropora echinata Acropora humilis Acropora paniculata Acropora valida Acropora is a genus of coral in the phylum cnidaria. ... Species Montipora capricornis and many more. ...


References

  1. ^ Rood, S.B., Kalischuk, M.L., and Braatne, J.H. 2003. Branch propagation, not cladoptosis, permits dispersive, clonal reproduction of riparian cottonwoods. Forest Ecology and Management 186: 227–242. [1]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fragmentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (692 words)
In biology, fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where an organism is split into fragments.
In music, fragmentation is the use of fragments or the "division of a musical idea (gesture, motive, theme, etc.) into segments." It is used in tonal and atonal music and is used in musical development and closure.
In weaponry, fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc is shattered by the detonating high explosive filling.
Habitat fragmentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (954 words)
Habitat fragmentation can be caused by geological processes that slowly alter the layout of the physical environment or by human activity such as land conversion, which can alter the environment on a much faster time scale.
Habitat fragmentation is frequently caused by humans when native vegetation is cleared for agriculture or development.
Additionally, unoccupied fragments of habitat that are separated from a source of colonists by some barrier are less likely to be repopulated than adjoining fragments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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