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Encyclopedia > Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand
David Lange led the Fourth Labour government for most of its time in power.

The Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 26 July 1984 to 2 November 1990. It enacted major social and economic reforms, including reformation of the tax system. The economic reforms were known as Rogernomics after Finance Minister Roger Douglas. The government also enacted nuclear-free legislation, which led to the United States suspending its treaty obligations to New Zealand under the ANZUS alliance. The government was led by David Lange for most of its time in power, and lasted for two three-year terms. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... The Governments of New Zealand are based on the Westminster system of responsible government. ... The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of Roger and economics, was created by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the economic policies followed by New Zealand Finance Minister Roger Douglas from his appointment in 1984. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Sir Roger Douglas is a former New Zealand politician and senior Cabinet minister, best known for his leading role in the radical economic restructuring undertaken by the New Zealand Labour Party government in the 1980s. ... A nuclear free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and the United States, and separately Australia and New Zealand to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ...

Contents

Significant policies

Economic

  • A range of economic reforms collectively known as Rogernomics. These included:

The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of Roger and economics, was created by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the economic policies followed by New Zealand Finance Minister Roger Douglas from his appointment in 1984. ... ISO 4217 Code NZD User(s) New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau Inflation 2. ... The Goods and Services Tax is a Value-added tax that exists in a number of countries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ... New Zealand Post Limited is the dominant postal operator in New Zealand. ... Telecom New Zealand NZX: TEL ASX: TEL NYSE: NZT is a Wellington-based telephone company run as a publicly-traded private company since 1990. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the central bank of New Zealand. ...

Foreign policy

The government's most notable foreign policy initiative concerned nuclear weapons and the ANZUS alliance. Many New Zealanders (especially within the Labour Party) wanted to make New Zealand a nuclear-free zone. However this would mean banning American warships as it was US policy to 'neither confirm nor deny' whether individual ships were nuclear armed or powered. The warships had been visiting New Zealand as part of the ANZUS alliance, and most people hoped that the alliance could be preserved even if the nuclear ban took effect. The issue came to a head shortly after the 1984 election, as a proposed visit by the USS Buchanan was on the cards. Lange announced that the Buchanan would not be welcome, and the US suspended its treaty obligations to New Zealand under the ANZUS alliance. The issue became a cause celebre in New Zealand, perhaps primarily because small countries rarely stand up to larger and more powerful countries in such a way. In America, those on the right called for trade sanctions against New Zealand while those on the left idealised the country. New Zealand's diplomatic relations with America have never returned to their pre-1984 status, although the nuclear issue is becoming less important.[1] The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and the United States, and separately Australia and New Zealand to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... A nuclear-free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ... USS Buchanan (DDG-14), named for Admiral Franklin Buchanan, was a -class guided missile armed destroyer in the United States Navy. ...

Further information: Nuclear-free zone#New Zealand

The government also reinstated diplomatic ties with India, which had been cut by Muldoon. A nuclear-free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ...


Constitutional

The government's constitutional reforms were primarily the work of Geoffrey Palmer, a constitutional lawyer who for many years had been concerned about New Zealand's lack of a written constitution and the 'unbridled power' of the executive.[2] These concerns came to the fore when the Government was elected to office, and led to the Official Committee on Constitutional Reform, which reported back to Parliament in February 1986 and led to the 1986 Constitution Act. Ironically, Palmer's government would provide a key example of the executive abusing its power, as one faction in cabinet exerted power disproportionate to its numbers (see Division over Rogernomics, below). Palmer's plan for a written constitution and entrenched Bill of Rights was derailed partly by public indifference but mostly by opposition from Māori who believed that the Treaty of Waitangi would be sidelined in the process. The Royal Commission on the Electoral System was formed in New Zealand in 1985, and reported in 1986. ... The Constitution Act of 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealands Constitution. ... The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 is an enactment of the New Zealand Parliament setting out the rights and fundamental freedoms of the citizens of New Zealand. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... A bill of rights is a list or summary of which is considered important and essential by a group of people. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) was signed on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ...


Social policy

Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... To date, five periods of Immigration to New Zealand may be identified. ...

Treaty of Waitangi and Maori policy

The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ... Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since 1975. ... The Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 established the Waitangi Tribunal and gave the Treaty of Waitangi recognition in New Zealand law for the first time. ... Māori (or Maori or Te Reo) is the Polynesian language spoken in New Zealand, where it has official status. ...

Formation

Main article: New Zealand general election 1984 The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


The fourth Labour government was brought into office by a landslide victory in the 1984 election. This was a snap election called by Prime Minister Robert Muldoon after he lost confidence in his ability to command a majority of Parliament. The very short lead-up time to the election meant that Labour had no time to put together a formal manifesto, and this gave it licence to enact many policies which it had not told voters about before the election. Muldoon was extremely unpopular by this time, and most voters had become disillusioned with his economic policies, so it is entirely likely that Labour would have won this election even if they had announced their programme in advance. There was also a major run on the New Zealand Dollar caused by the constitutional crisis following the election, when outgoing Prime Minister Robert Muldoon refused to devalue the New Zealand dollar. The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Right Honourable Sir Robert David (Rob) Muldoon GCMG CH (25 September 1921–5 August 1992) served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1975 to 1984. ... ISO 4217 Code NZD User(s) New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau Inflation 2. ... The New Zealand constitutional crisis of 1984 was an important constitutional and political event in the history of New Zealand. ...


The 1987 election

Main article: New Zealand general election 1987 The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


Although the government gained one seat, two extra seats had been created since the previous election and its majority remained unchanged at 17. Its share of the vote rose from 43% in 1984 to 48%, although voter turnout was down slightly. It had lost votes from traditional strongholds but gained them in formerly National-leaning seats. According to Lange, this alerted him to the fact that the Labour Party was drifting away from its traditional support base. He was particularly alarmed that Labour had nearly won the wealthy seat of Remuera, traditionally a National stronghold. Public support of the government's stand on the ANZUS issue probably also won it votes. The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ... Remuera is a suburban area within Auckland city, in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and the United States, and separately Australia and New Zealand to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in...


Despite internal divisions, the government managed to maintain a united front before and during the 1987 election. On election night, Lange raised Douglas' hand in a boxing-style victory pose, to convey unity. The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... Sir Roger Douglas is a former New Zealand politician and senior Cabinet minister, best known for his leading role in the radical economic restructuring undertaken by the New Zealand Labour Party government in the 1980s. ...


Division over Rogernomics

The Labour Party was founded on socialist and social democrat principles and traditionally favoured state regulation of the economy and strong support for disadvantaged members of society. The First Labour Government made major Keynesian reforms along these lines, and subsequent governments continued this system. By the 1970s the system of regulation, protectionism and high taxes was no longer functioning properly, and required ever more regulation to prop it up. Meanwhile the Labour Party, once dominated by the working classes and trade unionists, had attracted many middle class people with its liberal social and independent foreign policies. These new members were interested in international issues such as apartheid and nuclear weapons, and domestic 'identity politics' issues such as the Treaty of Waitangi and feminism. This group held a very wide range of economic views, but the majority had little interest in or knowledge of economics. The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The First Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1935 to 1949. ... Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Cultural liberalism is a form of liberalism which stresses the freedom of the individual from what Lord Acton called the tyrany of the majority, the right of the non-conformist to march to a different drummer. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) was signed on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ...


When the Fourth Labour government took office, most members accepted the need for some economic reform. Finance Minister Roger Douglas and his supporters felt that a complete overhaul of the New Zealand economic system was required. Initially most of the government supported this, although a number of traditionalists were already suspicious of Douglas. Gradually more and more MPs, including Prime Minister David Lange became alarmed at the extent and speed of the reforms. The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Sir Roger Douglas is a former New Zealand politician and senior Cabinet minister, best known for his leading role in the radical economic restructuring undertaken by the New Zealand Labour Party government in the 1980s. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ...


Those in the government who wanted to slow or stop the reforms found it difficult to do so. This is partially because few of them knew much about economics, and were thus unable to convincingly rebut Douglas' ideas. It was also because of the structure of New Zealand government. Douglas' faction, which included Ministers Richard Prebble, David Caygill and Michael Bassett, dominated Cabinet. The doctrine of Cabinet collective responsibility requires all Cabinet members to support Cabinet policy, even if they do not agree with it. Since the Cabinet had a slight majority in the Labour caucus, the Douglas faction was able to dominate caucus even though they were a minority. It was later alleged that Douglas and his supporters had used underhand tactics such as introducing important motions at the last minute, preventing serious debate. David Lange also later alleged that Douglas and his supporters formed a faction, known as the "Backbone Club", to ensure victory in caucus votes on policy[3]. The Honourable Richard William Prebble CBE, born 7 February 1948, was for many years a member of the New Zealand Parliament. ... David Caygill is a former New Zealand politician. ... Michael Bassett was a Labour Party member of the New Zealand House of Representatives and cabinet minister in the reformist fourth Labour government. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Cabinet collective responsibility is constitutional convention in the states that use the Westminster System. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ...


The divisions within the government came to a head in 1988. Lange felt that New Zealand had experienced enough change in a short period, and that the country needed time to recover from the reforms and from the effects of the 1987 stockmarket crash. Douglas wanted to press on with reforms, and put forward a proposal for a flat tax. Lange initially supported this, but then realised it would inevitably lead to cuts in social services. Without informing his colleagues, he held a press conference announcing that the flat tax scheme would not go ahead. Douglas resigned shortly afterwards. DJIA (19 July 1987 through 19 January 1988) FTSE 100 Index (19 July 1987 through 19 January 1988) Black Monday is the name given to Monday, October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) fell dramatically, and on which similar enormous drops occurred across the world. ... A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ...


The next year saw even greater fracturing. After being defeated in his bid for party presidency, Jim Anderton quit the party to form NewLabour, which stood for Labour's traditional values. Douglas was re-elected to Cabinet, leading to Lange's resignation. He was replaced with Geoffrey Palmer, a Lange supporter and constitutional lawyer. However he lacked the charisma to attract voters, and shortly before the 1990 election he was replaced by Mike Moore. James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... NewLabour Party logo NewLabour was the name chosen by Jim Anderton, an MP and former President of the New Zealand Labour Party, for his new left-of-centre party in 1989. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ... This page is about the New Zealand politician and Director-General of the World Trade Organization. ...


The Labour Party took several years to recover from the damage of these years and to regain the trust of their former supporters. In the 1990 election, Labour lost many votes to NewLabour, the Greens, and in 1993 to the Alliance Party, which had been formed by NewLabour, the Greens and several other small left wing parties. The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ... The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ... NewLabour Party logo NewLabour was the name chosen by Jim Anderton, an MP and former President of the New Zealand Labour Party, for his new left-of-centre party in 1989. ... Current Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand logo The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ... The 1993 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... Current Alliance logo The Alliance, when referring to New Zealand politics, refers to a left-wing political party. ...


Douglas did not stand at the 1990 election, and several of his supporters were defeated. He went on to form the ACT Party, which aimed to continue his reforms. He was later joined by Richard Prebble, who became leader. ACT New Zealand is a free market liberal party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Honourable Richard William Prebble CBE, born 7 February 1948, was for many years a member of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


Defeat

Main article: New Zealand general election 1990 The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ...


By the time of the 1990 election the government was in chaos. Lange had resigned and Mike Moore had taken over from Lange's successor Geoffrey Palmer just eight weeks before the election. Jim Anderton had quit the party to form NewLabour, which represented the Labour Party's traditional values. The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... This page is about the New Zealand politician and Director-General of the World Trade Organization. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... NewLabour Party logo NewLabour was the name chosen by Jim Anderton, an MP and former President of the New Zealand Labour Party, for his new left-of-centre party in 1989. ... The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ...


The election was a disaster for Labour. The party lost nearly half its seats, including one to Anderton. Anderton's NewLabour Party and the Greens took many votes from Labour, although the First Past the Post electoral system meant that their share of the vote was not reflected in the division of seats. The National Party won the election, forming the Fourth National Government. Labour would not regain power until 1999. James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... NewLabour Party logo NewLabour was the name chosen by Jim Anderton, an MP and former President of the New Zealand Labour Party, for his new left-of-centre party in 1989. ... Current Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand logo The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... The Fourth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 2 November 1990 to 27 November 1999. ... The 1999 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 46th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


The disillusionment of the electorate was also reflected in referenda in 1992 and 1993 which resulted in electoral reform in the form of a change from First Past the Post to Mixed Member Proportional, a form of proportional representation. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Until 1996, New Zealand used the British system of first past the post (FPP) for parliamentary elections . ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


Electoral results

Election Parliament Seats Total votes Percentage Gain (loss) Seats won Change Majority
1984 41st 95 1,929,201 43% +4% 56 +13 17
1987 42nd 97 1,831,777 48% +4% 57 +1 17
1990 43rd 97 - 35.14% -12.86% 29 -28

The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 41st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 42nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ... The 43rd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ...

Prime Ministers

David Lange was Prime Minister for most of this Government's term. In 1989 he resigned and Geoffrey Palmer replaced him. A little over a year later, Mike Moore replaced Palmer, only eight weeks before the 1990 election: David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... This page is about the New Zealand politician and Director-General of the World Trade Organization. ... The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ...

David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... This page is about the New Zealand politician and Director-General of the World Trade Organization. ...

Cabinet Ministers

Ministry Minister Term(s)
Deputy Prime Minister Geoffrey Palmer 1984 - 1989
Helen Clark 1989 - 1990
Minister of Finance Roger Douglas 1984 - 1988
David Caygill 1988 - 1990
Attorney-General Geoffrey Palmer 1984 - 1989
David Lange 1989 - 1990
Minister of Justice Geoffrey Palmer 1984-1990
Minister of Foreign Affairs David Lange 1984 - 1987
Russell Marshall 1987 - 1990
Mike Moore 1990
Minister of Māori Affairs Koro Wetere 1984 - 1990
Minister of Health Michael Bassett 1984-1987
Helen Clark 1987-1990
Minister of Education Russell Marshall 1984-1987
David Lange 1987-1989
Phil Goff 1989-1990
Minister of Housing Phil Goff 1984-1987
Helen Clark 1987-1990
Minister of Employment Phil Goff 1984-1990
Minister of Local Government Michael Bassett 1984-1990
Minister of State Owned Enterprises Richard Prebble 1987-1988
1988-1990
Minister of Railways Richard Prebble 1984 - 1988
1988-1990

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand is second most senior officer in the Government of New Zealand, although this seniority does not necessarily translate into power. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... The Minister of Finance is a senior figure within the government of New Zealand. ... Sir Roger Douglas is a former New Zealand politician and senior Cabinet minister, best known for his leading role in the radical economic restructuring undertaken by the New Zealand Labour Party government in the 1980s. ... David Caygill is a former New Zealand politician. ... The Attorney-General is an political office in New Zealand. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, KCMG, AC, PC, (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... The Minister of Foreign Affairs is a major portfolio in the Cabinet of New Zealand. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... Russell Marshall (born 1936), full name Cedric Russell Marshall, was a New Zealand politician of the Labour Party, who had been a Methodist minister from 1960 to 1972. ... This page is about the New Zealand politician and Director-General of the World Trade Organization. ... The Minister of Māori Affairs is an official of the New Zealand government who has broad responsibility for government policy towards Māori, the first inhabitants of New Zealand. ... Koro Tainui Wetere (22 June 1935 - ) is a former New Zealand politician. ... Michael Bassett was a Labour Party member of the New Zealand House of Representatives and cabinet minister in the reformist fourth Labour government. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... Russell Marshall (born 1936), full name Cedric Russell Marshall, was a New Zealand politician of the Labour Party, who had been a Methodist minister from 1960 to 1972. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... Foreign Minister Phil Goff The Honourable Philip Bruce Goff (born 22 June 1953), generally known as Phil Goff, is the current Minister of Defence of New Zealand. ... Foreign Minister Phil Goff The Honourable Philip Bruce Goff (born 22 June 1953), generally known as Phil Goff, is the current Minister of Defence of New Zealand. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... Foreign Minister Phil Goff The Honourable Philip Bruce Goff (born 22 June 1953), generally known as Phil Goff, is the current Minister of Defence of New Zealand. ... Michael Bassett was a Labour Party member of the New Zealand House of Representatives and cabinet minister in the reformist fourth Labour government. ... The Honourable Richard William Prebble CBE, born 7 February 1948, was for many years a member of the New Zealand Parliament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Honourable Richard William Prebble CBE, born 7 February 1948, was for many years a member of the New Zealand Parliament. ...

References

  1. ^ Young, Audrey, 'PM says easing of nuclear tensions will help trade', New Zealand Herald, 26 March 2007: http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/story.cfm?c_id=280&objectid=10430874
  2. ^ Palmer, Geoffrey (1979), Unbridled power?: An interpretation of New Zealand’s constitution and government.
  3. ^ David Lange, My Life, 2005

The New Zealand Herald is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand. ... David Russell Lange (IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ...

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