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Fox

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Species: See text.

Fox is a name applied to any one of roughly 27 species of small to medium-sized canids, with sharp features and a bushy tail or brush. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), although various species are found on almost every continent. The presence of fox-like carnivores all over the globe has led to their appearance in the popular culture and folklore of many nations, tribes, and other cultural groups (see Foxes in culture). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Vulpes_vulpes. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Look up fox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... A scorpion tail The tail is the section at the rear end of an animals body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Etymology

Look up fox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Modern English "fox" is derived from Old English fox. The Old English word itself comes from the Proto-Germanic word *fukh – compare German Fuchs, Gothic fauho, Old Norse foa and Dutch vos. It corresponds to the Proto-Indo-European word *puke meaning "tail" (compare Sanskrit puccha, also "tail"). The bushy tail is also the source of the word for fox in Welsh: llwynog, from llwyn, "bush"[citation needed] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old English redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


General characteristics

Arctic fox coiled up in snow
Arctic fox coiled up in snow
Skeleton
Skeleton

Most foxes live 2 to 3 years, but they can survive for up to 10 years or even longer in captivity. Foxes are generally smaller than other members of the family Canidae such as wolves, jackals, and domestic dogs. Fox-like features typically, like a cat, include an acute muzzle (a "cat face") and bushy tail. Other physical characteristics vary according to their habitat. For example, the fennec fox (and other species of foxes adapted to life in the desert, such as the kit fox) has large ears and short fur, whereas the Arctic fox has small ears and thick, insulating fur. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x700, 1083 KB) La: Vulpes vulpes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x700, 1083 KB) La: Vulpes vulpes. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1897x1269, 319 KB) Description: Arctic Fox Source: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Date: January 08, 2002 Photographer: Keith Morehouse File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fox ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1897x1269, 319 KB) Description: Arctic Fox Source: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Date: January 08, 2002 Photographer: Keith Morehouse File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fox ... This article is about the animal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map. ... Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Vulpes zerda (Zimmermann, 1780) The Fennec is a small fox found in the desert of Northern Africa (excluding the coast). ... This article is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Another example is the red fox which has a typical auburn pelt, the tail normally ending with white, like a cat with big ears, marking. For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... Woman with auburn hair. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ...


Unlike many canids, foxes are usually not pack animals. Typically, they are solitary, opportunistic feeders that hunt live prey (especially rodents). Using a pouncing technique practiced from an early age, they are usually able to kill their prey quickly. Foxes also gather a wide variety of other foods ranging from grasshoppers to fruit and berries. Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... For other uses, see Grasshopper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ...


Foxes are normally extremely wary of humans and are not kept as pets (with the exception of the fennec); however, the silver fox was successfully domesticated in Russia after a 45 year selective breeding program. This selective breeding also resulted in physical and behavioural traits appearing that are frequently seen in domestic cats, dogs, and other animals: pigmentation changes, floppy ears, and curly tails. [1] Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Fennec fox range Synonyms Fennecus zerda Zimmermann, 1780 For the aircraft, see T-28 Trojan The fennec fox is a small fox found in the Sahara Desert of North Africa (excluding the coast) and in some parts of Arabia, which has distinctive oversized ears. ... Tame Silver Foxes are the results of an experiment to domesticate the silver fox, started many years ago in Russia. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ...


Classification

Canids commonly known as foxes include members of the following genera:

This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Alopex lagopus ({{{author}}}, {{{date}}}) The Crab Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous), also called the Common Fox or forest fox is a medium-sized fox and is found in South America. ... Binomial name Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a dog with reddish fur. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Guaraní (gwah-rah-nee) [gwarani] (local name: avañeẽ) is a language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ... Binomial name (Kerr, 1792) Location of the Falkland Islands The Falkland Island Fox (Dusicyon australis, formerly named Canis antarcticus), also known as the Warrah and occasionally as the Falkland Island Wolf or Antarctic Wolf, was the only native land mammal of the Falkland Islands. ... Binomial name Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) Please note that the Blanfords Fox, or Afghan fox, is also known as Hoary Fox. The Hoary Fox, Pseudalopex vetulus, or Hoary zorro, is a species of zorro (false fox) endemic to Brazil. ... Binomial name Otocyon megalotis (Desmarest, 1822) The Bat-eared Fox is a canid of the African savanna. ... Species Pseudalopex culpaeus Pseudalopex fulvipes Pseudalopex griseus Pseudalopex gymnocercus Pseudalopex sechurae Pseudalopex vetulus Pseudalopex is the genus name for South American members of the Canidae family. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Pseudalopex culpaeus (Molina, 1782) The culpeo is a South American species of wild dog. ... Species Urocyon cinereoargenteus Urocyon littoralis The genus Urocyon is a genus contains two (possibly three) Western Hemisphere foxes in the family Canidae, the Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and the closely-related Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis). ... For other uses, see Gray Fox (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Urocyon littoralis (Baird, 1857) The Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis) is a small fox that is native to six of the eight Channel Islands of California. ... Binomial name Urocyon sp. ... Species Vulpes bengalensis Vulpes cana Vulpes chama Vulpes corsac Vulpes ferrilata Vulpes lagopus Vulpes macrotis Vulpes pallida Vulpes rueppelli Vulpes velox Vulpes vulpes Vulpes zerda Vulpes is a genus of the Canidae family. ... Tibetan Fox (Vulpes ferrilata) Lives at a high plateau of Tibet, bordering on China and India. ...

Diet

The diet of foxes comprises rodents, insects, worms, fruit, birds, eggs and all other kinds of small animals. The fox generally consumes around 1 kg food every day. Foxes that live in neighborhoods mainly depend on household waste and even rodents and birds that keep moving around these areas. Foxes are known to cache their food, burying the excess for later consumption. Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Worms may refer to: The plural form of worm Worms (computer game), a series of turn-based computer games Worms, Germany, a city in the southwest of Germany René Worms, founder of the Institut International de Sociologie in 1893 Worms (family) The common term for an animals condition of... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ...


They mostly thrive in the higher latitudes, suburban and even urban environments both in Europe and in North America. They are found also in Eurasia, North Africa, India (Ladakh, Himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Gujarat), China, Japan and in Australia. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... This article is for the Indian state. ...


Vocalization[citation needed]

A vocalizing fox.
A vocalizing fox.
"Wow-wow-wow" 
The best-known vulpine noise is a sort of barking that spans three to five syllables. "Conversations" made up of these noises often occur between widely spaced foxes. As their distance decreases, the sound becomes quieter. A cub is greeted with the quietest version of this sound.
The alarm bark 
This monosyllabic sound is made by an adult to warn kits of danger. From far away it sounds like a sharp bark, but at closer range it resembles a muffled cough, like a football rattle or a stick along a picket fence.
Gekkering 
This is a stuttering, throaty noise made at aggressive encounters. It is most frequently heard in the courting season, or when kits are at play.
The "vixen's" wail 
This is a long, drawn-out, monosyllabic, and rather eerie wail most commonly made during the breeding season; it is widely thought that it is made by a vixen in heat summoning dog-foxes. Contrary to common belief, however, it is also made by the males, evidently serving some other purpose as well. This noise fits into neither the contact nor the interaction group.

North American foxes can also produce a noise somewhere between a bark and a scream, which is unsettling to hear in night-time suburbia. [2] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2154 × 1436 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2154 × 1436 pixel, file size: 2. ...


Conservation

An especially thin urban fox in High Park, Toronto.
An especially thin urban fox in High Park, Toronto.

Foxes are readily found in cities and cultivated areas and (depending upon species) seem to adapt reasonably well to human presence. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 880 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 880 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Looking down upon the Hillside Gardens and Grenadier Pond. ...


Red foxes have been introduced into Australia and some other countries for hunting. Australia lacks similar carnivores, and the introduced foxes prey on native wildlife, some to the point of extinction. A similar introduction occurred in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in America, where European reds (Vulpes vulpes) were brought to the colonies for fox hunting, where they decimated the American red fox (Vulpes veloxi) population through more aggressive hunting and breeding. Interbreeding with American reds, traits of the European red eventually pervaded the genepool, leaving European and American foxes now virtually identical.[citation needed] For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


Other fox species do not adapt as well as the red fox, and are endangered in their native environments. Key among these are the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and the African bat-eared fox. Other foxes such as fennecs, are not endangered, but will be if humans encroach further into their habitat. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Binomial name Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766 The Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), also called the common fox or forest fox is a medium-sized fox and is found in South America. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Fennec fox range Synonyms Fennecus zerda Zimmermann, 1780 For the aircraft, see T-28 Trojan The fennec fox is a small fox found in the Sahara Desert of North Africa (excluding the coast) and in some parts of Arabia, which has distinctive oversized ears. ...


Foxes can also be helpful for agricultural purposes. They have been successfully employed to control pests on fruit farms, where they leave the fruit intact.[3] For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...


Historians believe foxes were imported into non-native environments long before the colonial era. The first example of the introduction of the fox into a new habitat by humans seems to be Neolithic Cyprus. Stone carvings representing foxes have been found in the early settlement of Göbekli Tepe in eastern Turkey. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Göbekli Tepe is an early Neolithic site in southeastern Turkey. ...


References

  1. ^ http://reactor-core.org/taming-foxes.html Early Canid Domestication: The Fox Farm Experiment
  2. ^ Stone, W, and Cram, W.E. (1905). American Animals: a popular guide to the mammals of North America north of Mexico, with intimate biographies of the more familiar species. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. (No ISBN available).
  3. ^ Foxes on Fruit Farms

External links

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