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Encyclopedia > Founding Fathers of the United States
John Trumbull's famous painting is usually incorrectly identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration. The painting actually depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting their work to the Congress. Trumbull's painting can also be found on the back of the U.S. $2 bill
John Trumbull's famous painting is usually incorrectly identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration. The painting actually depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting their work to the Congress. Trumbull's painting can also be found on the back of the U.S. $2 bill[1]

The Founding Fathers of the United States (also known as the Fathers of Our Country, or the Founders) are the political leaders who signed the Declaration of Independence or otherwise participated in the American Revolution as leaders of the Patriots, or who participated in drafting the United States Constitution eleven years later.During the American Revolutionary War, the Founders were opposed by the Loyalists who supported the British monarchy and opposed independence (though most Loyalists remained in the U.S. after 1783 and supported the new government).[2] Image File history File links Scene_at_the_Signing_of_the_Constitution_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Scene_at_the_Signing_of_the_Constitution_of_the_United_States. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, as depicted by commisioned artist Howard Chandler Christy, is both an attempt at historical representation and political interpretation. ... Howard Chandler Christy (January 10, 1873—March 3, 1952) was an American artist. ... Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... This article is about the American painter. ... The Committee of Five was the group delegated by the Second Continental Congress on June 11, 1776 to draft the United States Declaration of Independence. ... The U.S. two dollar bill ($2) is a denomination of U.S. currency. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Britannia offers solace and a promise of compensation for her exiled American born Loyalists. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Some authors draw a distinction between the Founders, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 or participated in the Revolution, and the Framers, who drafted the United States Constitution, to replace the Articles of Confederation, in 1787.[3] This article does not make that distinction. The term "founding fathers" was first used in 1916 by then-Senator Warren G. Harding in his keynote address to the Republican National Convention; he did not distinguish between founders and framers. He had used the phrase "founding American fathers" in his 1912 speech nominating William Howard Taft for a second term during that year's Republican National Convention; between 1912 and 1916 he dropped the middle word "American." He used the term again in a 1918 address to a Washington's Birthday joint meeting of the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Sons of the American Revolution; he used it twice in his 1920 acceptance speech before the Republican National Convention; and he used it in his inaugural address on 4 March 1921. Harding's well-known liking for alliteration in his political speech-making suggests that he indeed deserves credit for coining the phrase "founding fathers." The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... Warren Harding redirects here. ...

Contents

Collective biography of the Framers of the Constitution

The 55 delegates who attended the United States Constitutional Convention represented a cross section of 18th century American leadership. Almost all of them were well-educated men of means who were dominant in their communities and colonies, and many were also prominent in national affairs. Virtually every one had taken part in the Revolution; at least 29 had served in the Continental Army, most of them in positions of command. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution.[4] The Philadelphia Convention—also known as the Constitutional Convention—took place in May through September, 1787, to address problems in the government of the United States of America following independence from Britain. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ...


Political experience

The signers of the Constitution had extensive political experience. By 1787, four-fifths, or 41 individuals, were or had been members of the Continental Congress. Practically all of the 55 delegates had experience in colonial and state government, and the majority had held county and local offices.[5] The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ...

  • Timothy Mifflin, Pierce Gaithe, and James Gorham had served as president of the Continental Congress.
  • The ones who lacked congressional experience were Bassett, Blair, Brearly, Broom, Davie, Dayton, Alexander Martin, Alexander Hamilton, Luther Martin, Mason, McClurg, Paterson, Charles Pinckney, Strong, Washington and Yates.
  • Eight men (Clymer, Franklin, Gerry, Robert Morris, Read, Sherman, Wilson, and Wythe) had signed the Declaration of Independence.
  • Six (Carroll, Dickinson, Gerry, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, and Sherman) had affixed their signatures to the Articles of Confederation.
  • Two, Sherman and Robert Morris, underwrote all three of the nation's basic documents.
  • Dickinson, Franklin, Langdon, and Rutledge had been governors.

The 1787 delegates practiced a wide range of high and middle-status occupations, and many pursued more than one career simultaneously. They did not differ dramatically from the Loyalists, except they were younger and less senior in their professions.[6] Thirty-five were lawyers or had benefited from legal education, though not all of them relied on the profession for a livelihood. Some had also become judges.[7] The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ... Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • At the time of the convention, 13 men were merchants: Blount, Broom, Clymer, Dayton, Fitzsimons, Shields, Gilman, Gorham, Langdon, Robert Morris, Pierce, Sherman, and Wilson.
  • Six were major land speculators: Blount, Dayton, Fitzsimons, Gorham, Robert Morris, and Wilson.
  • Eleven speculated in securities on a large scale: Bedford, Blair, Clymer, Dayton, Fitzsimons, Franklin, King, Langdon, Robert Morris, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and Sherman.
  • Twelve owned or managed slave-operated plantations or large farms: Bassett, Blair, Blount, Butler, Carroll, Jenifer, Mason, Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Rutledge, Spaight, and Washington. Madison also owned slaves, as did Franklin, who later freed his slaves and became an abolitionist.
  • Broom and Few were small farmers.
  • Nine of the men received a substantial part of their income from public office: Baldwin, Blair, Brearly, Gilman, Jenifer, Livingston, Madison, and Rutledge.
  • Three had retired from active economic endeavors: Franklin, McHenry, and Mifflin.
  • Franklin and Williamson were scientists, in addition to their other activities.
  • McClurg, McHenry, and Williamson were physicians, and Johnson was a college president.

A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... For security (collateral), the legal right given to a creditor by a borrower, see security interest A security is a fungible, negotiable instrument representing financial value. ... Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... Manumission is the act of freeing a slave, done at the will of the owner. ... This article is about slavery. ... An academic administration is a branch of university or college employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the faculty or academics, although some personnel may have joint responsibilities. ...

Family and finances

A few of the 1787 delegates were wealthy, but most of the country's top wealth-holders were Loyalists who went to Britain. Most of the others had financial resources that ranged from good to excellent. On the whole they were less wealthy than the Loyalists. Some of them were in war in Indian continents. [8]

  • Washington and Robert Morris ranked among the nation's most prosperous men.
  • Carroll, Houston, Jenifer, and Mifflin were also extremely well-to-do.
  • Among those with the most straitened circumstances were Baldwin, Brearly, Broom, Few, Madison, Paterson, and Sherman, though they all managed to live comfortably.
  • A considerable number of the men were born into leading families: Blair, Butler, Carroll, Houston, Ingersoll, Jenifer, Johnson, Livingston, Mifflin, Gouverneur Morris, both Pinckneys, Randolph, Rutledge, Washington, and Wythe.
  • Others were self-made men who had risen from humble beginnings: Few, Franklin, Gorham, Hamilton, and Sherman.

Demographic information

Brown (1976) and Harris (1969) provide detailed demographic information on each man.

  • Most of the 1787 delegates were natives of the 13 colonies.
  • Only eight were born elsewhere: four (Butler, Fitzsimons, McHenry, and Paterson) in Ireland, two (Davie and Robert Morris) in England, one (Wilson) in Scotland, and one (Hamilton) in the West Indies.
  • Many of them had moved from one state to another. Sixteen individuals had already lived or worked in more than one state or colony: Baldwin, Bassett, Bedford, Dickinson, Few, Franklin, Ingersoll, Livingston, Alexander Martieno, Luther Martin, Mercer, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, Read, Sherman, and Williamson.
  • Several others had studied or traveled abroad.

The Founding Fathers had strong educational backgrounds.[9] Some, like Franklin, were largely self-taught or learned through apprenticeship. Others had obtained instruction from private tutors or at academies. About half of the men had attended or graduated from college in the colonies or Britain. Some men held medical degrees or advanced training in theology. For the most part, the delegates were a well-educated group. A few lawyers had been trained at the Inns of Court in London, but most had apprenticed to an American lawyer. Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Longevity and family life

Death age of the Founding Fathers.
Death age of the Founding Fathers.

For their era, the 1787 delegates (like the 1776 signers) were average in terms of life spans.[10] Their average age at death was about 67. The first to die was Houston in 1788; the last was Madison in 1836.


The one who reached the oldest age was Johnson, who died at 92. A few—Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Williamson, and Wythe—lived into their eighties. Either 15 or 16 (depending on Fitzsimons's exact age) died in their seventies. Twenty or 21 in their sixties; eight lived into their fifties; and five lived only into their forties. Two (Alexander Hamilton and Richard Dobbs Spaight) were killed in duels. Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Gov. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ...


Most of the delegates married and raised children. Sherman fathered the largest family: 15 children by two wives. At least nine (Bassett, Brearly, Johnson, Mason, Paterson, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Sherman, Wilson, and Wythe) married more than once. Four (Baldwin, Gilman, Jenifer, and Alexander Martin) were lifelong bachelors. A bachelor is a man above the age of majority who has never been married (see single). ...


Religion

Lambert (2003) has examined the religious affiliations and beliefs of the Founders. Some of the 1787 delegates had no affiliation. The others were Protestants except for three Roman Catholics: C. Carroll, D. Carroll, and Fitzsimons. Among the Protestants Constitutional Convention delegates, 28 were Episcopalian, 8 were Presbyterians, 7 were Congregationalists, 2 were Lutherans, 2 were Dutch Reformed, and 2 were Methodists. Many of the more prominent Founding Fathers were vocal about their opposition to organized religion or anti-clerical, such as Jefferson. Some of them often related their anti-organized church leanings in their speeches and correspondence, including George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson (who created the "Jefferson Bible"), and Benjamin Franklin. However, a few of the more notable founders, such as Patrick Henry, were strong proponents of traditional religion. Several of the Founding Fathers considered themselves to be deists or held beliefs very similar to that of traditional Deists, including Franklin, Jefferson, and Ethan Allen.[11] The Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth as it is formally titled, was an attempt by Thomas Jefferson to glean the teachings of Jesus from the Christian Gospels. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ...


Although not a religion, Freemasonry was represented in John Blair, Benjamin Franklin, James Mchenry, George Washington, Abraham Baldwin, Gunning Bedford, William Blount, David Brearly, Daniel Carroll, Jonathan Dayton, Rufus King, John Langdon, George Read, Roger Sherman, James Madison, Robert Morris, William Paterson, and Charles Pinckney. Freemasons redirects here. ...


Notwithstanding the spectrum of beliefs held by the Founding Fathers, their speeches indeed contain statements in which they describe religion's role in molding "national morality" and securing the rule of law(George Washington), its check on human "wickedness" (Benjamin Franklin), and its preservation of a free government such as America (John Adams). This, of course, can be attributed to the maxim that for the people religion is dear, but for the government it is merely useful. Jefferson, in particular was hostile toward many aspects of contemporary Christianity. This can be seen, for instance, in a letter of Jefferson to Francis Hopkinson, dated March 13, 1789, in which Jefferson states: "I never submitted the whole system of my opinions to the creed of any party of men whatever in religion, in philosophy, in politics, or in anything else where I was capable of thinking for myself. Such an addiction is the last degradation of a free and moral agent.". In correspondence with John Adams, Jefferson says "The whole history of these books [the Gospels] is so defective and doubtful that it seems vain to attempt minute enquiry into it: and such tricks have been played with their text, and with the texts of other books relating to them, that we have a right, from that cause, to entertain much doubt what parts of them are genuine. In the New Testament there is internal evidence that parts of it have proceeded from an extraordinary man; and that other parts are of the fabric of very inferior minds. It is as easy to separate those parts, as to pick out diamonds from dunghills". In yet another letter, to Correa de Serra, dated April 11, 1820, Jefferson stated: "Priests...dread the advance of science as witches do the approach of daylight and scowl on the fatal harbinger announcing the subversions of the duperies on which they live". For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Post-convention careers

The 1787 delegates' subsequent careers reflected their abilities as well as the vagaries of fate.[12] Most were successful, although seven (Fitzsimons, Gorham, Luther Martin, Mifflin, Robert Morris, Pierce, and Wilson) suffered serious financial reverses that left them in or near bankruptcy. Two, Blount and Dayton, were involved in possibly treasonous activities. Yet, as they had done before the convention, most of the group continued to render public service, particularly to the new government they had helped to create. Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...

Many 1787 delegates held important state positions, including governor (Blount, Davie, Franklin, Gerry, Langdon, Livingston, Alexander Martin, Mifflin, Paterson, Charles Pinckney, Spaight, and Strong) and legislator. And most of the delegates contributed in many ways to the cultural life of their cities, communities, and states. Not surprisingly, many of their sons and other descendants were to occupy high positions in American political and intellectual life. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732–June 19, 1794) was an American who served as the sixth President of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation, holding office from November 30, 1784 to November 22, 1785. ... Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is a political scientist known for his analysis of the relationship between the military and the civil government, his investigation of coup detats, and his thesis that the central political actors of the 21st century will be civilizations rather than nation-states. ... The Continental Congress was the federal legislature of the Thirteen Colonies and later of the United States from 1774 to 1789, a period that included the American Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Hanson, see John Hanson (disambiguation). ... Thomas McKean Thomas McKean (March 19, 1734–June 24, 1817) was the second President of the United States in Congress assembled, from July 10, 1781, until November 4, 1781. ... The Continental Congress was the federal legislature of the Thirteen Colonies and later of the United States from 1774 to 1789, a period that included the American Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Nathaniel Gorham (May 27, 1738–June 11, 1796) was the eighth President of the United States in Congress assembled, under the Articles of Confederation. ... Thomas Mifflin , John Singleton Copley, 1773. ... The Continental Congress was the federal legislature of the Thirteen Colonies and later of the United States from 1774 to 1789, a period that included the American Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Justices of the United States Supreme Court, other than the Chief Justice, are termed Associate Justices. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Seal on the building of German Embassies. ...


Signatories of the Declaration of Independence

For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... Josiah Bartlett (November 21, 1729–May 19, 1795), was an American physician and statesman who, as a delegate to the Continental Congress for New Hampshire, signed the Declaration of Independence. ... Painting thought to be of Carter Braxton Carter Braxton (September 16, 1736–October 10, 1797), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a representative of Virginia. ... Charles Carroll (1737-1832) Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19, 1737 – November 14, 1832) was a lawyer and politician from Maryland who was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later a United States Senator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Abraham Clark (February 15, 1725—September 15, 1794) was an American politician and Revolutionary War figure. ... George Clymer (March 16, 1739–January 23, 1813) was an American politician and Founding Father. ... William Ellery William Ellery (December 22, 1727–February 15, 1820), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Rhode Island. ... William Floyd in a 1792 portrait William Floyd (December 17, 1734 - August 4, 1821), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New York. ... This article is about the American political figure. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... (baptized: April 10, 1735 – May 19, 1777), was second of the signatories (first signature on the left) on the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. ... This article is about the Georgia governor and signer of the Declaration of Independence. ... John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Benjamin Harrison V Benjamin Harrison (V) (April 5, 1726 – April 24, 1791) was an American planter and revolutionary leader from Charles City County, Virginia. ... For other persons named John Hart, see John Hart (disambiguation). ... Joseph Hewes was a native of Connecticut, where he was born in 1730. ... Thomas Heyward, Jr. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Stephen Hopkins Stephen Hopkins (March 7, 1707–July 13, 1785) was an American political leader from Rhode Island who signed the Declaration of Independence. ... Francis Hopkinson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samuel Huntington, 1731-1796, drawn from the life by Du Simitier in Philadelphia; engraved by B.L. Prevost at Paris. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Francis Lightfoot Lee (October 14, 1734–January 11, 1797), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Virginia. ... Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732–June 19, 1794) was an American who served as the sixth President of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation, holding office from November 30, 1784 to November 22, 1785. ... Francis Lewis Francis Lewis (March 21, 1713 – December 30, 1803), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New York. ... Philip Livingston Philip Livingston (January 15, 1716 – June 12, 1778), was an American merchant and statesman from New York City. ... Thomas Lynch, Jr. ... Thomas McKean Thomas McKean (March 19, 1734–June 24, 1817) was the second President of the United States in Congress assembled, from July 10, 1781, until November 4, 1781. ... Arthur Middleton (June 26, 1742–January 1, 1787), of Charleston, South Carolina, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. ... Lewis Morris (April 8, 1726– January 22, 1798) was an American landowner and developer from Morrisania, New York. ... Robert Morris Robert Morris, Jr. ... John Morton (1724-1777), from Chester, Pennsylvania, was the delegate who cast the deciding vote in favor of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Thomas Nelson, Jr. ... William Paca portrait by Charles Willson Peale. ... Robert Treat Paine; Signer of the Declaration of Independence Robert Treat Paine Robert Treat Paine(March 11, 1731–May 11, 1814) was a signer of the Declaration of Independence as a representative of Massachusetts. ... John Penn (May 17, 1741–September 14, 1788), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of North Carolina. ... George Read (September 18, 1733 – September 21, 1798) was an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, in New Castle County, Delaware. ... Caesar Rodney (October 7, 1728 – June 26, 1784), was an American lawyer and politician from St. ... George Ross (May 10, 1730–July 14, 1779), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Pennsylvania. ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ... Edward Rutledge Edward Rutledge (November 23, 1749 – January 23, 1800), South Carolina statesman, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor of South Carolina. ... Shermans marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. ... James Smith (about 1719 – July 11, 1806), was a signer to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Pennsylvania. ... Richard Stockton Richard Stockton (October 1, 1730 – February 28, 1781) was an American lawyer, jurist, legislator, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. ... Thomas Stone Thomas Stone (1743–October 5, 1787) was an American planter who signed United States Declaration of Independence as a delegate for Maryland. ... George Taylor (c. ... Matthew Thornton Matthew Thornton (1714 – June 24, 1803), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire. ... George Walton George Walton (1749 or 1750–February 2, 1804) signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. ... William Whipple, Jr. ... William Williams (April 28, 1731– August 2, 1811) was an American merchant and political leader from Lebanon, Connecticut. ... For other persons named James Wilson, see James Wilson (disambiguation). ... John Witherspoon Dr. John Witherspoon (February 5, 1723 – November 15, 1794), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey. ... Oliver Wolcott (December 1, 1726–December 1, 1797), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Connecticut. ... George Wythe George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ...

Constitutional Convention delegates

Delegates who signed

John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Abraham Baldwin Abraham Baldwin (November 23, 1754—March 4, 1807) was an American politician, Patriot, and Founding Father from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Richard Bassett (April 2, 1745 – August 15, 1815) was an American lawyer and politician from Dover, in Kent County, Delaware. ... This article is about the delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention, for other persons with the same name, see Gunning Bedford (disambiguation). ... John Blair (1732–August 31, 1800) was an American politician, Founding Father, and Patriot. ... Italic text:For the English scholar see William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy. ... David Brearly (May 14, 1703–October 4, 1785) was a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signed the U.S. Constitution on behalf of New Jersey. ... This article is about the Delaware politician. ... Pierce Butler (July 11, 1744 - February 15, 1822) was a soldier, planter, and statesman, recognized as one of United States Founding Fathers. ... Daniel Carroll Daniel Carroll (July 22, 1730–July 5, 1796) was a politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... George Clymer (March 16, 1739–January 23, 1813) was an American politician and Founding Father. ... Jonathan Dayton (October 16, 1760–October 9, 1824) was an American politician from the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... John Dickinson (November 8, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer and politician from Jones Neck in St. ... This article is about the Founding Father of the United States. ... Thomas Fitzsimons (1741-1811) was an American merchant and statesman of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the American political figure. ... Nicholas Gilman Nicholas Gilman, Jr. ... Nathaniel Gorham (May 27, 1738–June 11, 1796) was the eighth President of the United States in Congress assembled, under the Articles of Confederation. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Jared Ingersoll Jared Ingersoll (October 24, 1749 – October 31, 1822) was an early American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia. ... Daniel of St. ... For other persons named William Johnson, see William Johnson (disambiguation). ... Rufus King (March 24, 1755 – April 29, 1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. ... John Langdon (June 26, 1741—September 18, 1819) was a politician from New Hampshire and one of the first two United States Senators from that state. ... William Livingston William Livingston (November 30, 1723 – July 25, 1790) served as the Governor of New Jersey (1776–1790) during the American Revolution and was a signer of the United States Constitution. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... James McHenry (November 16, 1753 – May 3, 1816) was an early American statesman. ... Thomas Mifflin , John Singleton Copley, 1773. ... Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ... Robert Morris Robert Morris, Jr. ... William Paterson William Paterson (December 24, 1745–September 9, 1806) was a New Jersey statesman, a signer of the United States Constitution, and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... Charles Pinckney (October 26, 1757–October 29, 1824) was an American politician who was a signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives. ... George Read (September 18, 1733 – September 21, 1798) was an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, in New Castle County, Delaware. ... This article is about the Governor and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Shermans marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. ... Gov. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Hugh Williamson Hugh Williamson (December 5, 1735–May 22, 1819) was an American politician. ... For other persons named James Wilson, see James Wilson (disambiguation). ... William Jacksons signature on the U.S. Constitution William Jackson (March 9, 1759–December 17, 1828) was a figure in the American Revolution, most noteworthy as the secretary to the United States Constitutional Convention. ...

Delegates who had left the Convention earlier and did not sign

Gov. ... Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807), an American lawyer and politician, was a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, and third Chief Justice of the United States. ... William Houstoun (1755– March 17, 1813) was an American planter, lawyer, and statesman from Savannah, Georgia. ... John Lansing, Jr. ... Gov. ... Contrarian Founding Father Luther Martin Luther Martin (February 9, 1748–July 8, 1826) was a politician and one of United States Founding Fathers, but refused to sign the Constitution because he felt it violated states rights. ... James McClurg James McClurg (1747–July 9, 1825) was a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention. ... John Francis Mercer (May 17, 1759–August 30, 1821) was an American lawyer, planter, and politician from Virginia and Maryland. ... William Pierce (1740 - 1789) was an army officer during the American Revolutionary War and a politician from Georgia. ... Caleb Strong (January 9, 1745 - November 7, 1819) was a U.S. political figure. ... George Wythe George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Robert Yates (1738-1801) was a United States politician well known for his Anti-Federalist stances. ...

3 Delegates who refused to sign

For other persons named George Mason, see George Mason (disambiguation). ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ...

Other Founders

For other uses, see Ethan Allen (disambiguation). ... Richard Bland (1710-1776) was an American planter and statesman from Virginia. ... This page is for the Vice President George Clinton. ... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... For other persons named John Jay, see John Jay (disambiguation). ... Henry Lee III (January 29, 1756 - March 25, 1818), American general, called Light Horse Harry, was born near Dumfries, Virginia. ... Thomas Sim Lee (October 29, 1745–November 9, 1819) was an American planter and statesman of Frederick County, Maryland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Philip Mazzei (December 25, 1730–March 19, 1816) was an Italian physician and a promoter of liberty. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Republican Generation is the name given to that generation of Americans born from 1742 to 1766 by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... For a later governor of Virginia see Peyton Randolph (governor). ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... For other uses, see William Dawes (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ... Baron von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Steuben, Baron von Steuben (* September 17, 1730; † November 28, 1794) was a German-Prussian General who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching the Continental Army the essentials of military drill and discipline. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... For other persons named Charles Thomson, see Charles Thomson (disambiguation). ...

See also

“Founders” redirects here. ... The men in this list actually met in the Continental Congress. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... This is a gallery of pictures of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... The United States Constitution was written in 1787, adopted in 1788, and took effect in 1789, replacing the Articles of Confederation. ...

Notes

  1. ^ americanrevolution.org Key to Trumbull's picture
  2. ^ A Short History of the United Empire Loyalists
  3. ^ Land and Liberty II: The Basics of Traditional American History, by David Warren Saxe, p.204
  4. ^ See Brown (19764); Martin (19739); "Data on the Framers of the Constitution," at [1]
  5. ^ Martin (1973); Greene (1973)
  6. ^ Greene (1973)
  7. ^ Brown (1976)
  8. ^ Greene (1973)
  9. ^ Brown (1976); Harris (1969)
  10. ^ Brown (1976)
  11. ^ See, e.g., Religioustolerance.org/Deism, Jim Peterson (2007) "The Revolution of Belief: Founding Fathers, Deists, Orthodox Christians, and the Spiritual Context of 18th Century America [http://www.deism.com/deistamerica.htm Robert L. Johnson, "The Deist Roots of the United States of America"]
  12. ^ Martin (1973)

References

  • American National Biography Online, (2000), scholarly biographies of 18,000 Americans, including all the Founders. online edition
  • Richard D. Brown. "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A Collective View," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul., 1976), pp. 465-480 online at JSTOR
  • Joseph J. Ellis. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (2002), Pulitzer Prize
  • Jack P. Greene. "The Social Origins of the American Revolution: An Evaluation and an Interpretation," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Mar., 1973), pp. 1-22 online in JSTOR
  • P.M.G. Harris, "The Social Origins of American Leaders: The Demographic Foundations, " Perspectives in American History 3 (1969): 159-364.
  • Mark E. Kann; The Gendering of American Politics: Founding Mothers, Founding Fathers, and Political Patriarchy Praeger, 1999
  • Adrienne Koch; Power, Morals, and the Founding Fathers: Essays in the Interpretation of the American Enlightenment 1961
  • Frank Lambert. The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America. 2003.
  • Martin, James Kirby. Men in rebellion: Higher governmental leaders and the coming of the American Revolution, (1973)
  • Robert Previdi; "Vindicating the Founders: Race, Sex, Class, and Justice in the Origins of America," Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1999
  • Cokie Roberts. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation (2005)
  • Gordon S. Wood. Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (2006)

External links


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The design of the obverse (front) of the Great Seal, which is the coat of arms of the United States, is used by the government in many ways.
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The most prominent feature is the American bald eagle supporting the shield, or escutcheon, which is composed of 13 red and white stripes, representing the original states; and a blue top which unites the shield and represents Congress.
Founding Fathers of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1357 words)
Founding Fathers of the United States, also known to some Americans as the Fathers of Our Country, the Forefathers, Framers or the Founders, are the men who signed the Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution or otherwise participated in the American Revolution as leaders of the Patriots.
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Washington and Madison became President of the United States, and King and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney were nominated as candidates for the office.
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