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Encyclopedia > Fourth estate
In modern times, television reporters are part of the "fourth estate."
In modern times, television reporters are part of the "fourth estate."
Topics in Journalism
Professional Issues

Ethics & News Values
Objectivity & Attribution
News Source & Libel Law
News & Reporting & Writing
Education & Fourth Estate
Other Topics & Books
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1104x876, 825 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Reporter Fourth Estate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1104x876, 825 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Reporter Fourth Estate Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Journalism is a discipline of writing invented by DF$. News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the first rough draft of history (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often did record important events, however producing news articles on short deadlines. ... Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ... News values determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet. ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to journalistic professionalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... It has been suggested that Attribution (journalism) be merged into this article or section. ... Source is a term used in journalism to refer to any individual from whom information about a story has been received. ... “Libel” redirects here. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... News style is the prose style of short, front-page newspaper stories and the news bulletins that air on radio and television. ... List of journalism topics A-D AP Stylebook Arizona Republic Associated Press Bar chart Canadian Association of Journalists Chart Citizen journalism Committee to Protect Journalists Conservative bias Copy editing Desktop publishing E-J Editor Freedom of the press Graphic design Hedcut Headline Headlinese Hostile media effect House style Information graphic... List of books related to journalism: The Art of Editing, by Floyd K. Baskette, Jack Z. Scissors, Brian S. Brooks Designing Infographics The Elements of Journalism What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect, by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel Infographics, by James Glen Stovall Media Management in the...

Fields

Advocacy journalism
Alternative journalism
Arts journalism
Business journalism
Citizen journalism
Fashion journalism
Investigative journalism
Literary journalism
Photojournalism
Science journalism
Sports journalism
Video game journalism
Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism which is strongly fact-based, but may seek to support a point-of-view in some public or private sector issue. ... As long as there has been media there has been alternative media. ... Arts journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion monkeys giblets and squirrels rectums. ... Business journalism includes coverage of companies, the workplace, personal finance, and economics, including unemployment and other economic indicators. ... Citizen journalism, also known as participatory journalism, is the act of citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information according to the seminal report We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information, by Shayne Bowman and Chris... Fashion journalism is an umbrella term used to describe all aspects of published fashion media. ... Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest, often related to crime, scandals, government corruption, or white collar crime. ... Creative nonfiction is a genre of literature, also known as literary journalism, which uses literary skills in the writing of nonfiction. ... Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. ... Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism, which uses the art of reporting to convey information about science topics to a public forum. ... Sports Journalism is a form of journalism that reports on sports topics and events. ... Video game journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of video games. ...

Social Impact

Infotainment & Celebrity
'Infotainers' & Personalities
News Management
Distortion & VNRs
PR & Propaganda
'Yellow' Journalism
Press freedom
Infotainment refers to a general type of media broadcast program which provides a combination of current events news and feature news, or features stories. Infotainment also refers to the segments of programming in television news programs which overall consist of both hard news segments and interviews, along with celebrity interviews... Infotainers are entertainers in infotainment media, such as news anchors or news personalities who cross the line between journalism (quasi-journalism) and entertainment within the broader news trade. ... Infotainment or soft news, refers to a part of the wider news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers, as evident by attraction of a higher market demographic. ... Managing the news refers to acts which are intended to influence the presentation of information within the news media. ... Distorted news or planted news are terms in journalism for two deviated aspects of the wider news media wherein media outlets deliberately present false data, evidence, or sources as factual, in contradiction to the ethical practices in professional journalism. ... A video news release (VNR) is a video segment created by a PR firm, advertising agency, marketing firm, corporation, or government agency and provided to television news stations for the purpose of informing, shaping public opinion, or to promote and publicize individuals, commercial products and services, or other interests. ... Public relations (PR) is the business, organizational, philanthropic, or social function of managing communication between an organization and its audiences. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...

News media

Newspapers & Magazines
News Agencies
Broadcast Journalism
Online & Blogging
Alternative Media News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Broadcast journalism refers to television news and radio news, as well as the online news outlets of broadcast affiliates. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ...

Roles

Journalist, Reporter, Editor, News presenter, Photo Journalist, Columnist, Visual Journalist The terms news trade or news business refers to news-related organizations in the mass media (or information media) as a business entity —associated with but distinct from the profession of journalism. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Female Reporter A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... Editing may also refer to audio or film editing. ... ITV newscaster Mark Austin. ... Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. ... A columnist is a journalist who produces a specific form of writing for publication called a column. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and the Internet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


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The term Fourth Estate refers to the press, both in its explicit capacity of advocacy and in its implicit ability to frame political issues. The term goes back at least to Thomas Carlyle in the first half of the 19th century. Journalism is a discipline of writing invented by DF$. News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the first rough draft of history (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often did record important events, however producing news articles on short deadlines. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ...


Novelist Jeffrey Archer in his work The Fourth Estate made this observation: "In May 1789, Louis XVI summoned to Versailles a full meeting of the 'Estate General'. The First Estate consisted of three hundred nobles. The Second Estate, three hundred clergy. The Third Estate, six hundred commoners. Some years later, after the French Revolution, Edmund Burke, looking up at the Press Gallery of the House of Commons, said, 'Yonder sits the Fourth Estate, and they are more important than them all.'"

Contents

Primary meaning

In On Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Thomas Carlyle writes: 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ...

. . . [T]urning now to the Government of men. Witenagemote, old Parliament, was a great thing. The affairs of the nation were there deliberated and decided; what we were to do as a nation. But does not, though the name Parliament subsists, the parliamentary debate go on now, everywhere and at all times, in a far more comprehensive way, out of Parliament altogether? Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament; but, in the Reporters' Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate more important far than they all. It is not a figure of speech, or a witty saying; it is a literal fact,--very momentous to us in these times. Literature is our Parliament too. Printing, which comes necessarily out of Writing, I say often, is equivalent to Democracy: invent Writing, Democracy is inevitable. Writing brings Printing; brings universal everyday extempore Printing, as we see at present. Whoever can speak, speaking now to the whole nation, becomes a power, a branch of government, with inalienable weight in law-making, in all acts of authority. It matters not what rank he has, what revenues or garnitures. The requisite thing is, that he have a tongue which others will listen to; this and nothing more is requisite. The nation is governed by all that has tongue in the nation: Democracy is virtually there. Add only, that whatsoever power exists will have itself, by and by, organized; working secretly under bandages, obscurations, obstructions, it will never rest till it get to work free, unencumbered, visible to all. Democracy virtually extant will insist on becoming palpably extant. . . . (Italics added.)[1]

This was not Carlyle's first use of the term. If, indeed, Burke did make the statement Carlyle attributes to him, Burke's remark may have been in the back of Carlyle's mind when he wrote in his French Revolution (1837), "A Fourth Estate, of Able Editors, springs up."[2] In this context, the other three estates are those of the French States-General: the church, the nobility and the commoners, although in practice the latter were usually represented by the middle class bourgeoisie. Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: États généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analysing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the upper class, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ...


Burke, as author of Reflections on the Revolution in France, could have had in mind precisely these three estates, or the three referred to by Henry Fielding in the quotation below. Reflections on the Revolution in France is a work of political commentary written by Anglo-Irish statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, first published on 1 November 1790. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ...


Alternative meaning

Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo. The Fourth Estate (Il Quarto Stato). 1901. Milano; Civica Galleria d'Arte Moderna.
Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo. The Fourth Estate (Il Quarto Stato). 1901. Milano; Civica Galleria d'Arte Moderna.

The term Fourth Estate has less frequently referred to the proletariat in opposition to the three recognized estates of the French Ancien Régime. The Fourth Estate, Il Quarto Stato by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (detail) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Fourth Estate, Il Quarto Stato by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (detail) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ...


An early citation for this use—earlier than for the one that now prevails—is Henry Fielding in Covent Garden Journal (1752): Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ...

None of our political writers . . . take[s] notice of any more than three estates, namely, Kings, Lords, and Commons . . . passing by in silence that very large and powerful body which form the fourth estate in this community . . . The Mob.[3]

Fourth Estate has referred to "the public press" since at least as far back as the early 1800s. More generally, it has also been used to refer to any group other than the clergy, nobility, or commons that wields political power[1].


See also

In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... A fifth column is a group of people which clandestinely undermines a larger group to which it is expected to be loyal, such as a nation. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Qtd. from Thomas Carlyle, "The Hero as Man of Letters. Johnson, Rousseau, Burns [Lecture V, May 19, 1840," from On Heroes and Hero Worship, The Victorian Web, accessed November 18, 2006; qtd. also in part in "The Mass Media as Fourth Estate," in Cultsock.com.
  2. ^ Chap. 39, Section V: "The Fourth Estate," in French Revolution, rpt. in The French Revolution, World Wide School (online library), accessed November 18, 2006.
  3. ^ Quoted in worldofquotes.com.

The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
mass media: fourth estate (3614 words)
Thus, the term 'fourth estate' is used today to refer to the mass media as a powerful watchdog in liberal democracy, revealing abuses of state authority and defending the democratic rights of citizens.
Not surprisingly, since this view of the media's fourth estate function is rooted within the pluralist liberal democracy model, it is commonly accompanied by an assumption that the media, in order to act as fourth estate, must be independent of the state.
When Carlyle advanced his notion of the fourth estate, he said that for anyone to become 'a power, a branch of government' in the nation 'the requisite thing is that he have a tongue which others will listen to; this and nothing more is requisite'.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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