FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Founding of modern Singapore
This article is part of
the History of Singapore series

Early history of Singapore (pre-1819)
Founding of modern Singapore (1819-1826)
Straits Settlements (1826-1867)
Crown colony (1867-1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Japanese Occupation (1942-1945)
Sook Ching massacre (1942-1945)
Post-war period (1945 - 1955)
First Legislative Council (1948-1951)
Maria Hertogh riots (1950)
Second Legislative Council (1951-1955)
Internal self-government (1955–1962)
Hock Lee bus riots (1955)
Chinese middle schools riots (1956)
Merger with Malaysia (1962–1965)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962-1966)
Merger referendum, 1962
Operation Coldstore (1963)
Race Riots of 1964
MacDonald House bombing (1965)
Republic of Singapore (1965-Present)
East Asian financial crisis (1997)
Embassies attack plot (2001)
See also: Timeline of Singaporean history
[edit this box]

The founding of modern Singapore in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles paved the way for Singapore to become a modern port and established its status as a gateway between the Western and Eastern markets. The history of Singapore began as early as the 3rd Century when a Chinese account described the island at the tip of the Malay peninsula. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... ... Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca. ... Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among ethnic Chinese Singaporeans by the Japanese military administration during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended... Post-war Singapore refers to a period in the history of Singapore from 1945 when the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Allies at the end of World War II till 1955 when Singapore gained partial internal self-governance. ... The history of Singapore began as early as the 3rd Century when a Chinese account described the island at the tip of the Malay peninsula. ... Maria Hertogh and Che Aminah binte Mohamed The Maria Hertogh riots, which started on 11 December 1950 in Singapore, consisted of outraged Muslims who resented the court decision to give the custody of Maria Hertogh, then 13, to her biological Dutch Catholic parents after she had been raised as a... The history of Singapore began as early as the 3rd Century when a Chinese account described the island at the tip of the Malay peninsula. ... The self-governance of Singapore was carried out in several stages. ... Rioters throwing stones at police The Hock Lee bus riots occurred on May 12, 1955, in Singapore. ... The Chinese middle schools riots were a series of riots that broke out in the Singaporean Chinese community in Singapore in 1956, resulting in 13 people killed and more than 100 injured. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... The Singapore national referendum of 1962, or also commonly referred to as the Merger Referendum of Singapore was the first and only referendum to date held in Singapore on September 1, 1962. ... In February 1963, the government of Singapore conducted a security operation, named Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store), and arrested at least 107 left-wing politicians and trade unionists. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... MacDonald House bombing occured on 10 March 1965, at the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank building (known as MacDonald House) along Orchard Road, Singapore. ... The East Asian financial crisis was a period of economic unrest that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... The Singapore embassies attack plot was a plan by the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Jemaah Islamiyah to bomb the diplomatic missions and attack personnel of the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Israel in Singapore and several other targets in Singapore. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Singapore. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (6 July 1781 - 5 July 1826) was the founder of the city (now country) of Singapore, and is one of the best-known of the many Britons who created the largest empire the world has ever seen. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ...


This was distinct from its earlier probable use as a port in ancient times during the dominance of Srivijaya, and later, the Melaka in the region. This was because previously, the main markets were India and China. However, with the founding of modern Singapore, Europe, and to an extent, the United States, had now become sources of trade as well. Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... World map exhibiting the location of Europe. ...

Contents

The need for a new British port

The statue of Sir Stamford Raffles by Thomas Woolner now stands in Singapore, near Raffles's landing site in 1819.
The statue of Sir Stamford Raffles by Thomas Woolner now stands in Singapore, near Raffles's landing site in 1819.

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Malay archipelago was gradually taken over by the European colonial powers, beginning with the arrival of the Portuguese at Malacca in 1509. The early dominance of the Portuguese was challenged, during the 17th century, by the Dutch, who came to control most of the region's ports. The Dutch established a monopoly over trade within the archipelago, particularly in spices, then the region's most important product. Other colonial powers, including the British, were limited to a relatively minor presence.[1] Download high resolution version (768x1024, 122 KB) Sir Stamford Raffles was the first Westerner to discover Singapore in 1819, and subsequently became the first governor of the entrepot city. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 122 KB) Sir Stamford Raffles was the first Westerner to discover Singapore in 1819, and subsequently became the first governor of the entrepot city. ... Statue of Sir Stamford Raffles by Woolner, erected at the spot where he first landed at Singapore. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... World map exhibiting the location of Europe. ... Pith helmet of the Second French Empire. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ...


In 1818, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles was appointed as the Lieutenant Governor of the British colony at Bencoolen. Raffles believed that the British should find a way to replace the Dutch as the dominant power in the archipelago, since the trade route between China and British India, which had become vitally important with the institution of the opium trade with China, passed through the archipelago. Furthermore, the Dutch were stifling British trade within the region; the British were prohibited from operating in Dutch-controlled ports, with the exception of Batavia, where unfavourable prices were imposed. Raffles reasoned that the way to challenge the Dutch was to establish a new port in the region. Existing British ports were not suited to becoming major trading centres. Penang was too far away from the Straits of Malacca, the main ship passageway for the India-China trade, whereas Bencoolen faced the Indian Ocean, overseeing the entrance to the Sunda Straits, a much less important area. Many other possible sites were either controlled by the Dutch, or had other problems. 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (6 July 1781 - 5 July 1826) was the founder of the city (now country) of Singapore, and is one of the best-known of the many Britons who created the largest empire the world has ever seen. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... The flag of British India Map of British India, 1855 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule from Sanskrit Rajya) refers to the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, or present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Myanmar, during the period whereby these lands were under... Opium, or opïum is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Dr Koh Tsu Koon History    - Seceeded by Kedah to British 11 August 1786   - Japanese occupation 1942... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... The Sunda Strait is the strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. ...


Raffles' Landing and Arrival

In 1818, Raffles managed to convince Lord Hastings, the then governor-general of India and his superior at the British East India Company, to fund an expedition to establish a new British base in the region.[1] Raffles then undertook weeks of lengthy searching and found several islands that seemed promising but were later revealed unfit for use either because they were already occupied by the Dutch, or could not function as a port for reasons such as having too shallow a harbour. Eventually, after contemplating several maps, Raffles happened upon the island of Singapore, which upon investigation, seemed to be a natural choice. It lay at the southern tip of the Malay peninsula, near the Straits of Malacca, and possessed an excellent natural harbour, fresh water supplies, and timber for repairing ships. Most importantly, it was unoccupied by the Dutch. 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock company (preceded only by the Dutch East India Company) which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. ...


Raffles' expedition arrived in Singapore on 29 January 1819. He found a small Malay settlement at the mouth of the Singapore River, headed by a Temenggong (governor) of Johor. The island was nominally ruled by Johor, but the political situation there was extremely murky. The current Sultan of Johor, Tengku Abdul Rahman, was controlled by the Dutch and the Bugis, and would never agree to a British base in Singapore. However, Abdul Rahman was Sultan only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein, had been away in Penang getting married when their father died. January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Singapore River The Singapore River is a small river in terms of physical attributes, but of extreme historical importance to the country of Singapore, the political entity which shares its name. ... An ancient Malay title of nobility, usually given to the chief of public security. ... State Motto: Kepada Allah berserah (English: all hopes is to God (Allah) Capital Johor Bahru Royal Capital Pasir Pelangi Sultan Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj Chief minister Dato Abdul Ghani Othman Area 19,984 km² Population 3. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sultan Hussein Shah was the seventeenth Sultan of Johor. ...


The treaty

With the Temenggong's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Hussein, then living in exile on one of the Riau Islands, back into Singapore. He offered to recognize Hussein as the rightful Sultan of Johor, and provide him with a yearly payment; in return, Hussein would grant them the right to establish a trading post on Singapore.[1] This agreement was ratified with a formal treaty signed on 6 February 1819, and modern Singapore was born.[2][3] The Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau (Kepri for short) or sometimes Riau Kepulauan in Bahasa Indonesia) are a province and a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, off the eastern coast of Riau province on Sumatra island. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Early growth (1819–1826)

Raffles returned to Bencoolen soon after the signing of the treaty, leaving Major William Farquhar in charge of the new settlement, which initially consisted of some artillery and a single regiment of Indian soldiers. Establishing a trading port from scratch was in itself a daunting prospect, but Farquhar's administration was, in addition, practically unfunded, as Raffles did not wish his superiors to view Singapore as a liability. In addition, it was forbidden from earning revenue by imposing port duties, Raffles having decided from the outset that Singapore would be a free port. William Farquhar (1774 – 1839) is a historical figure of Singapore. ... A free port (porto franco) or free zone (US: Foreign-Trade Zone) is a port or area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location. ...


In spite of these difficulties, the new colony rapidly proved to be a spectacular success. As news of the free port spread across the archipelago, Bugis, Peranakan Chinese, and Arab traders flocked to the island, seeking to circumvent the Dutch trading restrictions. During the first year of operation, $400,000 (Spanish dollars) worth of trade passed through Singapore. By 1821, the island's population had increased to around five thousand, and the trade volume was $8 million. By 1825, the population had passed the ten thousand mark, with a trade volume of $22 million (in comparison, the trade volume for the long-established port of Penang was $8.5 million during the same year.)[1] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ...


Raffles returned to Singapore in 1822. Although Farquhar had successfully led the settlement through its difficult early years, Raffles was critical of many of the decisions he had made. For instance, in order to generate much-needed revenue for the government, Farquhar had resorted to selling licenses for gambling and the sale of opium, which Raffles saw as social evils. Raffles arranged for Farquhar's dismissal, and set about drafting a set of new policies for the settlement. He arranged for a second treaty with the Sultan and Temenggong, signed on 7 June 1823, which extended British possession to the entire island, except for the residences of the Sultan and Temenggong. The latter also gave up their rights to numerous functions on the island, including the collection of port taxes, in return for lifelong monthly payments of $1500 and $800 respectively. This agreement brought the island squarely under British law, with the proviso that it would take into account Malay customs, traditions and religion, "where they shall not be contrary to reason, justice or humanity." Gambling or Gaming [1] has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Raffles, also shocked at the disarray of the colony, then arranged to organise Singapore into functional and ethnic subdivisions under the drafted Raffles Plan of Singapore.[1] Today, the remnants of this organisation can be found in the ethnic neighbourhoods. Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was the founder of the city (now country) of Singapore, and is one of the best-known of the many Britons who created the largest empire the world has ever seen. ... As Singapore is a small and relatively modern amalgam of Chinese, Malay and Indian immigrants, the culture of Singapore expresses the diversity of the population as the various ethnic groups continue to celebrate their own cultures while they intermingle with one another. ...


After installing John Crawfurd, an efficient and frugal administrator, as the new governor, Raffles departed for Britain in October 1823.[4] He would never return to Singapore. Most of his personal possessions were lost after his ship, the Fame, caught fire and sank, and he died only a few years later, in 1826, at the age of 44.[5] John Crawfurd (August 13, 1783 - May 11, 1868) was a Scottish physician, and colonial administrator and author. ...


Straits Settlements

The status of Singapore as a British possession was cemented by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, which carved up the Malay archipelago between the two colonial powers. The area north of the Straits of Malacca, including Penang, Malacca, and Singapore, was designated as the British sphere of influence, while the area south of the Straits was assigned to the Dutch. This division had far-reaching consequences for the region: modern-day Malaysia and Singapore correspond to the British area established in the treaty, and modern-day Indonesia to the Dutch. In 1826, Singapore was grouped together with Penang and Malacca into a single administrative unit, the Straits Settlements, under the British East India Company. Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Dr Koh Tsu Koon History    - Seceeded by Kedah to British 11 August 1786   - Japanese occupation 1942... State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese Occupation 1942-1946... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock company (preceded only by the Dutch East India Company) which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e Singapore - Founding and Early Years. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  2. ^ Jenny Ng (1997-02-07). 1819 - The February Documents. Ministry of Defence (Singapore). Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  3. ^ Milestones in Singapore's Legal History. Supreme Court, Singapore. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  4. ^ Bastin, John. "Malayan Portraits: John Crawfurd", in Malaya, vol.3 (December 1954), pp.697-698.
  5. ^ J C M Khoo, C G Kwa, L Y Khoo (1998). The Death of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781 – 1826). Singapore Medical Journal. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.

  Results from FactBites:
 
NUS: Library: A Sense of History: Founding of Modern Singapore, 1819-1826 (827 words)
Bartley, W. The population of Singapore in 1819.
An anecdotal history of old times in Singapore: from the foundation of the settlement under the honourable the East India Company on February 6th, 1819 to the transfer to the Colonial Office as part of the colonial possessions of the Crown on April 1st, 1867.
Wake, Christopher H. Raffles and the Rajas: the founding of Singapore in Malayan and British colonial history.
Founding of modern Singapore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (711 words)
The founding of modern Singapore in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles paved way for Singapore to become a modern port and its status as a gateway between the Western and Eastern markets.
He found a small Malay settlement at the mouth of the Singapore River, headed by a Temenggong (governor) of Johor.
This agreement was ratified with a formal treaty signed on 6 February 1819, and modern Singapore was born.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m