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Encyclopedia > Fossil
Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1.5 cm across.
Eocene fossil fish Priscacara liops from Green River Formation of Utah
Eocene fossil fish Priscacara liops from Green River Formation of Utah
Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. The internal structure of the tree and bark are maintained in the permineralization process.
Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. The internal structure of the tree and bark are maintained in the permineralization process.

Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally "having been dug up") are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, and their placement in fossiliferous (fossil-containing) rock formations and sedimentary layers (strata) is known as the fossil record. The study of fossils across geological time, how they were formed, and the evolutionary relationships between taxa (phylogeny) are some of the most important functions of the science of paleontology. Fossil may mean: a fossil in paleontology, mineralized remains of an animal or a plant. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 215 KB)By Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 215 KB)By Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a series of intermontane lakes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1009x1009, 760 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fossil User:Moondigger Wikipedia:Picture peer review/Petrified Forest images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1009x1009, 760 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fossil User:Moondigger Wikipedia:Picture peer review/Petrified Forest images ... Petrified log at the Petrified Forest National Park A petrified tree from California Petrified wood is a type of fossil: it consists of fossil wood where all the organic materials have been replaced with minerals (most often a silicate, such as quartz), while retaining the original structure of the wood. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlain by limestone. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... Diagram of geological time scale. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ...


The relative geological time scale, as developed during the 19th century, is based largely on the fossil content of the rock strata. The development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed geologists to determine the absolute age of the various strata and the included fossils. Fossils range in age from the relatively recent Holocene epoch several thousands of years in age to those of the Archaean era several billions of years old. Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ...


Fossils vary in size from microscopic, such as single cells, to gigantic, such as dinosaurs. A fossil normally preserves only a portion of the deceased organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Preservation of soft tissues is exquisitely rare in the fossil record. Fossils may also consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as the footprint or feces (coprolites) of a reptile. These types of fossil are called trace fossils (or ichnofossils), as opposed to body fossils. Finally, past life leaves some markers that cannot be seen but can be detected in the form of biochemical signals; these are known as chemofossils or biomarkers. A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Mineralization is the process of depositing minerals or naturally occuring inorganic chemicals. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Coprolites are fossilized feces, or animal dung. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... A fossilized dinosaur footprint at Clayton Lake State Park, New Mexico. ... Prehistoric life is a term used to refer to diverse organisms that inhabited Earth from the origin of life about 3. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ...

Contents

Places of exceptional fossilization

Fossil sites with exceptional preservation — sometimes including preserved soft tissues — are known as Lagerstätten. These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus delaying decomposition. Lagerstätten span geological time from the Cambrian period to the present. Worldwide, some of the best examples of near-perfect fossilization are the Cambrian Maotianshan shales and Burgess Shale, the Devonian Hunsrück Slates, the Jurassic Solnhofen limestone, and the Carboniferous Mazon Creek localities. Lagerstätten (German; singular Lagerstätte; literally place of storage, resting place) are sedimentary deposits that exhibit extraordinary fossil richness or completeness. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... The Maotianshan shale is a lower Cambrian (Atdabanian) rock formation, of ca 522 Mya, now lying exposed in the Yunnan Province of China in the villages of Ercaicun and Chengjiang near the city of Kunming. ... Hallucigenia sparsa, one of the organisms unique to the Burgess Shale. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Hunsrück Slate (Hunsrückschiefer) is a Devonian Lagerstätte famous for exceptional preservation of a highly diverse fossil fauna assemblage. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... A brittle star fossil from Solnhofen limestone. ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Mazon Creek fossils are conservation lagerstätten found near Chicago, Illinois. ...


Earliest fossiliferous sites

Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia, South America
Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia, South America

Earth’s oldest fossils are the stromatolites consisting of rock built from layer upon layer of sediment and precipitants.[1] Based on studies of now-rare (but living) stromatolites (specifically, certain blue-green bacteria), the growth of fossil stromatolitic structures was biogenetically mediated by mats of microorganisms through their entrapment of sediments. However, abiotic mechanisms for stromatolitic growth are also known, leading to a decades-long and sometimes-contentious scientific debate regarding biogenesis of certain formations, especially those from the lower to middle Archaean eon. Image File history File links Proterozoic-Stromatolites. ... Image File history File links Proterozoic-Stromatolites. ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ...


It is most widely accepted that stromatolites from the late Archaean and through the middle Proterozoic eon were mostly formed by massive colonies of cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue-green "algae"), and that the oxygen byproduct of their photosynthetic metabolism first resulted in earth’s massive banded iron formations and subsequently oxygenated earth’s atmosphere. The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... 2. ...


Even though it is extra rare, microstructures resembling cells are sometimes found within stromatolites; but these are also the source of scientific contention. The Gunflint Chert contains abundant microfossils widely accepted as a diverse consortium of 2.0 bya microbes.[2] Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The Gunflint chert is a sequence of banded iron formation rocks that are exposed in the Gunflint Range of northern Minnesota and western Ontario along the north shore of Lake Superior. ... For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation) Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other artifacts such as footprints. ... In [[hhehehe>12). ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


In contrast, putative fossil cyanobacteria cells from the 3.4 bya Warrawoona Group in Western Australia are in dispute since abiotic processes cannot be ruled out.[3] Confirmation of the Warrawoona microstructures as cyanobacteria would profoundly impact our understanding of when and how early life diversified, pushing important evolutionary milestones further back in time (reference). The continued study of these oldest fossils is paramount to calibrate complementary molecular phylogenetics models. For the definition, see Life. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ...


Developments in interpretation of the fossil record

See also: History of paleontology
Silurian Orthoceras Fossil
Silurian Orthoceras Fossil

Ever since recorded history began, and probably before, people have found fossils, pieces of rock and minerals which have replaced the remains of biologic organisms or preserved their external form. These fossils, and the totality of their occurrence within the sequence of Earth's rock strata is referred to as the fossil record. The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ...


The fossil record was one of the early sources of data relevant to the study of evolution and continues to be relevant to the history of life on Earth. Paleontologists examine the fossil record in order to understand the process of evolution and the way particular species have evolved. This article is about evolution in biology. ... Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Explanations

Fossil shrimp (Cretaceous)
Fossil shrimp (Cretaceous)
A fossil gastropod from the Pliocene of Cyprus. A serpulid worm is attached.
A fossil gastropod from the Pliocene of Cyprus. A serpulid worm is attached.

Various explanations have been put forth throughout history to explain what fossils are and how they came to be where they were found. Many of these explanations relied on folktales or mythologies. In China the fossil bones of ancient mammals including Homo erectus were often mistaken for “dragon bones” and used as medicine and aphrodisiacs. In the West the presence of fossilized sea creatures high up on mountainsides was seen as proof of the biblical deluge. More scientific views of fossils began to emerge during the Renaissance. For example, Leonardo Da Vinci noticed discrepancies with the use of the biblical flood narrative as an explanation for fossil origins: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...

"If the Deluge had carried the shells for distances of three and four hundred miles from the sea it would have carried them mixed with various other natural objects all heaped up together; but even at such distances from the sea we see the oysters all together and also the shellfish and the cuttlefish and all the other shells which congregate together, found all together dead; and the solitary shells are found apart from one another as we see them every day on the sea-shores.
And we find oysters together in very large families, among which some may be seen with their shells still joined together, indicating that they were left there by the sea and that they were still living when the strait of Gibraltar was cut through. In the mountains of Parma and Piacenza multitudes of shells and corals with holes may be seen still sticking to the rocks..."[4]

William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. William Smith. ... See here for the superposition principle of physics. ...


Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Biological explanations

Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first linked the hierarchical structure of the great tree of life in living organisms with the then very sparse fossil record. Darwin eloquently described a process of descent with modification, or evolution, whereby organisms either adapt to natural and changing environmental pressures, or they perish. The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

Petrified cone of Araucaria sp. from Patagonia, Argentina dating from the Jurassic Period (approx. 210 mya)
Petrified cone of Araucaria sp. from Patagonia, Argentina dating from the Jurassic Period (approx. 210 mya)

When Charles Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, the oldest animal fossils were those from the Cambrian Period, now known to be about 540 million years old. The absence of older fossils worried Darwin about the implications for the validity of his theories, but he expressed hope that such fossils would be found, noting that: "only a small portion of the world is known with accuracy." Darwin also pondered the sudden appearance of many groups (i.e. phyla) in the oldest known Cambrian fossiliferous strata.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,067 pixels, file size: 777 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,067 pixels, file size: 777 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 million years before the present (BP) at the end of the Proterozoic eon_geology and ended about 490 million years BP with the beginning of the Ordovician period. ... For other uses, see phyla. ...


Further discoveries

Since Darwin's time, the fossil record has been pushed back to between 2.3 and 3.5 billion years before the present.[6] Most of these Precambrian fossils are microscopic bacteria or microfossils. However, macroscopic fossils are now known from the late Proterozoic. The Ediacaran biota (also called Vendian biota) dating from 575 million years ago collectively constitutes a richly diverse assembly of early multicellular eukaryotes. Micropaleontology, the study of microfossils, is a branch of paleontology. ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... Dickinsonia costata, an Ediacaran organism of unknown affinity, with a quilted appearance. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ...


The fossil record and faunal succession form the basis of the science of biostratigraphy or determining the age of rocks based on the fossils they contain. For the first 150 years of geology, biostratigraphy and superposition were the only means for determining the relative age of rocks. The geologic time scale was developed based on the relative ages of rock strata as determined by the early paleontologists and stratigraphers. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Before the advent of absolute dating in the 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of Relative Dating techniques. ... Diagram of geological time scale. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Since the early years of the twentieth century, absolute dating methods, such as radiometric dating (including potassium/argon, argon/argon, uranium series, and carbon-14 dating) have been used to verify the relative ages obtained by fossils and to provide absolute ages for many fossils. Radiometric dating has shown that the earliest known stromatolites are over 3.4 billion years old. Various dating methods have been used and are used today depending on local geology and context, and while there is some variance in the results from these dating methods, nearly all of them provide evidence for a very old Earth, approximately 4.6 billion years. Absolute dating is the process of determining a specific archaeological date. ... Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... Potassium-argon or K-Ar dating is a geochronological method used in many geoscience disciplines. ... Argon-argon dating is a radiometric dating technique similar to that of Potasium-Argon. ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... Dating methods include: radiometric dating methods: K-Ar potassium/argon Rb-Sr rubidium/strontium argon/argon U-Th-Pburanium/thorium/lead carbon-14 dating other methods: tree-ring Issues with dating: Atmospheric helium concentration is inconsistent with an evolutionary time scale. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ...


Modern view

"The fossil record is life’s evolutionary epic that unfolded over four billion years as environmental conditions and genetic potential interacted in accordance with natural selection."[7] The earth’s climate, tectonics, atmosphere, oceans, and periodic disasters invoked the primary selective pressures on all organisms, which they either adapted to, or they perished with or without leaving descendants. Modern paleontology has joined with evolutionary biology to share the interdisciplinary task of unfolding the tree of life, which inevitably leads backwards in time to the microscopic life of the Precambrian when cell structure and functions evolved. Earth’s deep time in the Proterozoic and deeper still in the Archaean is only "recounted by microscopic fossils and subtle chemical signals."[8] Molecular biologists, using phylogenetics, can compare protein amino acid or nucleotide sequence homology (i.e., similarity) to infer taxonomy and evolutionary distances among organisms, but with limited statistical confidence. The study of fossils, on the other hand, can more specifically pinpoint when and in what organism branching occurred in the tree of life. Modern phylogenetics and paleontology work together in the clarification of science’s still dim view of the appearance of life and its evolution during deep time on earth.[9]

Phacopid trilobite Eldredgeops rana crassituberculata named after Niles Eldredge
Phacopid trilobite Eldredgeops rana crassituberculata named after Niles Eldredge
Gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.
Gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.

Niles Eldredge’s study of the Phacops trilobite genus supported the hypothesis that modifications to the arrangement of the trilobite’s eye lenses proceeded by fits and starts over millions of years during the Devonian.[10] Eldredge's interpretation of the Phacops fossil record was that the aftermaths of the lens changes, but not the rapidly occurring evolutionary process, were fossilized. This and other data led Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge to publish the seminal paper on punctuated equilibrium in 1971. Image File history File links Eldredgeops-rana-crassituberculata. ... Image File history File links Eldredgeops-rana-crassituberculata. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Dr. Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is an American paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Dr. Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is an American paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972. ... Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ...


Example of modern development

An example of modern paleontological progress is the application of synchrotron X-ray tomographic techniques to early Cambrian bilaterian embryonic microfossils that has recently yielded new insights of metazoan evolution at its earliest stages. The tomography technique provides previously unattainable three-dimensional resolution at the limits of fossilization. Fossils of two enigmatic bilaterians, the worm-like Markuelia and a putative, primitive protostome, Pseudooides, provide a peek at germ layer embryonic development. These 543 Ma old embryos support the emergence of some aspects of arthropod development earlier than previously thought in the late Proterozoic. The preserved embryos from China and Siberia underwent rapid diagenetic phosphatization resulting in exquisite preservation, including cell structures. This research is a notable example of how knowledge encoded by the fossil record continues to contribute otherwise unattainable information on the emergence and development of life on Earth. For example, the research suggests Markuelia has closest affinity to priapulid worms, and is adjacent to the evolutionary branching of Priapulida, Nematoda and Arthropoda.[11] Synchrotrons are now mostly used for producing monochromatic high intensity X-ray beams; here, the synchrotron is the circular track, off which the beamlines branch. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Markuelia denotes a genus of fossil worm from the Middle Cambrian period that encompasses two known species, Markuelia hunanensis and Markuelia secunda, which are presumably the closest known relatives to three modern taxa of bilaterian animals: the Loricifera, Kinorhyncha and Priapulida. ... Groups Ecdysozoa Lophotrochozoa Platyzoa Protostomes (from the Greek: first the mouth) are a taxon of animals. ... Organs derived from each germ layer. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. ... Priapulida (priapulid worms or penis worms, from Gr. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ...


Rarity of fossils

Megalodon and Carcharodontosaurus Teeth. The Charcharodontosaurus tooth was found in the Sahara Desert.
Megalodon and Carcharodontosaurus Teeth. The Charcharodontosaurus tooth was found in the Sahara Desert.

Fossilization is an exceptionally rare occurrence, because most components of formerly-living things tend to decompose relatively quickly following death. In order for an organism to be fossilized, the remains normally need to be covered by sediment as soon as possible. However there are exceptions to this, such as if an organism becomes frozen, desiccated, or comes to rest in an anoxic (oxygen-free) environment. There are several different types of fossils and fossilization processes. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... For the film, see Shark Attack 3: Megalodon. ... Species C. saharicus (Depéret & Savornin, 1927) (type) Carcharodontosaurus (/kɑː.kɑː.ɹə.ˈdɒn. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Anoxic sea water refers to water depleted of oxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Due to the combined effect of taphonomic processes and simple mathematical chance, fossilization tends to favor organisms with hard body parts, those that were widespread, and those that lived for a long time. On the other hand, it is very unusual to find fossils of small, soft bodied, geographically restricted and geologically ephemeral organisms, because of their relative rarity and low likelihood of preservation. Taphonomy is the study of the fate of the remains of organisms after they die. ...


Larger specimens (macrofossils) are more often observed, dug up and displayed, although microscopic remains (microfossils) are actually far more common in the fossil record. Plant macrofossils are preserved remains large enough to be visible without a microscope. ... For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation) Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other artifacts such as footprints. ...


Some casual observers have been perplexed by the rarity of transitional species within the fossil record. The conventional explanation for this rarity was given by Darwin, who stated that "the extreme imperfection of the geological record," combined with the short duration and narrow geographical range of transitional species, made it unlikely that many such fossils would be found. Simply put, the conditions under which fossilization takes place are quite rare; and it is highly unlikely that any given organism will leave behind a fossil. Eldredge and Gould developed their theory of punctuated equilibrium in part to explain the pattern of stasis and sudden appearance in the fossil record. A transitional fossil or transitional form is the fossilized remains of a life form that illustrates an evolutionary transition. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ...


Permineralization

Permineralization occurs after burial, as the empty spaces within an organism (spaces filled with liquid or gas during life) become filled with mineral-rich groundwater and the minerals precipitate from the groundwater, thus occupying the empty spaces. This process can occur in very small spaces, such as within the cell wall of a plant cell. Small scale permineralization can produce very detailed fossils. For permineralization to occur, the organism must become covered by sediment soon after death or soon after the initial decaying process. The degree to which the remains are decayed when covered determines the later details of the fossil. Some fossils consist only of skeletal remains or teeth; other fossils contain traces of skin, feathers or even soft tissues. This is a form of diagenesis. Trilobite picture taken by myself (DanielCD). ... Trilobite picture taken by myself (DanielCD). ... For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... Binomial name Asaphus kowalewskii Lawrow, 1856 Asaphus kowalewskii is one of the 35 species of the genus Asaphus (sometimes called Neoasaphus). ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. ...


Casts and molds

A calcitic cast of a bivalve shell.
A calcitic cast of a bivalve shell.

In some cases the original remains of the organism have been completely dissolved or otherwise destroyed. When all that is left is an organism-shaped hole in the rock, it is called an external mold. If this hole is later filled with other minerals, it is a cast. An internal mold is formed when sediments or minerals fill the internal cavity of an organism, such as the inside of a bivalve or snail. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1818 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1818 pixel, file size: 2. ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ...


Replacement and recrystallization

Replacement occurs when the shell, bone or other tissue is replaced with another mineral. In some cases mineral replacement of the original shell occurs so gradually and at such fine scales that microstructural features are preserved despite the total loss of original material. A shell is said to be recrystallized when the original skeletal minerals are still present but in a different crystal form, as from aragonite to calcite. Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ...


Compression fossils

Compression fossils, such as those of fossil ferns, are the result of chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules composing the organism's tissues. In this case the fossil consists of original material, albeit in a geochemically altered state. This chemical change is an expression of diagenesis. A compression fossil is a fossil preserved in sedimentary rock that has undergone physical compression. ... In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. ...


Bioimmuration

The star-shaped holes (Catellocaula vallata) in this Upper Ordovician bryozoan represent a soft-bodied organism preserved by bioimmuration in the bryozoan skeleton.
The star-shaped holes (Catellocaula vallata) in this Upper Ordovician bryozoan represent a soft-bodied organism preserved by bioimmuration in the bryozoan skeleton.[12]

Bioimmuration is a type of preservation in which a skeletal organism overgrows or otherwise subsumes another organism, preserving the latter, or an impression of it, within the skeleton.[13] Usually it is a sessile skeletal organism, such as a bryozoan or an oyster, which grows along a substrate, covering other sessile encrusters. Sometimes the bioimmured organism is soft-bodied and is then preserved in negative relief as a kind of external mold. There are also cases where an organism settles on top of a living skeletal organism which grows upwards, preserving the settler in its skeleton. Bioimmuration is known in the fossil record from the Ordovician[14] to the Recent.[15]


To sum up, fossilization processes proceed differently for different kinds of tissues and under different kinds of conditions.


Trace fossils

Main article: Trace fossil

Trace fossils are the remains of trackways, burrows, bioerosion, eggs and eggshells, nests, droppings and other types of impressions. Fossilized droppings, called coprolites, can give insight into the feeding behavior of animals and can therefore be of great importance. A fossilized dinosaur footprint at Clayton Lake State Park, New Mexico. ... A fossilized dinosaur footprint at Clayton Lake State Park, New Mexico. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Coprolite is the name given to the mineral that results when human or animal semen is fossilized. ...


Microfossils

Main article: Micropaleontology

'Microfossil' is a descriptive term applied to fossilized plants and animals whose size is just at or below the level at which the fossil can be analyzed by the naked eye. A commonly applied cut-off point between "micro" and "macro" fossils is 1 mm, although this is only an approximate guide. Microfossils may either be complete (or near-complete) organisms in themselves (such as the marine plankters foraminifera and coccolithophores) or component parts (such as small teeth or spores) of larger animals or plants. Microfossils are of critical importance as a reservoir of paleoclimate information, and are also commonly used by biostratigraphers to assist in the correlation of rock units. Micropaleontology, the study of microfossils, is a branch of paleontology. ... Plant macrofossils are preserved remains large enough to be visible without a microscope. ... Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... Coccolithophores (also called coccolithophorids) are single-celled algae, protists and phytoplankton belonging to the division haptophytes. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the earth. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Resin fossils

A mosquito and a fly in Baltic amber that is between 40 and 60 million years old
A mosquito and a fly in Baltic amber that is between 40 and 60 million years old

Fossil resin (colloquially called amber) is a natural polymer found in many types of strata throughout the world, even the Arctic. The oldest fossil resin dates to the Triassic, though most dates to the Tertiary. The excretion of the resin by certain plants is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation for protection from insects and to seal wounds caused by damage elements. Fossil resin often contains other fossils called inclusions that were captured by the sticky resin. These include bacteria, fungi, other plants, and animals. Animal inclusions are usually small invertebrates, predominantly arthropods such as insects and spiders, and only extremely rarely a vertebrate such as a small lizard. Preservation of inclusions can be exquisite, including small fragments of DNA. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1777 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1777 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Pseudofossils

This rock has a manganese dendrite which looks like a fossil plant. It is used as a pavement stone around swimming pool in Kona
This rock has a manganese dendrite which looks like a fossil plant. It is used as a pavement stone around swimming pool in Kona

Pseudofossils are visual patterns in rocks that are produced by naturally occurring geologic processes rather than biologic processes. They can easily be mistaken for real fossils. Some pseudofossils, such as dendrites, are formed by naturally occurring fissures in the rock that get filled up by percolating minerals. Other types of pseudofossils are kidney ore (round shapes in iron ore) and moss agates, which look like moss or plant leaves. Concretions, spherical or ovoid-shaped nodules found in some sedimentary strata, were once thought to be dinosaur eggs, and are often mistaken for fossils as well. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,888 × 2,592 pixels, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,888 × 2,592 pixels, file size: 6. ... This rock was used a pavement around swimming pool area in Kona A crystal dendrite is a crystal that develops with a typical multi-branching tree-like form. ... There is also a town of Kailua on the Island of O‘ahu. ... A pseudofossil is a fake fossil, or a false fossil. ... This rock was used a pavement around swimming pool area in Kona A crystal dendrite is a crystal that develops with a typical multi-branching tree-like form. ... For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ... 1. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ...

Ginkgo adiantoides Eocene fossil leaf from the Tranquille Shale of British Columbia, Canada.

Image File history File links Ginkgo_adiantoides. ... Image File history File links Ginkgo_adiantoides. ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ...

Living fossils

Main article: Living fossil

Living fossil is an informal term used for any living species which closely resembles a species known from fossils -- that is, it is as if the ancient fossil had "come to life." This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


This can be (a) a species or taxon known only from fossils until living representatives were discovered, such as the lobed-finned coelacanth, primitive monoplacophoran mollusk, and the Chinese maidenhair tree, or (b) a single living species with no close relatives, such as the New Caledonian Kagu, or the Sunbittern, or (c) a small group of closely-related species with no other close relatives, such as the oxygen-producing, primoidial stromatolite, inarticulate lampshell Lingula, many-chambered pearly Nautilus, rootless whisk fern, armored horseshoe crab, and dinosaur-like tuatara that are the sole survivors of a once large and widespread group in the fossil record. A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Families See text. ... Orders Cyrtonellida Tryblidiida Pelagiellida Monoplacophora is a class of mollusks thought to be extinct until April 1952, when a living animal was dredged up from deep marine sediments in the Middle America Trench off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, and named Neopilina by its discoverer, Danish biologist Dr. Henning... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Binomial name Verreaux & DesMurs, 1860 The Kagu or Cagou (Rhynochetos jubatus) is a long-legged blue-greyish bird, the only member of the family Rhynochetidae. ... Binomial name Eurypiga helias (Pallas, 1781) The Sunbittern (Eurypiga helias) is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... Diversity 4000 genera Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a nearly extinct, small phylum of benthic, invertebrates . ... Lingula is a Latin word meaning little tongue and can stand for: The genus Lingula a brachiopod of the class of the Lingulata In anatomy: the Lingula (lung) is one of the segments of the left lung with a tongue-shape. ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ... Species Psilotum nudum (L.) Beauvois - Whisk Fern Psilotum complanatum Sw. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, king crab, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, formerly known as Limulus cyclops, Xiphosura americana, Polyphemus occidentalis) is a chelicerate arthropod. ... For the experimental music band, see Tuatara (band). ...


See also

Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... In paleontology, an Elvis taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon which has been misidentified as having re-emerged in the fossil record after a period of extinction, but is not actually a descendant of the original taxon, instead having developed a similar morphology through convergent evolution. ... Collecting fossilized sharks teeth is an easy way to begin collecting fossils. ... The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ... Ichnology is the branch of paleontology dealing with the study of fossilized footprints, tracks and burrows. ... The takahe is an example of a Lazarus taxon. ... This is a very tentative list of vertebrate transitional fossils (fossil remains of a creature that exhibits primitive traits in comparison with more derived life-forms to which it is related). ... List of fossil sites: // ^ http://www. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... A group of Otodus obliquus teeth still in their original matrix. ... Taphonomy is the study of the fate of the remains of organisms after they die. ... A fossilized dinosaur footprint at Clayton Lake State Park, New Mexico. ...

References

  1. ^ Stromatolites, the Oldest Fossils. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  2. ^ Knoll, A. H., Barghorn, E.S, Awramik, S.M,. (1978). New organisms from the Aphebian Gunflint Iron Formation. Journal of Paleontology(52), 1074-1082.
  3. ^ Lowe, D. R. (1994). Abiological origin of described stromatolites older than 3.2 Ga. Geology, 22, 387-390
  4. ^ da Vinci, Leonardo. The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 28-29. ISBN 0-19-283897-0. 
  5. ^ Darwin, C (1859) On the Origin of Species. Chapter 10: On the Imperfection of the Geological Record.
  6. ^ Schopf JW (1999) Cradle of Life: The Discovery of the Earth's Earliest Fossils, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  7. ^ The Virtual Fossil Museum - Fossils Across Geological Time and Evolution. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  8. ^ Knoll, A, (2003) Life on a Young Planet. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ)
  9. ^ Paul CRC and Donovan SK, (1998) An overview of the completeness of the fossil record. in The Adequacy of the Fossil Record (Paul CRC and Donovan SK eds). 111-131 (John Wiley, New York).
  10. ^ Fortey R, Trilobite!: Eyewitness to Evolution. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2000.
  11. ^ Donoghue, PCJ, Bengtson, S, Dong, X, Gostling NJ, Huldtgren, T, Cunningham, JA, Yin, C, Yue, Z, Peng, F and Stampanoni, M (2006) Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy of fossil embryos. Nature 442, 680-683
  12. ^ Palmer, TJ, and Wilson, MA (1988) Parasitism of Ordovician bryozoans and the origin of pseudoborings. Palaeontology 31,939-949
  13. ^ Taylor, PD. (1990) Preservation of soft-bodied and other organisms by bioimmuration: A review. Palaeontology 33,1-17
  14. ^ Wilson, MA, Palmer, TJ and Taylor, PD (1994) Earliest preservation of soft-bodied fossils by epibiont bioimmuration: Upper Ordovician of Kentucky. Lethaia 27, 269-270
  15. ^ Taylor, PD. (1990) Preservation of soft-bodied and other organisms by bioimmuration: A review. Palaeontology 33,1-17

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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