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Encyclopedia > Fourth International
Part of the Politics series on
Trotskyism

Leon Trotsky
Fourth International
The Fourth International can refer to: The Fourth International - World Party of Socialist Revolution, founded by Trotskyists in 1940. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (919x1134, 8 KB) Logo Vierte Internationale (Fourth International) Vectorized and exported version in PNG format of Image:Logo of the Fourth International. ... Note: This page is very long. ...

Marxism
Leninism
Russian Revolution
Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Red October redirects here. ...


Prominent Trotskyists
James P. Cannon
Tony Cliff
Ted Grant
Joseph Hansen
Gerry Healy
Pierre Lambert
Livio Maitan
Ernest Mandel
Nahuel Moreno
Max Shachtman
This is a list of notable Trotskyists, ordered by surname. ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... Edward (Ted) Grant (born July 9, 1913) is a Trotskyist politician. ... Joseph Hansen (1910-1979), was an American Communist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party. ... Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... Pierre Lambert (born June 9, 1920) (real name Pierre Boussel) is a French Trotskyist leader. ... Livio Maitan was an Italian Trotskyist, leader of Assoziazione Bandiera Rossa. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... Nahuel Moreno (April 24, 1924 - January 25, 1987) (real name Hugo Bressano) was a Trotskyist leader from Argentina. ... Max Shachtman (September 10, 1904 - November 4, 1972) was an American Marxist theorist. ...


Trotskyist groups
CWI · ICFI · ICU
IMT · IST · IWL
reunified FI
This is a list of the many Trotskyist international tendencies. ... The Committee for a Workers International (CWI) is an international association of Trotskyist Parties. ... It has been suggested that Orthodox Trotskyism be merged into this article or section. ... The Internationalist Communist Union (in French, Union Communiste Internationaliste) is an international grouping of Trotskyist political parties, centred on Lutte Ouvrière in France. ... The International Marxist Tendency (IMT) is a Trotskyist tendency based on the ideas of Ted Grant. ... The International Socialist Tendency is an international grouping of organisations around the ideas of Tony Cliff, founder of the Socialist Workers Party in the UK. It has sections across the world, however its strongest presence is in Europe, especially in the UK, Greece and Ireland. ... See also the Workers International League. ... The reunified Fourth International was created in 1963 by the reunification of the majorities of two public factions of the Fourth International: the International Secretariat of the Fourth International (ISFI) and the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). ...


Branches
Orthodox Trotskyism
Third camp
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ICFI. (Discuss) Orthodox Trotskyism is a branch of Trotskyism which aims to adhere more closely to the methods and positions of Trotsky and the early Fourth International than other Trotskyists. ... The third camp, also known as third camp socialism or third camp Trotskyism, is a branch of Trotskyism which aims to oppose both capitalism and Stalinism by supporting the organised working class as a third camp. This approach was developed by Max Shachtman and is one of the major components...


Communism Portal
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The Fourth International (FI) has been a communist international organisation working in opposition to both capitalism and Stalinism. Consisting of supporters of Leon Trotsky, it has striven for an eventual victory of the working class to bring about socialism. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Note: This page is very long. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


In Paris in 1938, Trotsky and many of his supporters, having been expelled from the Soviet Union, considered the Comintern to have become lost to Stalinism and incapable of leading the international working class towards political power.[1] Thus, they founded their own competing "Fourth International". Throughout the better part of its existence, the Fourth International was hounded by agents of the Soviet secret police, repressed by capitalist countries such as France and the United States, and rejected by followers of the Soviet Union and later Maoism as illegitimate—a position certain communists still hold today. It struggled to maintain contact under such conditions of both illegality and scorn around much of the world during World War II. When workers' uprisings occurred, they were usually under the influence of Soviet, Maoist, social democratic, or nationalist groups, leading to further betrayals and defeats for Trotskyists.[2] City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Directorate was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


The FI suffered a split in 1940 and an even more significant split in 1953. Despite a partial reunification in 1963, more than one group claims to represent the political continuity of the Fourth International. The broad array of Trotskyist Internationals are split over whether the Fourth International still exists and if so, which organisation represents its political continuity. This is a list of the many Trotskyist international tendencies. ...

Contents

Trotskyism

Soviet portrait of Trotsky
Soviet portrait of Trotsky
Main article: Trotskyism

Trotskyists regard themselves as working in opposition to both capitalism and Stalinism as embodied by the leadership of the Soviet Union after Lenin's death in 1924. Trotsky advocated proletarian revolution as set out in his theory of "permanent revolution", and believed that a workers' state would not be able to hold out against the pressures of a hostile capitalist world unless socialist revolutions quickly took hold in other countries as well. This theory was advanced in opposition to the view held by the Stalinists that "Socialism in One Country" could be built in the Soviet Union alone.[3] Furthermore, Trotsky and his supporters harshly criticised the increasingly totalitarian nature of Stalin's rule. They argued that socialism without democracy is impossible. Thus, faced with the increasing lack of democracy in the Soviet Union, they concluded that it was no longer a socialist workers' state, but a degenerated workers' state.[1] ImageMetadata File history File links Trockiy2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Trockiy2. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Note: This page is very long. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Permanent Revolution is a Marxist theory most closely associated with Leon Trotsky, devised as an explanation of how socialist revolutions could occur in societies that had not achieved advanced capitalism. ... Socialist state is the term used in official documents of some countries to describe their political system. ... It has been suggested that Proletarian revolution be merged into this article or section. ... Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Nikolai Bukharin that given the catastrophic failures of all communist revolutions in Europe from 1917-1921 except their own, rather than relying on the idea that an underdeveloped and agrarian country like... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... In Trotskyist political theory the term degenerated workers state has been used since the 1930s to describe the state of the Soviet Union after Stalins consolidation of power in or about 1924. ...


Political internationals

A political international is an organisation of political parties or activists with the aim of co-ordinating their activity for a common purpose. There had been a long tradition of socialists organising on an international basis, and Karl Marx had led the International Workingmen's Association, which later became known as the "first international". A political international is a trans-national organisation of political parties or activists. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ...


After the International Workingmen's Association disbanded in 1876, several attempts were made to revive the organisation, culminating in the formation of the socialist Second International. This, in turn, was disbanded in 1916 following disagreements over World War I. Although the organisation reformed in 1923 as the Labour and Socialist International, supporters of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks had already set up the Comintern, which they regarded as the Third International.[4] This was organised on a democratic centralist basis, with component parties required to fight for policies adopted by the body as a whole. The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... The official symbol of Socialist International The Socialist International is a worldwide organization of social democratic, labor, and democratic socialist political parties. ... Red October redirects here. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ...


By declaring themselves the Fourth International, the "World Party of Socialist Revolution", the Trotskyists were publicly asserting their continuity with the Comintern, and with its predecessors. Their recognition of the importance of these earlier Internationals was coupled with a belief that they eventually degenerated. Although the Socialist International and Comintern were still in existence, the Trotskyists did not believe they were capable of supporting revolutionary socialism and internationalism.[5] International Socialism redirects here. ...


The foundation of the Fourth International was therefore spurred in part by a desire to form a stronger political current, rather than just being seen as the communist opposition to the Comintern and the Soviet Union. Trotsky believed that its formation was all the more urgent for the role he saw it playing in the impending World War.[1] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Decision to form the International

Trotsky and his supporters had been organised since 1923 as the Left Opposition, and later the International Left Opposition, an opposition within the Comintern. They opposed the bureaucratisation of the Soviet Union, which they analysed as being partly caused by the poverty and isolation of the Soviet economy.[5] Stalin's theory of Socialism in One Country was developed in 1924 as an opposition to Trotsky's theory of Permanent Revolution, which argued that capitalism was a world system and required a world revolution in order to replace it with socialism. Prior to 1924, the Bolshevik's international perspective had been guided by Trotsky's position. Trotsky argued that Stalin's theory represented the interests of bureaucratic elements in direct opposition to the working class. The Left Opposition was a faction within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1923-1927. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. ... The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


In the early 1930s, Trotsky and his supporters believed that Stalin's influence over the Third International could still be fought from within and slowly rolled back. They organised themselves into the International Left Opposition in 1930, which was intended to be a group of anti-Stalinist dissenters within the Third International. Stalin's supporters, who dominated the International, would no longer tolerate dissent. All Trotskyists, and those suspected of being influenced by Trotskyism, were expelled.[6]


Trotsky claimed that the Third Period policies of the Comintern had contributed to the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany, and that its turn to a popular front policy (aiming to unite all ostensibly anti-fascist forces) sowed illusions in reformism and pacifism and "clear[ed] the road for a fascist overturn". By 1935 he claimed that the Comintern had fallen irreedemably into the hands of the Stalinist bureaucracy.[7] He and his supporters, expelled from the Third International, participated in a conference of the London Bureau of socialist parties outside both the Socialist International and the Comintern. Three of those parties joined the Left Opposition in signing a document written by Trotsky calling for a Fourth International, which became known as the "Declaration of Four". Of those, two soon distanced themselves from the agreement, but the Dutch Revolutionary Socialist Party worked with the International Left Opposition to declare the International Communist League.[8] Third Period refers to the ultra-left policy adopted by the Comintern, following the end of the New Economic Policy in the Soviet Union in 1928 up to the adoption of the Popular Front policy in 1934. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Popular Fronts comprise broad coalitions of political and other groups, often made up of oppositioners or left wingers, and often united against particularly stringent circumstances. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The International Revolutionary Marxist Centre was an international association of left-socialist parties. ... The Revolutionary Socialist Party (in Dutch: Revolutionair Socialistische Partij, RSP) was a dutch left-communist political party. ...


This position was contested by Andrés Nin and some other members of the League who did not support the call for a new International. This group prioritised regroupment with other communist oppositions, principally the International Communist Opposition (ICO), linked to the Right Opposition in the Soviet Party. Trotsky considered those organisations to be centrist. Despite Trotsky, the Spanish section merged with the Spanish section of ICO, forming the POUM. Trotsky claimed the merger was to be a capitulation to centrism.[9] The Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, a left split from the Socialist Party of Germany founded in 1931, co-operated with the International Left Opposition briefly in 1933 but soon abandoned the call for a new International. Andrés Nin Pérez, (Catalan: Andreu Nin; February 4, 1892, El Vendrell, Tarragona—June 20, 1937, near Madrid) was a Spanish Communist revolutionary. ... The Right Opposition was the name given to the tendency made up of Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov and their supporters within the Soviet Union in the late 1920s. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... A POUM poster urges Workers: to victory! A POUM poster appeals to peasants: Peasants: the land is yours The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer dUnificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and... The Socialist Workers Party of Germany, in German Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAP / SAPD, has been the name of two political parties in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ...


In 1935, Trotsky wrote an Open Letter for the Fourth International, reaffirming the Declaration of Four, while documenting the recent course of the Comintern and the Socialist International. In the letter, he called for the urgent formation of a Fourth International.[8] The "First International Conference for the Fourth International" was held in Paris in June 1936, reports giving its location as Geneva for security reasons.[10] This meeting dissolved the International Communist League, founding in its place the Movement for the Fourth International on Trotsky's perspectives. An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ...


The foundation of the Fourth International was seen as more than just the simple renaming of an international tendency that was already in existence. It was argued that the Third International had now degenerated completely and was therefore to be seen as a counter-revolutionary organisation that would in time of crisis defend capitalism. Trotsky believed that the coming World War would produce a revolutionary wave of class and national struggles, rather as the First World War had done.[1] A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A revolutionary wave is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


Stalin reacted to the growing strength of Trotsky's supporters with a major political massacre of people within the Soviet Union, and the assassination of Trotsky's supporters and family abroad.[11] He had agents go through historical documents and photos in order to attempt to erase Trotsky's memory from the history books.[12] According to the journal Revolutionary History, Stalin's supporters turned to anti-semitism to whip up sentiment against Trotsky.[13] Stalin's daughter later claimed that his fight with Trotsky laid the foundations for his later anti-semitic campaigns.[14] Great Purge From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Purges) Jump to: navigation, search The Great Purge (Russian: Большая чистка, transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... Revolutionary History is a British journal dedicated to the history of the far left. ... It has been suggested that Antisemite (epithet) be merged into this article or section. ... Svetlana with father Stalin in 1935. ...


Founding Congress

Emblem of the Fourth International
Emblem of the Fourth International

The International's rationale was to construct new mass revolutionary parties able to lead successful workers' revolutions. It saw these arising from a revolutionary wave which would develop alongside and as a result of the coming World War. Thirty delegates attended a founding conference, held in September 1938, in the home of Alfred Rosmer just outside Paris. Present at the meeting were delegates from all the major countries of Europe and from North America, although for reasons of cost and distance, few delegates attended from Asia or Latin America. An International Secretariat was established, with many of the day's leading Trotskyists and most countries in which Trotskyists were active represented.[15] Among the resolutions adopted by the conference were the Transitional Programme.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (919x1134, 8 KB) Logo Vierte Internationale (Fourth International) Vectorized and exported version in PNG format of Image:Logo of the Fourth International. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (919x1134, 8 KB) Logo Vierte Internationale (Fourth International) Vectorized and exported version in PNG format of Image:Logo of the Fourth International. ... Alfred Rosmer (1877 - 1964) was a syndicalist leader before World War I and one of the few leaders of that movement to oppose the war from a revolutionary internationalist position. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The full name of the Transitional Program is The Death Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International:The Mobilization of the Masses around Transitional Demands to Prepare the Conquest of Power. ...


The Transitional Programme was the central programmatic statement of the congress, summarising its strategic and tactical conceptions for the revolutionary period that it saw opening up as a result of the war which Trotsky had been predicting for some years. It is not, however, the definitive programme of the Fourth International — as is often suggested — but instead contains a summation of the conjunctural understanding of the movement at that date and a series of transitional policies designed to develop the struggle for workers' power.[17][18]


World War II

At the outbreak of World War II, in 1939, the International Secretariat was moved to New York City. The resident International Executive Committee failed to meet, largely because of a struggle in the U.S. Socialist Workers Party (SWP) between Trotsky's supporters and the tendency of Max Shachtman, Martin Abern and James Burnham. The secretariat was composed of those committee members who happened to be in the city, most of who were co-thinkers of Shachtman.[19] The disagreement was centred around the Shachtmanites' disagreements with the SWP's internal policy,[20] and over the FI's unconditional defence of the USSR.[21] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... The Socialist Workers Party is a communist political party in the United States. ... Max Shachtman (September 10, 1904 - November 4, 1972) was an American Marxist theorist. ... Martin Abern, born Martin Abramowitz (December 2, 1898 ? 1949) was a Trotskyist politician. ... James Burnham (1905–1987) was an American popular political theorist, former Communist activist and intellectual, known for his work The Managerial Revolution, published in 1941, which heavily influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four. // Burnham was of English Catholic stock, although he was an atheist for much of his life... Shachtmanism is a critical term applied to the form of Trotskyism associated with Max Shachtman. ...


Trotsky opened a public debate with Shachtman and Burnham and developed his positions in a series of polemics written in 1939-1940 and later collected in In Defense of Marxism. Shachtman and Burnham's tendency resigned from the International in early 1940, alongside almost 40% of the SWP's members, many of whom became founder members of the Workers Party.[22][23] In Defence of Marxism or In Defense of Marxism may refer to: In Defense of Marxism: The Social and Political Contradictions of the Soviet Union on the Eve of World War II, a collection of essays written in 1939 and 1940 by Leon Trotsky written in defense of his analysis... The Workers Party was a Trotskyist group in the United States. ...


Emergency Conference

In May 1940 an emergency conference of the International met at a secret location "somewhere in the Western Hemisphere". It adopted a manifesto drafted by Trotsky shortly before his murder and a range of on the work of the International, including one calling for the reunification of the then-divided Fourth Internationalist groups in Britain.[24]


Secretariat members who had supported Shachtman were expelled by the emergency conference, with the support of Trotsky himself.[25] While leader of the SWP James P. Cannon later said that he did not believe the split to be definitive and final, the two groups did not reunite.[22] A new International Executive Committee was appointed, which came under the increasing influence of the Socialist Workers Party.[25] James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ...


The Fourth International was hit hard during World War II. Trotsky was assassinated, with many of the FI's European affiliates destroyed by the Nazis and several of its Asian affiliates destroyed by the Empire of Japan. The survivors, in Europe, Asia and elsewhere, were largely cut off from each other and from the International Secretariat. The new secretary, Jean Van Heijenoort (also known as Gerland), was able to do little more than publish articles in the SWP's theoretical journal Fourth International.[25] Despite this dislocation, the various groups sought to maintain links, and some connections were kept up throughout the early part of the war by sailors enlisted in the U.S. Navy who had cause to visit Marseilles.[26] Contact was steady, if irregular, between the SWP and the British Trotskyists, with the result that the Americans exerted what influence they had to encourage the Workers' International League into the International through a fusion with the Revolutionary Socialist League, a union that had been requested by the Emergency Conference.[27] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Jean van Heijenoort (prounounced highenort) (July 23, 1912, Creil France - March 29, 1986, Mexico City) was a pioneer historian of mathematical logic. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... The Workers International League was a Trotskyist political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Revolutionary Socialist League was the name of two Trotskyist political parties in the United Kingdom, one in the 1930s and 1940s and a second one which was founded in the 1950s and existed into the 1960s. ...


In 1942, a debate on the national question in Europe opened up between the majority of the SWP and a current around Van Heijenoort, Albert Goldman and Felix Morrow.[28] This minority anticipated that the Nazi dictatorship would be replaced with capitalism rather than by a socialist revolution, leading to the revival of Stalinism and social democracy. In December 1943, they criticised the SWP's view as underestimating the rising prestige of Stalinism and the opportunities for the capitalists to use democratic concessions.[29] The SWP's central committee argued that democratic capitalism could not revive, resulting in either military dictatorship by the capitalists or a workers' revolution.[30] It held that this would reinforce the need for building the Fourth International, and adhered rigidly to their interpretation of Trotsky's works. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Albert Goldman (1897 - 1960) was an American Trotskyist and lawyer to the labor movement. ... Felix Morrow (1906 - 1988) US politician, Communist. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ...


European Conference

The Fourth International magazine
The Fourth International magazine

The wartime debate about post-war perspectives was accelerated by the resolution of the February 1944 European Conference of the Fourth International. The conference appointed a new European Secretariat and elected Michel Raptis, a Greek resident in France also known as Michel Pablo, the organisational secretary of its European Bureau. Raptis and other bureau members re-established contact between the Trotskyist parties. The European conference extended the lessons of a revolution then unfolding in Italy, and concluded that a revolutionary wave would cross Europe as the war ended.[31] The SWP had a similar perspective.[32] The British Revolutionary Communist Party disagreed and held that capitalism was not about to plunge into massive crisis, but rather that an upturn in the economy was already underway.[33] A group of leaders of the French Internationalist Communist Party around Yvan Craipeau argued a similar position until they were expelled from the PCI in 1948.[34] Image File history File links Fourthinternational. ... Image File history File links Fourthinternational. ... Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ... The Revolutionary Communist Party was a British Trotskyist political party, formed in 1944 and active until 1949, and publishing the Socialist Appeal fortnightly newspaper, a theoretical journal Workers International News and an entrist paper for its Labour Party fraction The Militant. ... The Internationalist Communist Party (French: Parti Communiste Internationaliste, PCI) was the name of the French Section of the Fourth International from 1944 until the late 1960s. ... Yvan Craipeau (24 September 1911 - 13 December 2001) was a French Trotskyist activist. ...


International Conference

In April 1946, delegates from the principal European sections and a number of others attended a "Second International Congress".[35] This set about rebuilding the International Secretariat of the Fourth International, with Michel Pablo appointed Secretary, and Ernest Mandel, a Belgian, taking a leading role. Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ...


Pablo and Mandel aimed to counter the opposition of the majorities inside the British Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP) and French Internationalist Communist Party (PCI). Initially, they encouraged party members to vote out their leaderships. They supported Gerry Healy's opposition in the RCP. In France, they backed elements, including Pierre Frank and Marcel Bleibtreu, opposed to the new leadership of the PCI - albeit for differing reasons.[36] Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... Pierre Frank (1906-1984) was a French Trotskyist leader. ... Marcel Bleibtreu (26 August 1918-2001) was a French trotskyist activist and theorist. ...


The Stalinist occupation of Eastern Europe was the issue of prime concern, and it raised many problems of interpretation. At first, the International held that, while the USSR was a degenerated workers' state, the post-WWII East European states were still bourgeois entities, because revolution from above was not possible, and capitalism persisted.[37] Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... In Trotskyist political theory the term degenerated workers state has been used since the 1930s to describe the state of the Soviet Union after Stalins consolidation of power in or about 1924. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analyzing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the middle class nobility, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ...


Another issue that needed to be dealt with was the possibility that the economy would revive. This was initially denied by Mandel (who was quickly forced to revise his opinion, and later devoted his Ph.D. dissertation to late capitalism, analysing the unexpected "third age" of capitalist development). Mandel's perspective mirrored uncertainty at that time about the future viability and prospects of capitalism, not just among all Trotskyist groups, but also among leading economists. Paul Samuelson had envisaged in 1943 the probability of a "nightmarish combination of the worst features of inflation and deflation", worrying that "there would be ushered in the greatest period of unemployment and industrial dislocation which any economy has ever faced".[38] Joseph Schumpeter for his part claimed that "The general opinion seems to be that capitalist methods will be unequal to the task of reconstruction". He regarded it as "not open to doubt that the decay of capitalist society is very far advanced".[39] Late capitalism is a term sometimes used to refer to capitalism of the late 20th century. ... Paul Anthony Samuelson Paul A. Samuelson (born May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana) is an American economist known for his work in many fields of economics. ... Deflation (economics) Deflation (data compression) Deflation is the removal of loose soil by eolian (wind) processes This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An 1837 political cartoon about unemployment in the United States. ... Joseph Schumpeter Joseph Alois Schumpeter (February 8, 1883 – January 8, 1950) was an economist from Austria and an influential political scientist. ...


Second World Congress

The Second World Congress in April 1946 was attended by delegates from 22 sections. It debated a range of resolutions on the Jewish Question, Stalinism, the colonial countries and the specific situations facing sections in certain countries.[40] By this point the FI was united around the view that the Eastern European "buffer states" were still capitalist countries.[41] The Jewish question, in general usage, usually refers to questions about the essential nature of Jews, often in reference to the nature of their relationship to non-Jews. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ...


The Congress was especially notable for bringing the International into much closer contact with Trotskyist groups from across the globe. These included such significant groups as the Revolutionary Workers' Party of Bolivia and the Lanka Sama Samaja Party in what was then Ceylon,[42] but the previously large Vietnamese Trotskyist groups had mostly been eliminated or absorbed by the supporters of Ho Chi Minh.[43] The Revolutionary Workers Party (Spanish: Partido Obrero Revolucionario, POR) is a Trotskyist political party in Bolivia. ... The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Ceylon Equal Society Party, in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය, in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் கட்சி) is a trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ...


After the Second World Congress in 1948, the International Secretariat attempted to open communications with Tito's regime in Yugoslavia.[44] In their analysis, it differed from the rest of the Eastern Bloc because it was established by the partisans of World War II who had fought against Nazi occupation, as opposed to by Stalin's invading armies. The British RCP, led by Jock Haston and supported by Ted Grant, were highly critical of this move.[36] Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 (May 25th according to official birth certificate) – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - dissolution June 25... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jock Haston (1913-1986) was a Trotskyist politician and General Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist Party in Great Britain. ... Edward (Ted) Grant (born July 9, 1913) is a Trotskyist politician. ...


Third World Congress

James P. Cannon in 1922, later leader of the U.S. section of the Fourth International
James P. Cannon in 1922, later leader of the U.S. section of the Fourth International

The Third World Congress in 1951 resolved that the economies of the East European states and their political regimes had come to resemble that of the USSR more and more. These states were then described as deformed workers' states in an analogy with the degenerated workers' state in Russia. The term deformed was used rather than degenerated, because no workers' revolution had led to the foundation of these states.[45] Image File history File links The young communist, James Patrick Cannon in Moscow, 1922. ... Image File history File links The young communist, James Patrick Cannon in Moscow, 1922. ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... In Trotskyist political theory, deformed workers states are states where the bourgeoisie has been overthrown through social revolution, the industrial means of production have been largely nationalized, but where the working class has never held political power (as it did in Russia shortly after the Russian Revolution). ...


The Third World Congress envisaged the real possibility of an "international civil war" in the near future.[46] It argued that the mass Communist parties "may, under certain favourable conditions, go beyond the aims set for them by the Soviet bureaucracy and project a revolutionary orientation". Given the supposed closeness of war, the FI thought that the Communist Parties and social democratic parties would be the only significant force that could defend the workers of the world against the imperialist camp in those copies where they were mass forces.[47] // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


In line with this geo-political perspective, Pablo argued that the only way the Trotskyists could avoid isolation was for various sections of the Fourth International to undertake long-term entrism in the mass Communist or Social Democratic parties.[48] This tactic was known as entrism sui generis, to distinguish it from the short-term entry tactic employed before World War II. For example, it meant that the project of building an open and independent Trotskyist party was shelved in France, because it was regarded as not politically feasible alongside entry into the French Communist Party. Entryism (or entrism or enterism) is a political tactic by which an organisation encourages members to infiltrate another organisation in an attempt to gain recruits, or take over entirely. ...


This perspective was accepted within the Fourth International, yet sowed the seeds for the split in 1953. At the Third World Congress, the sections agreed with the perspective of an international civil war. The French section disagreed with the associated tactic of entryism sui generis, and held that Pablo was underestimating the independent role of the working class parties in the Fourth International. The leaders of the majority of the Trotskyist organisation in France, Marcel Bleibtreu and Pierre Lambert, refused to follow the line of the International. The International leadership had them replaced by a minority, leading to a permanent split in the French section.[49] Pierre Lambert (born June 9, 1920) (real name Pierre Boussel) is a French Trotskyist leader. ...


In the wake of the World Congress, the line of the International Leadership was generally accepted by groups around the world, including the U.S. SWP whose leader, James P. Cannon, corresponded with the French majority to support the tactic of entrism sui generis.[49] At the same time, however, Cannon, Gerry Healy and Ernest Mandel were deeply concerned by Pablo's political evolution. Cannon and Healy were also alarmed by Pablo's intervention into the French section, and by suggestions that Pablo might use the International's authority in this way in other sections of the Fourth International that felt entrism sui generis was not a suitable tactic in their own countries. In particular, minority tendencies in Britain around John Lawrence and in the U.S. around Bert Cochran that supported entrism sui generis hinted that Pablo's support for their views indicated that the International might also demand Trotskyists in those countries adopt that tactic.[50] Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... John Gordon Michael Lawrence (29 September 1915 - 14 November 2002) was a leading far left activitist in a wide variety of groups in the United Kingdom. ... Bert Cochran (December 25, 1913? - June 6, 1984) was an American Communist politican. ...


Formation of the International Committee of the Fourth International

In 1953, the SWP's national committee issued an Open Letter to Trotskyists Throughout the World and organised the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). This was a public faction which initially included, in addition to the SWP, Gerry Healy's British section The Club, the Internationalist Communist Party in France (then led by Lambert who had expelled Bleibtreu and his grouping), Nahuel Moreno's party in Argentina, and the Austrian and Chinese sections of the FI. The sections of the ICFI withdrew from the International Secretariat, which suspended their voting rights. Both sides claimed they constituted a majority of the former International.[51][52] It has been suggested that Orthodox Trotskyism be merged into this article or section. ... The Club was a Trotskyist group in the United Kingdom. ... Nahuel Moreno (April 24, 1924 - January 25, 1987) (real name Hugo Bressano) was a Trotskyist leader from Argentina. ...


Ceylon's Lanka Sama Samaja Party, then the country's leading workers' party, took a middle position during this dispute. It continued to participate in the ISFI but argued for a joint congress, for reunification with the ICFI.[53]


An excerpt from the Open Letter explains the split as follows:

To sum up: The lines of cleavage between Pablo's revisionism and orthodox Trotskyism are so deep that no compromise is possible either politically or organizationally. The Pablo faction has demonstrated that it will not permit democratic decisions truly reflecting majority opinion to be reached. They demand complete submission to their criminal policy. They are determined to drive all orthodox Trotskyists out of the Fourth International or to muzzle and handcuff them. Their scheme has been to inject their Stalinist conciliationism piecemeal and likewise in piecemeal fashion, get rid of those who come to see what is happening and raise objections.[54]

From the Fourth World Congress to reunification

Over the following decade, the IC referred to the rest of the International as the International Secretariat of the Fourth International, emphasising its view that the Secretariat did not speak for the International as a whole.[55] The Secretariat continued to view itself as the leadership of the International. It held a Fourth World Congress in 1954 to regroup and to recognise reorganised sections in Britain, France and the U.S. 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Parts of the International Committee were divided over whether the split with "Pabloism" was permanent or temporary,[56] and it was perhaps as a result of this that it did not declare itself to be the Fourth International. Those sections that considered the split permanent embarked on a discussion about the history of the split and its meanings.


The sections of the International that recognised the leadership of the International Secretariat remained optimistic about the possibilities for increasing the International's political influence, and extended the entrism into Social Democratic Parties which was already underway in Britain, Austria and elsewhere. The 1954 congress emphasised entrism into Communist Parties as well as nationalist parties in the colonies, pressing for democratic reforms, ostensibly to encourage the left-wing they perceived to exist in the Communist Parties to join with them in a revolution.[57][58] Tensions developed between the mainstream around Pablo and a minority that argued unsuccessfully against open work. A number of these delegates walked out of the World Congress, and would eventually leave the International, including the leader of the new British section, John Lawrence, George Clarke, Michèle Mestre (a leader of the French section), and Murray Dowson (a leader of the Canadian group).[59] This is a list of parties in the world that consider themselves to be upholding the principles and values of social democracy. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... John Gordon Michael Lawrence (29 September 1915 - 14 November 2002) was a leading far left activitist in a wide variety of groups in the United Kingdom. ... Lucienne Abraham, also known as Michèle Mestre (1916 - 1970) was a French Trotskyist politician. ... Murray Dowson (born Toronto 1915, died ?) was a Canadian Trotskyist politician. ...


The Secretariat organised a Fifth World Congress in October 1957. Mandel and Pierre Frank appraised the Algerian revolution and surmised that it was essential to reorient in the colonial states and neocolonies towards the emerging guerrilla-led revolutions.[60] Pierre Frank (1906-1984) was a French Trotskyist leader. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Sixth World Congress in 1961 marked a lessening of the political divisions between the majority of supporters of the International Secretariat and the leadership of the SWP in the United States. In particular, the congress stressed support for the Cuban Revolution and a growing emphasis on building parties in the imperialist countries. The sixth congress also criticised the Lanka Sama Samaja Party, its Ceylon section, for seeming to support the Sri Lanka Freedom Party, which they saw as bourgeois nationalists; the U.S. SWP made similar criticisms. The supporters of Michel Pablo and Juan Posadas opposed the convergence. The supporters of Posadas left the International in 1962.[61] The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolutionary war in Cuba culminating in the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista’s government on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. ... J. Posadas (1912-1981) (occasionally referred to as Juan Posadas), was the pseudonym of Homero Cristali, an Argentinian Trotskyist. ...


In 1962 the IC and IS formed a Parity Commission to organise a common World Congress. At the 1963 congress, a split in the IC took place, with a significant part centred on the U.S. SWP agreeing to reunify with the IS. This was largely a result of their mutual support for the Cuban Revolution, based on Ernest Mandel and Joseph Hansen's resolution Dynamics of World Revolution Today. This document distinguished between different revolutionary tasks in the imperialist countries, the "workers' states", and the colonial and semi-colonial countries.[62] In 1963, the reunified Fourth International elected a United Secretariat of the Fourth International (USFI), by which name the organisation as a whole is often still referred. Joseph Hansen (1910-1979), was an American Communist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party. ... Socialist state is the term used in official documents of some countries to describe their political system. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A semi-colony is, in Marxist theory, a country which is nominally independent, but which is dominated by a greater power for the benefit of their ruling class. ... The reunified Fourth International was created in 1963 by the reunification of the majorities of two public factions of the Fourth International: the International Secretariat of the Fourth International (ISFI) and the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). ...


Unity discussions after 1963

Lambert's Internationalist Communist Party (PCI) in France and the Socialist Labour League (SLL) in Britain did not take part in the reunification congress, but discussions continued on the topic. The PCI and SLL maintained the ICFI under their own leadership, opposing key elements in the reunification documents, including the view that the July 26 Movement has created a workers' state in Cuba. They argued instead that Cuba's revolution did not bring power to the working class; the SLL believed that Cuba had remained a capitalist country.[63] In their view, the United Secretariat's support for the Cuban and Algerian leaderships reflected a lack of commitment to the building of revolutionary Marxist parties. While not rejecting reunification in itself, the continuing ICFI argued that a deeper political discussion was needed to ensure that Pablo's errors were not deepened.[64] Logo of the current Workers Revolutionary Party The Workers Revolutionary Party is a small Trotskyist political party in the United Kingdom. ... Flag of the The Cuban Revolution The 26th of July Movement (Spanish: Movimiento 26 de Julio) was the revolutionary organization led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba. ...


Led by Tim Wohlforth and James Robertson, those within the U.S. Socialist Workers Party (SWP) who broadly shared this view formed a "Revolutionary Tendency" in 1962. They argued that the party should have a full discussion of the meaning of Pabloism and the 1953 split. Along with the remainder of the ICFI, they argued that Cuba's revolution did not prove that the Fourth International was no longer necessary in the colonial countries. However, differences inside the Revolutionary Tendency developed.[65] In 1964, with Wohlforth laying the evidentiary basis for claims of "party disloyalty" against Robertson, the tendency was expelled from the party. In the opinion of Robertson's group, Wohlforth conspired with the SWP leadership to get Robertson's group expelled.[66] Timothy Andrew Wohlforth is a former Trotskyist politician. ... James Robertson is the National Chairman of the Spartacist League in the United States and leader of the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) which is an international organization of small Trotskyist groups. ...


The ICFI unsuccessfully repeated its appeal for a deep discussion with the reunified Fourth International at the end of 1963, and on later occasions.[67] Its 1966 conference called for a Fourth International Conference.[68] The ICFI approached the USFI again in 1970, requesting "a mutual discussion that might open the way to the Socialist Labour League and its French sister organisation, the Trotskyist Organisation, reunifying with the Fourth International".[69] Similar approaches were rejected in 1973.[70] The Internationalist Communist Organisation (French: Organisation Communiste Internationaliste, OCI) was a Trotskyist political party in France. ...


After the Lambert's current left the ICFI in 1971, its Organising Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (OCRFI) opened discussion with the USFI. In May 1973, Lambert's tendency unsuccessfully requested to take part in the discussions for the USFI's 1974 congress, but the United Secretariat did not take the letter at face value and asked for clarification. In September 1973 the OCRFI responded positively and the United Secretariat agreed a positive reply. However, in the rush of preparations for the world congress the United Secretariat's letter was not sent, leading Lambert's group to repeat its request in September 1974 through an approach to the US SWP. The following month the USFI organised a meeting with the OCRFI. However, discussions decelerated after Lambert's Internationalist Communist Organisation made an attack on Ernest Mandel, which it later acknowledged as an error. In 1976 new approaches by the OCRFI met with success, when it wrote with the aim "to strengthen the force of the Fourth International as a single international organisation". However, these discussions decelerated again in 1977 after the Internationalist Communist Organisation leaders stated that it had members inside the Revolutionary Communist League, the USFI's French section.[71] The Organising Committee for the Reconstruction of the Fourth International (1972-1979) was set up by various Trotskyist groups formerly affiliated to the ICFI which were allied to Pierre Lamberts OCI. In 1979 the OCR joined forces with the Bolshevik faction led by Nahuel Moreno to form the short lived... The Internationalist Communist Organisation (French: Organisation Communiste Internationaliste, OCI) was a Trotskyist political party in France. ... The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French Trotskyist political party. ...


Other currents with roots in Gerry Healy's ICFI also came towards the United Secretariat at this time: the Workers' Socialist League in Britain and the Socialist League in Australia both opened discussions in 1976.[72] Both currents would eventually merge with the sections of the International in their countries; the Socialist League merging in 1977, while the majority of the Workers' Socialist League became the Socialist Group, which was to attend the eleventh world congress and eventually join in 1987. Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... The Workers Socialist League (WSL) was a Trotskyist political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Unification was also discussed between the USFI and the French group Lutte Ouvriere. In 1970, Lutte Ouvriere initiated fusion discussions with the French section of the USFI. After extensive discussions, the two organisations agreed the basis for a fused organisation, but the fusion was not completed. In 1976 discussions between the USFI and Lutte Ouvriere progressed again. The two organisations started to produce a common weekly supplement to their newspapers, common electoral work and other common campaigning.[73] Workers Struggle (Lutte Ouvrière) is the usual name under which the Communist Union (Trotskyist) (Union Communiste (Trotskyste)), a French Trotskyist political party, is known (technically, it is the name of the weekly paper edited by the party). ...


Michel Pablo's tendency also raised the question of unity in 1976, with an ambitious proposal that it and the USFI could eventually unify in a new organisation comprising tendencies that were, or were evolving towards, revolutionary Marxism. The USFI felt unable to move ahead with the proposal.[74] Pablo's tendency finally rejoined in 1995. Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ...


The International today

Since the 1963 reunification, a number of approaches have developed within international Trotskyism towards the Fourth International.

  • The reunified Fourth International presents itself as "the" Fourth International, and is the only current to have done so continuously. The 1963 congress reunified the majorities of all but two of the national sections. It is the largest current and the only with direct organisational continuity to the original Fourth International at an international level. Leaders of some other Trotskyist Internationals occasionally refer to it as "the Fourth International": ICFI secretary Gerry Healy, when proposing reunification discussions in the 1970s, described it as "the Fourth International";[75] the International Socialist Tendency also usually refers to it in this way but does not accept that the FI can claim political continuity with the FI of Trotsky.[76]
  • The International Committee of the Fourth International member groups customarily describe themselves as sections of the Fourth International, and the organisation as whole describes itself as the "leadership of the Fourth International".[77] However, the ICFI presents itself as the political continuity of the Fourth International and Trotskyism, not as the FI itself. It clearly dates its creation as 1953, rather than from 1938.[78]
  • Some tendencies argue that the Fourth International became dislocated politically during the years between Trotsky's murder and the establishment of the ICFI in 1953; they consequently work to "reconstruct", "reorganise" or "rebuild" it. This view originated with Lutte Ouvriere and the international Spartacist tendency and is shared by others who diverged from the ICFI. For example, the Fourth International (ICR) reproclaimed the Fourth International at a congress attended by its sections in June 1993.[79]

The reunified Fourth International was created in 1963 by the reunification of the majorities of two public factions of the Fourth International: the International Secretariat of the Fourth International (ISFI) and the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). ... The International Socialist Tendency is an international grouping of organisations around the ideas of Tony Cliff, founder of the Socialist Workers Party in the UK. It has sections across the world, however its strongest presence is in Europe, especially in the UK, Greece and Ireland. ... It has been suggested that Orthodox Trotskyism be merged into this article or section. ... Workers Struggle (Lutte Ouvrière) is the usual name under which the Communist Union (Trotskyist) (Union Communiste (Trotskyste)), a French Trotskyist political party, is known (technically, it is the name of the weekly paper edited by the party). ... The International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist), popularly referred to as the Spartacist League and by its critics as The Sparts, is a Trotskyist international organisation based primarily in the United States. ... The Fourth International - International Centre of Reconstruction is an international Trotskyist tendency. ... The Committee for a Workers International (CWI) is an international association of Trotskyist Parties. ... The phrase Fifth International refers to the efforts made by some sections of the Left to create a new Workers International. ...

Impact

In uniting the large majority of Trotskyists in one organisation, the Fourth International created a tradition which has since been claimed by many Trotskyist organisations.


Echoing Marx's Communist Manifesto, the Transitional Programme ended with the declaration "Workers — men and women — of all countries, place yourselves under the banner of the Fourth International. It is the banner of your approaching victory!". It declared demands to be placed on capitalists, opposition to the bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, and support for workers' action against fascism.[1] Most of the demands on capitalists remain unfulfilled. The collapse of the Soviet Union occurred, but through a social revolution leading to the restoration of capitalism, rather than the political revolution proposed by the Trotskyists. Fascism is a far weaker force today than in the 1930s, and many Trotskyist groups are active in anti-fascist campaigns, but the Fourth International did not play a central role in its major defeats. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: ), usually referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848[], and is one of the worlds most influential political tracts. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... The term social revolution may have different connotations depending on the speaker. ... In the Trotskyist movement, the term political revolution refers to an unpheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. ...


Those groups which follow traditions that left the Fourth International in its early years argue that, despite initially correct positions, it had little impact. Lutte Ouvriere claims that it failed to oppose the Second World War.[82] Workers Liberty, which follows in the third camp tradition established by the Workers Party, holds that "Trotsky and everything he represented was defeated and - as we have to recognise in retrospect - defeated for a whole historical period."[83] [[Category:]] The Alliance for Workers Liberty (AWL), also known as Workers Liberty is a small Marxist group based in the United Kingdom. ... The third camp, also known as third camp socialism or third camp Trotskyism, is a branch of Trotskyism which aims to oppose both capitalism and Stalinism by supporting the organised working class as a third camp. This approach was developed by Max Shachtman and is one of the major components... The Workers Party was a Trotskyist group in the United States. ...


Other groups point to a positive impact. The ICFI claim that "the [early] Fourth International consisted mainly of cadres who remained true to their aims"[84] and describes much of the Fourth International's early activity as "correct and principled".[85] The reunified FI claim that "the Fourth International refused to compromise with capitalism either in its fascist or democratic variants." In its view, "many of the predictions made by Trotsky when he founded the Fourth International were proved wrong by history. But what was absolutely vindicated were his key political judgements."[86]


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Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Manse Manse! Kim Jong Il! The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish-born German Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Lenin redirects here. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Note: This page is very long. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... In Western thought, the history of communism, an idea of a society based on common ownership of property, can be traced back to ancient times. ... Leftism redirects here. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, usually transforming into a free market capitalist and globalized economy. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... This is a list of socialist, communist, and anarchist internationals. ... This is a list of the many Trotskyist international tendencies. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e The Transitional Program. Retrieved February 10, 2005.
  2. ^ Ernest Mandel, Trotskyists and the Resistance in World War Two
  3. ^ Trotsky, In Defence of October
  4. ^ Working-class Internationalism & Organisation
  5. ^ a b Manifesto of the Fourth International on the Dissolution of the Comintern
  6. ^ Stalin, Industrialisation of the country and the right deviation in the C.P.S.U.(B.)
  7. ^ Trotsky, Open Letter For The Fourth International
  8. ^ a b George Breitman, The Rocky Road to the Fourth International, 1933-38
  9. ^ John G. Wright, Trotsky's Struggle for the Fourth International
  10. ^ CLR James Interview
  11. ^ Trotskyists at Vorkuta: An Eyewitness Report
  12. ^ "Propaganda in the Propaganda State", PBS
  13. ^ Mario Kessler, Leon Trotsky's Position on Anti-Semitism, Zionism and the Perspectives of the Jewish Question, What Next?
  14. ^ Arnold Beichman, How Stalin, the 'breaker of nations,' hated, murdered Jews, The Washington Times
  15. ^ "M. S.", Founding Conference of the Fourth International
  16. ^ Socialist Workers Party, The Founding Conference of the Fourth International
  17. ^ Charlie van Gelderen, Sixty years of the Fourth International
  18. ^ Richard Price The Transitional Programme in perspective
  19. ^ "Declaration on the status of the resident International Executive Committee", in Documents of the Fourth International, Vol 1, pp 351-355
  20. ^ Duncan Hallas, Fourth International in Decline
  21. ^ Trotsky, In Defense of Marxism
  22. ^ a b James P. Cannon, Factional Struggle And Party Leadership
  23. ^ David Holmes, James P. Cannon: His Life and Work
  24. ^ Emergency Conference of the Fourth International
  25. ^ a b c Michel Pablo, Report on the Fourth International Since the Outbreak of War, 1939-48
  26. ^ Rodolphe Prager, The Fourth International during the Second World War
  27. ^ "Resolution On The Unification of the British Section", Fourth International
  28. ^ The Fourth International During World War II (immediately afterwards)
  29. ^ Felix Morrow, The First Phase of the Coming European Revolution
  30. ^ Perspectives and Tasks of the Coming European Revolution
  31. ^ Theses on the Liquidation of World War II and the Revolutionary Upsurge
  32. ^ The European Revolution and the Tasks of the Revolutionary Party
  33. ^ Martin Upham, The History of British Trotskyism to 1949
  34. ^ Peter Schwarz, The politics of opportunism: the "radical left" in France
  35. ^ The Conference of the Fourth International
  36. ^ a b Sam Bornstein and Al Richardson, War and the International
  37. ^ Alex Callinicos, Trotskyism
  38. ^ "Full Employment after the war", in S. Harris (ed.), Post war Economic Problems
  39. ^ "Capitalism in the post-war world", in S. Harris (ed.), Post war Economic Problems
  40. ^ 2nd Congress of the Fourth International
  41. ^ The USSR and Stalinism
  42. ^ The Third World Congress of the Fourth International
  43. ^ The Fourth International in Vietnam, Revolutionary History
  44. ^ International Secretariat of the Fourth International, An Open Letter to Congress, Central Committee and Members of the Yugoslav Communist Party
  45. ^ Pierre Frank, Evolution of Eastern Europe
  46. ^ Theses on Orientation and Perspectives
  47. ^ The International Situation and Tasks in the Struggle against Imperialist War, Fourth International
  48. ^ Michel Pablo, World Trotskism Rearms
  49. ^ a b Letters exchanged between Daniel Renard and James P. Cannon, February 16 and May 9, 1952
  50. ^ International Committee Documents 1951-1954, Vol. 1, Section 4, (Education for Socialists)
  51. ^ Resolution forming the International Committee
  52. ^ Michel Pablo, Pierre Frank and Ernest Germain, Letter from the Bureau of the IS to the leaderships of all sections, November 15, 1953
  53. ^ David North addresses Sri Lankan Trotskyists on the 50th anniversary of the ICFI, World Socialist Web Site
  54. ^ James P. Cannon, A Letter to Trotskyists Throughout the World
  55. ^ Resolution of the International Committee instructing publication of the documents, August 24, 1973, Workers Press
  56. ^ Letter from the International Secretariat "to all Members and All Organizations of the International Committee"
  57. ^ Michel Pablo, The Post-Stalin "New Course"
  58. ^ Michel Pablo, The 4th International: What it is, What it aims at
  59. ^ John McIlroy, The Revolutionary Odyssey of John Lawrence, What Next
  60. ^ Pierre Frank, The Fourth International: The Long March of the Trotskyists
  61. ^ Trotskyism and the Cuban Revolution: A Debate, What Next
  62. ^ Ernest Mandel and Joseph Hansen, Dynamics of World Revolution Today
  63. ^ Cliff Slaughter in Labour Review, Summer 1962
  64. ^ Trotskyism Betrayed: The SWP accepts the political method of Pabloite revisionism, 1962, Socialist Labour League
  65. ^ "Call for the reorganization of the minority tendency in the SWP", Trotskyism versus Revisionism, Vol. 4
  66. ^ Harry Turner in Marxism verus Ultraleftism, pp 89
  67. ^ Gerry Healy, Letter of 27 September, Trotskyism versus Revisionism, Vol. 4
  68. ^ Resolution in Trotskyism versus Revisionism, Vol. 5
  69. ^ Bob Pitt, Gerry Healy - Rise and Fall, What Next?
  70. ^ Jack Barnes, letter in Trotskyism versus Revisionism, Vol. 5
  71. ^ SWP US International Internal Discussion Bulletin, Vol XIV, No. 3, pp 32, 1977
  72. ^ Mary-Alice Waters in SWP US International Internal Discussion Bulletin, Vol XIV, No. 2, pp 31, 1977
  73. ^ SWP US International Internal Discussion Bulletin, Vol XIV, No. 3, pp 34-5, 1977
  74. ^ Mary-Alice Waters in SWP US International Internal Discussion Bulletin, Vol XIV, No. 2, pp 33, 1977
  75. ^ Gerry Healy, "Letter to the Fourth International", in Marxism vs. ultraleftism : the record of Healy's break with Trotskyism. Edited by Joseph Hansen
  76. ^ Alex Callinicos, Regroupment, Realignment, and the Revolutionary Left
  77. ^ About the International Committee of the Fourth International
  78. ^ Peter Schwarz, Meetings on 50 years of the International Committee of the Fourth International
  79. ^ The Fourth International, Socialist Organizer
  80. ^ [http://www.socialistworld.net/publications/history2/p13.html A Socialist World is Possible: The history of the CWI by Peter Taaffe], Committee for a Workers International]
  81. ^ Forward to the Fifth International!, League for the Fifth International
  82. ^ Les fondements programmatiques de notre politique, Lutte Ouvriere (French)
  83. ^ Sean Matgamna, What we are, what we do and why we do it
  84. ^ Peter Schwarz, The politics of opportunism: the “radical left” in France
  85. ^ David North, Ernest Mandel, 1923-1995: A critical assessment of his role in the history of the Fourth International
  86. ^ The Fourth International, International Socialist Group

February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... Note: This page is very long. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... George Breitman (1916 - 1986) was born in a working-class neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey in 1916. ... The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 354 member TV stations in the United States, with some member stations available by cable in Canada. ... The Washington Times[1] is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Washington, D.C., United States. ... The Socialist Workers Party is a communist political party in the United States. ... Charlie van Gelderen (1913–October 26, 2001) was a South African Trotskyist active in the British Labour movemement from the 1930s. ... Duncan Hallas was a prominent member of the Trotskyist movement in Britain. ... In Defence of Marxism or In Defense of Marxism may refer to: In Defense of Marxism: The Social and Political Contradictions of the Soviet Union on the Eve of World War II, a collection of essays written in 1939 and 1940 by Leon Trotsky written in defense of his analysis... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ... Felix Morrow (1906 - 1988) US politician, Communist. ... Al Richardson (20 December 1941 - 22 November 2003) was a British Trotskyist historian and activist. ... Alex Callinicos Alex Callinicos (born 1950 in South Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)) is a Marxist intellectual (a contradiction in terms) and a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist Workers Party. ... Revolutionary History is a British journal dedicated to the history of the far left. ... Pierre Frank (1906-1984) was a French Trotskyist leader. ... Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ... Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ... Pierre Frank (1906-1984) was a French Trotskyist leader. ... Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... The World Socialist Web Site is the Internet center of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... The News Line is a daily newspaper published by a British Trotskyist group, the Workers Revolutionary Party. ... Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ... Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ... Pierre Frank (1906-1984) was a French Trotskyist leader. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... Joseph Hansen (1910-1979), was an American Communist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party. ... Cliff Slaughter is a British Trotskyist. ... The Workers Revolutionary Party was a Trotskyist political party in the United Kingdom. ... Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... Jack Barnes (born in 1940) is an American Communist and the National Secretary of the Socialist Workers Party. ... Mary-Alice Waters is a socialist journalist and activist in the United States. ... Mary-Alice Waters is a socialist journalist and activist in the United States. ... Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... Joseph Hansen (1910-1979), was an American Communist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party. ... Alex Callinicos Alex Callinicos (born 1950 in South Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)) is a Marxist intellectual (a contradiction in terms) and a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist Workers Party. ... The Organizer newspaper Socialist Organizer is a Trotskyist political party in the United States. ... Logo of the League for the Fifth International The League for the Fifth International (LFI or L5I) is an international grouping of Trotskyist organisations. ... Workers Struggle (Lutte Ouvrière) is the usual name under which the Communist Union (Trotskyist) (Union Communiste (Trotskyste)), a French Trotskyist political party, is known (technically, it is the name of the weekly paper edited by the party). ... Sean Matgamna, also known as John OMahony (the English language equivalent of Sean Matgamna) is a Trotskyist theorist. ... Socialist Outlook is the quarterly magazine of the International Socialist Group The International Socialist Group (ISG) is a Trotskyist organisation in Britain. ...

Further reading

  • Robert J. Alexander, International Trotskyism, 1929-1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement. Duke University Press, 1991.
  • Alan Benjamin, A Short History of the Fourth International in the U.S. Retrieved 2004.
  • Death Agony of the Fourth International, [1]. 1983.
  • Ernest Mandel, The Reasons for Founding the Fourth International And Why They Remain Valid Today.
  • Francois Moreau, Combats et débats de la Quatrième Internationale. Québec, Vents d'Ouest, 1993.
  • David North, The Heritage We Defend. Detroit, Michigan, 1988.
  • Jean Van Heijenoort. The Origins of the Fourth International

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fourth International - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6312 words)
A political international is an organisation of political parties or activists with the aim of co-ordinating their activity for a common purpose.
By declaring themselves the Fourth International, the "World Party of Socialist Revolution", the Trotskyists were publicly asserting their continuity with the Comintern, and with its predecessors.
Manifesto of the Fourth International on the Dissolution of the Comintern
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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