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Encyclopedia > Four Modernizations

The Four Modernizations (Simplified Chinese: 四个现代化; Traditional Chinese: 四個現代化; pinyin: sì gè xiàn dài huà) were the goals of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms. They were first introduced by Zhou Enlai in 1975 at the Fourth National People's Congress in one of his last public acts. After his death and Mao’s soon thereafter, Deng Xiaoping assumed control of the party in late 1978. In December 1978 at the Third Plenum of the 11th Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping announced the official launch of the Four Modernizations, formally marking the beginning of the reform era. The Four Modernizations were in the fields of: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949 to... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... Modernization is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transform the lives of individuals. ...

The Four Modernizations were designed to make China a great economic power by the early 21st century. These reforms essentially stressed economic self-reliance. The People's Republic of China decided to accelerate the modernization process by stepping up the volume of foreign trade by opening up its markets, especially the purchase of machinery from Japan and the West. By participating in such export-led growth, China was able to speed up its economic development through foreign investment, a more open market, access to advanced technologies, and management experience. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory; usually via fortifications. ... The West can refer to : The U.S. West or the American West The Western world, or Western Civilization. ...


Further reading

  • Hsü, Immanuel C. Y. (2000). The Rise of Modern China, 6th ed., New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512503-7. 
  • Evans, Richard (1995). Deng Xiaoping and the making of modern china, 2nd ed., London: Penguin Books. ISBN 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Four Modernizations - definition of Four Modernizations in Encyclopedia (169 words)
The Four Modernizations (simplified Chinese: 四个现代化; traditional Chinese: 四個現代化;), were the goals of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms.
By participating in such export-led growth, China was able to step up the Four Modernizations by attaining certain foreign funds, market, advanced technologies and management experiences, thus accelerating its economic development.
The Twenty-Four Modernizations were alluded to in a wall poster by Chinese activist Wei Jingsheng which called for a Fifth Modernization, democracy.
Cultural Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7046 words)
It was launched by Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong on May 16, 1966 to regain control of the party after the disasters of the Great Leap Forward had led to a significant loss of his power to rivals such as Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.
By 1964, the Socialist Education Movement had become the new "Four Cleanups Movement", with the stated goal of the cleansing of politics, economics, ideas, and organization.
The consequence of this view is the consensus among the Chinese leadership that China must be governed by a strong party institution, in which decisions are made collectively and according to the rule of law, and in which the public has only limited input.
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