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Encyclopedia > Fourteen Points
United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918.
United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918.

The 'Fourteen Points' were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. In his speech, Wilson intended to set out a blueprint for lasting peace in Europe after World War I. The idealism displayed in the speech gave Wilson a position of moral leadership among the Allies, and encouraged the Central Powers to surrender. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2976x3623, 1136 KB) Description President of the United States Thomas Woodrow Wilson, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2976x3623, 1136 KB) Description President of the United States Thomas Woodrow Wilson, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Joint Sessions of the United States Congress are the gathering together of both House and Senate which occur on special occasions such as the State of the Union Address and Presidential Inauguration. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Modern blueprint of the French galleon La Belle. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


The speech was delivered over 10 months before the Armistice with Germany ended World War I, but the Fourteen Points became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and documented in the Treaty of Versailles. However, only four of the points were adopted completely in the post-war reconstruction of Europe, and the United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...

Contents

Background

The U.S. joined the Allies fighting the Central Powers in 1917. By early 1918, it was clear that the war was nearing its end. The Fourteen Points in the speech were based on the research of the "Inquiry," a team of about 150 advisers led by Colonel Edward M. House, Wilson's foreign policy advisor, into the topics likely to arise in the anticipated peace conference. Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. ...


Wilson's speech on January 8 took many of the principles of progressivism that had produced domestic reform in the U.S. and translated them into foreign policy (free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination). The Fourteen Points speech was the only explicit statement of war aims by any of the nations fighting in World War I: some belligerents gave general indications of their aims; others wanted to gain territory, and so refused to state their aims. is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Progressivism. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... A secret treaty is a treaty between nations that is not revealed to other nations or interested observers. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


The speech also responded to Vladimir Lenin's Decree on Peace of October 1917, which proposed an immediate withdrawal of Russia from the war, calling for a just and democratic peace that was not compromised by territorial annexations, and led to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. “Lenin” redirects here. ... The Decree On Peace, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies on the 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...


Fourteen Points

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
  2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.
  3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
  4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. This also said that this safety would be kept in place for years to come.
  5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.
  6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
  7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
  8. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.
  9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
  10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.
  11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.
  12. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
  13. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.
  14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.[1]

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... This article is about negotiations. ... In the physical sciences, specifically in optics, a transparent physical object is one that can be seen through. ... Freedom of the Seas is a Royal Caribbean cruise ship. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that nation-states should not attempt to promote secessionist movements or to promote border changes in other nation-states. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Polish Corridor (German: ; Polish: ) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ...

Reaction

Influence on the Germans to surrender

The speech was widely disseminated as an instrument of propaganda, to encourage the Allies to victory. Copies were also dropped behind German lines, to encourage the Central Powers to surrender in the expectation of a just settlement. Indeed, a note sent to Wilson by Prince Maximilian of Baden, the German imperial chancellor, in October 1918 requested an immediate armistice and peace negotiations on the basis of the Fourteen Points. For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (1 July 1867–6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...


The speech was made without prior coordination or consultation with Wilson's counterparts in Europe. As the only public statement of war aims, it became the basis for the terms of the German surrender at the end of the First World War, as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and documented in the Treaty of Versailles. Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


Opposition from the Allies

Opposition to the Fourteen Points among British and French leaders became clear after hostilities ceased: the British were against freedom of the seas; the French demanded war reparations. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ...


Wilson was forced to compromise on many of his ideals to ensure that his most important point, the establishment of the League of Nations, was accepted. In the end, the Treaty of Versailles went far beyond the proposals in the Fourteen Points. The resulting bitterness in Germany laid the seeds for the rise of Nazism in the 1930s. Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ...


Failure of the U.S. to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

United States U.S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge who opposed ratification of the Treaty of Versailles
United States U.S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge who opposed ratification of the Treaty of Versailles

The United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, making it invalid in the United States and effectively hamstringing the nascent League of Nations envisioned by Wilson. The largest obstacle faced in the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles was the opposition of Henry Cabot Lodge. It has also been said that Wilson himself was the second-largest obstacle, not least because he kept the leaders of the Republican-led Congress in the dark during treaty deliberations, and refused to support the treaty with any of the alterations proposed by the United States Senate. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (503 × 620 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (503 × 620 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


Nobel Peace Prize

Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919 for his peace-making efforts. He also inspired independence movements around the world, including the March 1st Movement in Korea. However, history shows that, despite the idealism, the post-war reconstruction of Europe adopted only four of the points completely. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The March First Movement, or the Samil Movement, was one of the earliest displays of Korean nationalism during the Japanese rule. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ...


See also

The American Commission to Negotiate Peace participated in the peace negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles, January 18-December 9, 1919. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hacken, Richard (March 2006). 8 January, 1918: President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (HTML). Retrieved on 2005-06-20.

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The John Jay College of Criminal Justice is a criminal justice college in New York City which has about 12,000 FTE (full-time equivalent) students, including traditional, pre-career undergraduate students and those pursuing master’s degrees in several disciplines. ... Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fourteen Points - MSN Encarta (177 words)
Fourteen Points, name given to the proposals of President Woodrow Wilson designed to establish the basis for a just and lasting peace following the victory of the Allies in World War I. The 14 proposals were contained in Wilson's address to a joint session of the U.S. Congress on January 8, 1918.
Opposition to various points on the part of the European Allies, however, developed at the conclusion of hostilities, and the attempt at practical application of the 14 points exposed a multilateral system of secret agreements between the European victors.
In order to secure support of his 14th, and most important, point, which called for the creating of an “association of nations,” Wilson was compelled to abandon his insistence upon the acceptance of his full program.
Fourteen Points: 1918 (562 words)
Most significant, however, was point number fourteen which stressed a "general association of nations" to ensure "political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike." Essentially, these Fourteen Points signaled a generous, non-punitive postwar settlement.
Point twelve assures Turkey as well as other portions of the Ottoman Empire under Turkish rule "sovereignty" as well as demands guarantees for free passage through the Dardanelles.
This compromise undermined the spirit of the Fourteen Points and lost Wilson the support of the League advocates.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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