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Encyclopedia > Forza Italia
Forza Italia
Forza Italia

Italian National Party
Leader Silvio Berlusconi
Founded 1993
Headquarters Via dell'Umiltà, 36
00187 Rome
Coalition House of Freedoms
Political ideology Christian democracy, Liberalism, Liberal conservatism, Conservatism
International affiliation none
European affiliation European People's Party
European Parliament Group European People's Party–European Democrats
Membership 401,014 (2007, [1])
Official newspaper none
Website http://www.forza-italia.it
See also Politics of Italy

Political parties in Italy
Elections in Italy Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1048x870, 24 KB) Summary Logo of Forza Italia. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Casa delle Libertà (CDL; literally translated from Italian to English as House of the Liberties but most often translated as House of Freedoms), is a major Italian center-right political alliance led by national media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... The Politics of Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Italy is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Political parties in Italy are organized into two dominant political coalitions. ... Elections in Italy gives information on election and election results in Italy. ...

Forza Italia (Forward Italy, FI) [1] is an Italian political party. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...


It is headed by Silvio Berlusconi, twice Prime Minister of Italy and it is a personality-driven Christian-democratic, liberal and conservative party, founded in December 1993 and winning the elections already in March 1994. It is currently the main member of the House of Freedoms coalition, and is considered (by itself and outsiders) to be very different from other Italian political parties. Its headquarters are located in Rome.   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Casa delle Libertà (CDL; literally translated from Italian to English as House of the Liberties but most often translated as House of Freedoms), is a major Italian center-right political alliance led by national media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi. ... Political parties in Italy are organized into two dominant political coalitions. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Occasionally, Forza Italia has surpassed 30% of votes (as in the 1994 European Parliament election), but presently (as of 2006) its base of support consists of about one-quarter of the electorate. The 1994 European Parliamentary Elections were held in June across all 12 current European Union member-states. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Foundation (1993–1994)

Forza Italia was formed in 1993 by Silvio Berlusconi, a successful businessman and owner of three of the main private television stations in Italy, along with Antonio Martino, Mario Valducci, Antonio Tajani, Marcello Dell'Utri, Cesare Previti and Giuliano Urbani. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... A businessman (sometimes businesswoman, female; or businessperson, gender neutral) is a generic term for a wide range of people engaged in profit-oriented enterprises, generally the management of a company. ... A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ... Antonio Martino (born December 22, 1942 in Messina) has been Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1994 and Italian Minister of Defense from 2001 to 2006. ... Antonio Tajani Antonio Tajani (born on 4 August 1953 in Roma) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Central with the Forza Italia, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Foreign Affairs. ... Marcello DellUtri (born Palermo, 11 September 1941), Italian politician. ... Cesare Previti (born on October 21, 1934) is a former Italian Defence Minister. ...


Italy was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known as Tangentopoli and the subsequent police investigation, called Mani pulite. Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters contesting him. ... Mani pulite (Italian for clean hands) was a nationwide Italian police investigation into political corruption held in the 1990s, following the scandal of Banco Ambrosiano in 1982, which implicated mafia, Vatican Bank and P2. ...


This led to the disappearance of the five parties which governed Italy from 1947: DC, PSI, PSDI, PLI and PRI (they formed a successful five-party coalition called Pentapartito from 1983 to 1991, and then governed without PRI from 1991 to 1994) and to the end of the so-called First Republic. Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI) was an Italian centre-left party. ... The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was an Italian liberal party. ... The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano) is an old left liberal party in Italy, with roots to Giuseppe Mazzini. ... After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite...


Forza Italia's aim was to attract moderate voters who were "disoriented, politically orphans and which risked to be unrepresented" (as Berlusconi described them), especially if the ex-Communist Democratic Party of the Left was to win the next election and enter in government for the first time from 1947. The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... The Democratic Party of the Left (Italian: Partito democratico della Sinistra, or PdS) was the evolution in a social-democratic direction of the Italian Communist Party, or PCI. It was founded by Achille Occhetto, last secretary of the PCI and first of the PdS. The logo of the PdS consisted...


A short stint in power (1994–1995)

A few months after its creation, Forza Italia came to national power after the 1994 elections as the head of a political coalition called Pole of Freedoms (Polo delle Libertà), composed of Lega Nord, National Alliance, Christian Democratic Centre and Union of Centre. An early national general election was held in Italy on March 27, 1994 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... The Pole of Freedoms (Polo delle Libertà) was an centre-right electoral coalition in Italy, launched by Silvio Berlusconi in 1994. ... The Northern League (Italian: Lega Nord) is an Italian political party that advocates autonomy for a part of Northern Italy called Padania. It is a personality-driven party led by Umberto Bossi. ... National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) is a national-conservative Italian political party. ... The Christian Democratic Center was a political party born from a split from Italy Peoples Party (direct heir of the Christian Democracy) in 1994. ... The Union of the Centre (Unione di Centro, UdC) was a small Italian political party, founded in 1994 after the disbanding of the Italian Liberal Party by some important Liberal figures, as Alfredo Biondi and Raffaele Costa. ...


Silvio Berlusconi was sworn in in May 1994 as prime minister of Italy in a government in which the most important cabinet posts were held by fellow FI's members: Antonio Martino was foreign minister, Cesare Previti defence minister, Alfredo Biondi justice minister and Giulio Tremonti (at the time an independent member of Parliament) finance minister. Alfredo Biondi was Secretary of the Italian Liberal Party from 1985 to 1986, and later president of the same party. ... ÁÁGiulio Tremonti (August 18, 1947, Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian politician and economist, and the current Italian minister of Economy and Finance under the government of Silvio Berlusconi. ...


The government had a short life and fell in December, when the Lega Nord left the coalition, after disagreements over pension reform and the first avviso di garanzia for Berlusconi, passed by Milan prosecutors. Forza Italia's leader was replaced as prime minister by Lamberto Dini, an independent politician who had been his tresury minister. No members of Forza Italia joined the new government and the party led was relegated to opposition. Lamberto Dini (right) with William Cohen Lamberto Dini (born in Florence, March 1, 1931), is a former Italian Prime Minister (1995-1996) and Foreign Minister (1996-2001). ...


Five years of opposition (1996–2001)

In 1996 the Pole of Freedoms finally lost the elections and began what Berlusconi called "the crossing of desert", something that could have been proven fatal for a young and unstructured party such as Forza Italia. Between 1996 and 1998, the party started to strengthen its organization, under Claudio Scajola, a former Christian Democrat who was national coordinator of the party from 1996 to 2001. An early national general election was held in Italy on April 21, 1996 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. ... Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ...


In 1999 Forza Italia gained full membership of the European People's Party, of which Antonio Tajani, party leader in the European Parliament, is currently Vice President. In the same year, it scored very well (25.2%) in the European Parliament election. The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... Antonio Tajani Antonio Tajani (born on 4 August 1953 in Roma) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Central with the Forza Italia, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Foreign Affairs. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


In 2005 regional elections the Pole of Freedoms, with the support of Lega Nord, won in 3 regions (the most popolous ones, except Campania) out of 15 and Forza Italia's members were elected President of Region in Lombardy (Roberto Formigoni, confirmed), Veneto (Giancarlo Galan, confirmed) and Sicily. For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Roberto Formigoni (b. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Giancarlo Galan (born in Padova on September 10, 1956), after an experience in the Italian Liberal Party, joined Forza Italia, as far as it was founded in 1994. ...


The party regained power in the 2001 elections (29.4% along with Giorgio La Malfa's tiny Italian Republican Party), in a new coalition called House of Freedoms (Casa delle Libertà) and composed mainly of National Alliance, Lega Nord, Christian Democratic Centre and United Christian Democrats (the last two parties merged in 2002 forming the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats. A national general election was held in Italy on May 13, 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. ... Son of Ugo La Malfa, long-time Italian political leader and minister, secreatry of the Italian Republican Party from 1987 to 1993, and again from 1994 to 2001. ... The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano) is an old left liberal party in Italy, with roots to Giuseppe Mazzini. ... Casa delle Libertà (CDL; literally translated from Italian to English as House of the Liberties but most often translated as House of Freedoms), is a major Italian center-right political alliance led by national media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi. ... The United Christian Democrats is a late christian-democratic party of Italy, born in 1995 by a split, led by Rocco Buttiglione (secretary of the Italian Peoples Party in 1994-95), Roberto Formigoni and Gianfranco Rotondi, of those members of the Italian Peoples Party who wanted to enter... The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Italian: Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e Democratici di Centro) is a political party in Italy formed by a merger of the former Centro Cristiano Democratico and Christiani Democratici Uniti parties. ...


Five years in government (2001–2006)

In June 2001, after the huge success in May elections, Sivio Berlusconi was returned head of the Italian government, the longest-serving cabinet in Italian Republican history. Again all ministerial key-posts were given to Forza Italia members: interior (Claudio Scajola 2001-02, Giuseppe Pisanu 2002-06), defence (Antonio Martino 2001-06), finance (Giulio Tremonti, 2001-04 and 2005-06), industry (Antonio Marzano 2001-05, Claudio Scajola 2005-06) and foreign affairs (Franco Frattini, 2002-04). Anyway Gianfranco Fini, National Alliance's leader, was appointed vice-president of the government and foreign minister from 2004 to 2006, while Roberto Castelli, senior figure of Lega Nord was justice minister from 2001 to 2006. Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Giuseppe Pisanu (born January 22, 1937 in Ittiri, Sassari) is the current Italian Minister of the Interior. ... Antonio Martino (born December 22, 1942 in Messina) has been Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1994 and Italian Minister of Defense from 2001 to 2006. ... ÁÁGiulio Tremonti (August 18, 1947, Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian politician and economist, and the current Italian minister of Economy and Finance under the government of Silvio Berlusconi. ... Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957) is an Italian politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. ... Gianfranco Fini Gianfranco Fini (born January 3, 1952 in Bologna) is an Italian politician, currently Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister in the Government led by Silvio Berlusconi. ... National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) is a national-conservative Italian political party. ... Roberto Castelli (Lecco 12Th of July 1946) is the current Minister of Justice in italian Government, Senator and a preeminent exponent of Lega Nord party. ... The Northern League (Italian: Lega Nord) is an Italian political party that advocates autonomy for a part of Northern Italy called Padania. It is a personality-driven party led by Umberto Bossi. ...


Regional elections in April 2005 were a serious blow for the party, which however remained strong in the northern regions, such as Lombardy and Veneto, and somewhere in the South, where Sicily is a stronghold. After this disappointing electoral performance the cabinet was reshuffled, due to the insistence of the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats's leaders, and Berlusconi formed his III cabinet (May 2005 - May 2006). For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Italian: Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e Democratici di Centro) is a political party in Italy formed by a merger of the former Centro Cristiano Democratico and Christiani Democratici Uniti parties. ... The Berlusconi III Cabinet was the cabinet of the government of Italy from April 23, 2005 to May 5, 2006. ...


During his five years in office, Berlusconi passed through Parliament passed a pension system reform, a labour-market reform, a judiciary reform and a constitutional reform, then rejected by a referendum in June 2006. In foreign policy he shifted the country's position to more closeness to the United States, while in economic policy he was nor able to deliver the tax-cuts he had openely promised throughout all 2001 electoral campaign.


2006 general election

In the April 2006 general election, the party was present with a slightly different logo, with the words "Berlusconi President" (Berlusconi Presidente). It was the only party to use the word "President" in its logo. In the election for the Chamber of Deputies, FI scored 23.7% and 137 seats, in those for the Senate 24.0%, without counting Trentino-Alto Adige, whose seats were contested on first-past-the-post basis and which is a left-wing stronghold, due to its alliance with the autonomist South Tyrolean People's Party). A general election for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy was held on April 9 and April 10, 2006. ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... Trentino-Alto Adige or Trentino-South Tyrol (in German: Trentino-Südtirol, in Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige) is an autonomous region in northern Italy. ... The South Tyrolese Peoples Party (German: Südtiroler Volkspartei) was founded 1945 and is a political party in the South Tyrol region of Italy. ...


On the 31 July 2007 Berlusconi's protegee and possible successor Michela Vittoria Brambilla created the Freedom Party apparently with Berlusconi's backing and the goal of merging various centre-right allies of Berlusconi's into one big party. What this means for the future of FI is currently unknown. is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Michela Vittoria Brambilla (Calolziocorte, October 26, 1967 - ) is an Italian politician and businesswoman commonly described as a possible successor to Silvio Berlusconi for leadership of the Italian right. ... The Freedom Party (Italian: , PdL) is a proposed political party in Italy. ...

Part of the Politics series on
Christian Democracy The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ...

Parties

Christian Democratic parties
Christian Democrat International
European People's Party
European Democratic Party
Euro Christian Political Movement
Christian Dem Org of America
This is a list of Christian Democratic parties, i. ... The Centrist Democrat International was uptil 2001 the Christian Democrat International (CDI) and before that the Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... For the eurosceptic informal grouping, see European Democrats. ... The European Christian Political Movement (ECPM) is an European political association for reflection and working on Christian-democratic politics in Europe from an explicit Christian Social view. ... you suck wener and WE THINK THAT UR STUPID WEBSITE SHOULD GO TO HELL ALL OF YOU FOR MAKING US EAT BROCOLLI>>>> WOMAN<<< SALAD FINGERS HAD A TREAT WHILE RUBBING HIS FINGERS ON METAl IT WAS QUITE ORGASMICAL AND FAIRTAILING YOUR ASS BUMM! BOOTOOM DRIBBLING DOWN MY FACE. ...

Ideas

Social conservatism
Social market economy
Sphere sovereignty
Communitarianism
Stewardship
Catholic social teaching
Neo-Calvinism
Neo-Thomism
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... In Neo-Calvinism, sphere sovereignty is the concept that each sphere (or sector) of life has its own distinct responsibilities and authority or competence, and stands equal to other spheres of life. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Stewardship is a concept in theology. ... Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ... Neo-Calvinism, a form of Dutch Calvinism, is the movement initiated by the theologian and former Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ...

Important documents

Rerum Novarum (1891)
Stone Lectures (Princeton 1898)
Graves de Communi Re (1901)
Quadragesimo Anno (1931)
Laborem Exercens (1981)
Sollicitudi Rei Socialis (1987)
Centesimus Annus (1991)
Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. ... Graves de Communi Re was an encyclical written by Pope Leo XIII in 1901, on Christian Democracy. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Laborem Exercens was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. ... Sollicitudi Rei Socialis was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1987, on the twentieth anniversary of Populorum Progressio. ... Centesimus Annus (which is Latin for hundredth year) was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1991, on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. ...

Important figures

Thomas Aquinas · John Calvin
Pope Leo XIII · Abraham Kuyper
Maritain · Adenauer · De Gasperi
Pope Pius XI · Schuman
Pope John Paul II · Kohl
Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Abraham Kuyper (October 29, 1837, Maassluis – November 8, 1920 The Hague; name officially Kuijper) was a Dutch politician, journalist, statesman and theologian. ... Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – September 4, 1963) was a noted Luxembourg-born German-French politician, a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) who is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...

Politics Portal · edit

Ideology

Forza Italia is a centre-right party, formed mainly by ex-Christian Democrats, ex-Liberals and ex-Socialists. The ideology of the party ranges from Libertarianism to Social democracy, including elements of the Catholic social teaching and of social market economy; the party presents itself as the party of renewal and modernization. It is a member of the European People's Party (EPP). The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote political parties or organizations (such as think tanks) that stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was an Italian liberal party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ...


The preamble to the party's constitution says that FI:

is a liberal party although not an elistist one, indeed a popular liberal-democratic party; it is a Catholic party although not a confessional one; it is a secular party, although not an intolerant and secularist one; it is a national party, although not a centralist one. [2]

The party has also non-Catholic members, but they are a minority, a smaller one compared to the secular members of German CDU (in which there are also prominent Jews) or Dutch CDA. The party usually gives to its members freedom of conscience on moral matters (and hence a free vote), as in the case of the referendum on stem-cell research, but Silvio Berlusconi, Giulio Tremonti and Marcello Pera (who is himself non-Catholic, although friend of Pope Benedict XVI) spoke in favour of "no-vote" (as asked by the Catholic Church, in order to not surpass the 50% of turnout needed for making the referendum legally binding). Anyway, while Pera campaigned hard for the success of the boycott alongside with most FI members, both Berlusconi and Tremonti explicitly said that "no-vote" was their personal opinion, not that of the party. This article needs cleanup. ... The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (Dutch: Christen Democratisch Appèl) is a Dutch Christian-democratic political party. ... A conscience vote or free vote is a type of vote in a legislative body where legislators are each expected to vote according to their own personal conscience rather than according to an official line set down by their political party. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... ÁÁGiulio Tremonti (August 18, 1947, Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian politician and economist, and the current Italian minister of Economy and Finance under the government of Silvio Berlusconi. ... Marcello Pera (born January 28, 1943) is an Italian liberal philosopher and politician, linked with the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and the Radical Party, before being elected Senator for Forza Italia in the general elections of 1994. ... Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ...


Forza Italia claims at the same time to be a fresh-new party, with no ties with the last governments of the so-called First Republic and to be the heir of the best political traditions of Italy: a Christian Democrat as Alcide De Gasperi, a Social Democrat as Giuseppe Saragat, a Liberal as Luigi Einaudi and a Republican as Ugo La Malfa are cited in the preamble of the party's constitution as party icons. Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... The Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI) was an Italian centre-left party. ... Giuseppe Saragat (IPA [sa:ragat]) (September 19, 1898 - June 11, 1988) was an Italian politician who was the President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. ... The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was an Italian liberal party. ... Luigi Einaudi (1874 - 1961) was an Italian political figure. ... The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano) is an old left liberal party in Italy, with roots to Giuseppe Mazzini. ... Italian stamp commemorating the birth Ugo La Malfa Ugo La Malfa (1903-05-16, Palermo - 1979-03-26, Rome) was an Italian politician, and an important leader in the Italian Republican Party, which his son, Giorgio La Malfa, is now president of. ...


Membership

See also List of Forza Italia leading members by political origin

Most members of the party are former Christian Democrats (DC): Giuseppe Pisanu (former member of the leftist faction of DC and former minister of Interior), Roberto Formigoni (president of Lombardy), Claudio Scajola (former minister of Industry), Enrico La Loggia, Renato Schifani, Guido Crosetto, Raffaele Fitto, Giuseppe Gargani, Alfredo Antoniozzi, Giorgio Carollo, Giuseppe Castiglione, Francesco Giro, Luigi Grillo, Maurizio Lupi, Mario Mantovani, Mario Mauro, Osvaldo Napoli, Antonio Palmieri, Angelo Sanza, Riccardo Ventre and Marcello Vernola are only some remarkable examples. This is a list of various exponents of Forza Italia (MPs, MEPs, regional MPs, regional governors, mayors of important cities and important members of national organs of the party), divided by political origin. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Giuseppe Pisanu (born January 22, 1937 in Ittiri, Sassari) is the current Italian Minister of the Interior. ... Roberto Formigoni (b. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Giuseppe Gargani (born April 23, 1935 in Morra de Sanctis) is an Italian Member of the European Parliament, and a lawyer. ... Alfredo Antoniozzi Alfredo Antoniozzi (born on 18 March 1956 in Cosenza) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Central with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. ... Giorgio Carollo Giorgio Carollo (born on 30 March 1944 in Vicenza) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-East with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Fisheries and its Committee on Legal... Giuseppe Castiglione Giuseppe Castiglione (born on 5 October 1963 in Bronte) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Islands with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development. ... Mario Mantovani Mario Mantovani (born on 28 July 1950 in Arconate) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-West with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Employment and Social Affairs. ... Mario Mauro (born July 24, 1961 in San Giovanni Rotondo) is an Italian Member of the European Parliament and a teacher of History. ... Riccardo Ventre Riccardo Ventre (born on 20 June 1944 in Formicola (CE)) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Southern with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and is vice-chair of the European Parliaments Committee on Constitutional Affairs. ... Marcello Vernola Marcello Vernola (born on 4 March 1961 in Bari) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Southern with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. ...

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Many members are former Socialists (PSI), as Giulio Tremonti (former minister of Economy), Franco Frattini (Vice President of the European Commission), Fabrizio Cicchitto (national deputy-coordinator of the party), Renato Brunetta, Francesco Musotto, Amalia Sartori, Paolo Guzzanti and Margherita Boniver. Berlusconi himself was a close friend of Bettino Craxi, leader of PSI, in spite of his Christian Democratic and Liberal background (he was a DC's activist in 1948 elections). Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cultural liberalism is a form of liberalism which stresses the freedom of the individual from what Lord Acton called the tyrany of the majority, the right of the non-conformist to march to a different drummer. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics begun in the Englightenment, and believed to be first fully forumulated by Adam Smith. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ... This article is about political philosophy of Ordoliberalism. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Liberal neutrality is the idea that the liberal state should not promote any particular conception of the good. This idea formed a cornerstone of John Rawls work and has been developed by many other liberal thinkers e. ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... 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This article discusses the history and development of various notions of liberalism in the United States. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political current in specific regions and countries. ... Liberal International is a political international for international liberal parties. ... The International Federation of Liberal & Radical Youth (IFLRY) is an international grouping of Liberal parties - it is the youth wing of the Liberal International. ... The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (founded in 1993) is a liberal party, mainly active in the European Union, composed of 49 national liberal and centrist parties from across Europe. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... 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ÁÁGiulio Tremonti (August 18, 1947, Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian politician and economist, and the current Italian minister of Economy and Finance under the government of Silvio Berlusconi. ... Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957) is an Italian politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... Fabrizio Cicchitto (born October 26, 1940) is an Italian politician, economist, journalist, and essayist. ... Renato Brunetta Renato Brunetta (born on 26 May 1950 in Venezia) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-East with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and is vice-chair of the European Parliaments Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. ... Francesco Musotto Francesco Musotto (born on 1 February 1947 in Palermo) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Islands with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Regional Development. ... Amalia Sartori Amalia Sartori (born on 2 August 1947 in Valdastico (VI)) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-East with the Forza Italia, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Civil Liberties... Paolo Guzzanti (August 1, 1940) is an Italian journalist and politician. ... Margherita Boniver (Rome, March 11, 1938) is an Italian politician. ... Benedetto (Bettino) Craxi (Milan, February 24, 1934 – Hammamet, Tunisia, January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician, Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987 and head of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993. ... The Italian elections of 1948 were the first democratic elections with universal suffrage ever held in Italy. ...


Many are former Liberals (PLI), Republicans (PRI) and Social Democrats (PSDI): Alfredo Biondi (president of Forza Italia's National Council) and Raffaele Costa, both former PLI leaders, and former PSDI leader Carlo Vizzini are now MPs for Forza Italia. Also Antonio Martino and Giancarlo Galan are formers Liberals, Jas Gawronski was a leading Republican, while Marcello Pera has a Socialist and Radical background. The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was an Italian liberal party. ... The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano) is an old left liberal party in Italy, with roots to Giuseppe Mazzini. ... The Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI) was an Italian centre-left party. ... Alfredo Biondi was Secretary of the Italian Liberal Party from 1985 to 1986, and later president of the same party. ... Graduated in jurisprudence and political sciences, he has been elect deputy most numerous times (1976, 1979, 1983, 1987, 1992, 1994, 1996 and 2001). ... Carlo Vizzini (born April 28, 1947, in Palermo) is an Italian politician. ... Antonio Martino (born December 22, 1942 in Messina) has been Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1994 and Italian Minister of Defense from 2001 to 2006. ... Giancarlo Galan (born in Padova on September 10, 1956), after an experience in the Italian Liberal Party, joined Forza Italia, as far as it was founded in 1994. ... Jas Gawronski Jas Gawronski (born on 7 February 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-West with the Forza Italia, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Foreign Affairs. ... Marcello Pera (born January 28, 1943) is an Italian liberal philosopher and politician, linked with the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and the Radical Party, before being elected Senator for Forza Italia in the general elections of 1994. ... See Italian Radicals (disambiguation). ...


Even some former Communists are leading members of the party, as Sandro Bondi (national coordinator of Forza Italia) and Ferdinando Adornato. The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ...


Factions

Members of Forza Italia are divided in factions, which are sometimes mutable and formed over the most important political issues, despite previous party allegiances. However it is possible to distinguish some patterns. The party is divided basically over ethical (between social-conservatives and progressives), economic (between social-democrats and some Christian-democrats on one side and liberals on the other one) and institutional issues. About the latter, generally speaking, northern party members are staunch proposers of political, fiscal federalism and autonomy for the Regions (in some parts of Veneto and Lombardy, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish a member of FI from a leghista), while those coming from the South are more cold on the issue. Also some former Liberals, due to their role of unifiers of Italy in the XIX Century, are more centralist. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... Fiscal federalism is the system of transfer payments or grants by which a federal government shares its revenues with lower levels of government. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... The Northern League (Italian: Lega Nord) is an Italian political party that advocates autonomy for a part of Northern Italy called Padania. It is a personality-driven party led by Umberto Bossi. ... The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was an Italian liberal party. ...


A scheme of the internal factions within Forza Italia could be this:

Christian-democrats and liberal-centrists are undoubtedly the strongest factions within the party, but all four are main-stream for a special issue: for example liberals and liberal-centrists are highly influential over economic policy, Christian-democrats lead the party over ethical issues (although there is a substantial minority promoting a more progressive outlook), while social-democrats have their say in defining the party's policy over labour market reform and, moreover, it is thanks to this group (and to those around Tremonti, he himself a former Socialist) that constitutional reform is at the top of Forza Italia's political agenda. It is difficult to say to what faction Berlusconi is closer, what is sure is that his political record is a synthesis of all the political tendencies within the party. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... A free market describes a theoretical, idealised, or actual market where the prices of goods and services is arranged completely by the mutual non-coerced consent of sellers and buyers, determined generally by the supply and demand law with no government interference in the regulation of costs, supply and demand. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Classical liberalism is a political and economic philosophy, originally founded on the Enlightenment tradition - established by thinkers such as Adam Smith -, as well as on the tradition of a Nordic school of liberalism even slightly before that, set in motion by a Finnish parlamentarian Anders Chydenius. ... The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was an Italian liberal party. ... Popular Liberalism is a faction within the Forza Italia party which wants to conjugate liberal and popular values. ... Alfredo Biondi was Secretary of the Italian Liberal Party from 1985 to 1986, and later president of the same party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Renato Brunetta Renato Brunetta (born on 26 May 1950 in Venezia) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-East with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and is vice-chair of the European Parliaments Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. ... Paolo Guzzanti (August 1, 1940) is an Italian journalist and politician. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Antonio Martino (born December 22, 1942 in Messina) has been Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1994 and Italian Minister of Defense from 2001 to 2006. ... Benedetto Della Vedova is the leader of Liberal Reformers, a minor liberal and libertarian party, member of the House of Freedoms coalition. ... Do not confuse the Italian Radicals with the Transnational Radical Party. ... Liberal Reformers is a party founded in 2005 by a split from Italian Radicals of those radicals that were against the alliance with Italian Democratic Socialists. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... ÁÁGiulio Tremonti (August 18, 1947, Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian politician and economist, and the current Italian minister of Economy and Finance under the government of Silvio Berlusconi. ... Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957) is an Italian politician, currently serving as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. ... Amalia Sartori Amalia Sartori (born on 2 August 1947 in Valdastico (VI)) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-East with the Forza Italia, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Civil Liberties... The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano) is an old left liberal party in Italy, with roots to Giuseppe Mazzini. ... Giancarlo Galan (born in Padova on September 10, 1956), after an experience in the Italian Liberal Party, joined Forza Italia, as far as it was founded in 1994. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Roberto Formigoni (b. ... Giuseppe Pisanu (born January 22, 1937 in Ittiri, Sassari) is the current Italian Minister of the Interior. ... Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Giuseppe Gargani (born April 23, 1935 in Morra de Sanctis) is an Italian Member of the European Parliament, and a lawyer. ... Mario Mantovani Mario Mantovani (born on 28 July 1950 in Arconate) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for North-West with the Forza Italia, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Employment and Social Affairs. ... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... Theoconservative is a political epithet commonly used within the United States to describe members of the Christian Right. ... Marcello Pera (born January 28, 1943) is an Italian liberal philosopher and politician, linked with the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and the Radical Party, before being elected Senator for Forza Italia in the general elections of 1994. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among European and North American nations regarding political, economic, and defense issues. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Fabrizio Cicchitto (born October 26, 1940) is an Italian politician, economist, journalist, and essayist. ... Margherita Boniver (Rome, March 11, 1938) is an Italian politician. ... The Italian Democratic Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI) was an Italian centre-left party. ... Carlo Vizzini (born April 28, 1947, in Palermo) is an Italian politician. ... Pietro Sandro Nenni (February 9, 1891—Rome, January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and lifetime Senator since 1970. ... Giuseppe Saragat (IPA [sa:ragat]) (September 19, 1898 - June 11, 1988) was an Italian politician who was the President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. ... Benedetto (Bettino) Craxi (Milan, February 24, 1934 – Hammamet, Tunisia, January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician, Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987 and head of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... The Democrats of the Left (Democratici di Sinistra, DS) is the main Italian left-wing political party, part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition. ... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... We Blue Reformers (Noi Riformatori Azzurri) is a faction within Forza Italia. ...


Internal structure

Forza Italia has a President (currently Silvio Berlusconi), a Vice-President (Giulio Tremonti), a Presidential Committee (presided by Claudio Scajola) and a National Council, (presided by Alfredo Biondi).   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... ÁÁGiulio Tremonti (August 18, 1947, Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian politician and economist, and the current Italian minister of Economy and Finance under the government of Silvio Berlusconi. ... Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Alfredo Biondi was Secretary of the Italian Liberal Party from 1985 to 1986, and later president of the same party. ...


As the President is the leader of the party, a national coordinator (currently Sandro Bondi) is in charge of internal organization and day-to-day political activity, similarly to the secretary general in many European parties. Moreover the party has thematic departments and regional, provincial or metropolitan coordination boards plus a lot of affiliate clubs (Club Azzurro) all over Italy.


It is claimed that Forza Italia has no internal democracy, because it is thought that there is no way of changing the leader of the party from below (although the party's constitution makes it possible). Key posts in the party structure are appointed by Berlusconi or by his delegates. Forza Italia's organization is based on the idea of a "party of the elected people", giving more imortance to the whole electorate than to party's members.


Party national-level conventions normally do not have elections to choose the party leadership (although the National Congress elects some members of the National Council), and they seem to be more like events arranged for propaganda purposes. However, Berlusconi is highly popular among his party fellows, and it is unlikely he could be overthrown if such an election were to occur.


Some changes to party's structure will be decided soon, as many in FI think (from Senators Paolo Guzzanti and Marcello Dell'Utri, who was previously ostile to changes, which, in his mind, would have dramatically subverted FI's original soul as a fresh-new party [3], Claudio Scajola and most former Christian Democrats to Sandro Bondi himself) that it needs a more capillarly-based organization, in order to make partecipate as much people as possible, and a more collegial, partecipative and democratic decision-making. Paolo Guzzanti (August 1, 1940) is an Italian journalist and politician. ... Marcello DellUtri (born Palermo, 11 September 1941), Italian politician. ... Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ...


Distinctive traits

Since birth, Forza Italia has been using means unconventional for European politics (indeed, they resemble the American model more), such as stickering, sms messaging and mass mailing of propaganda material, including the biography of its leader Berlusconi, "An Italian story" (Una storia italiana).


It is heavily dependent on Berlusconi's image, the party's anthem is sung in karaoke fashion at American-style conventions, there is nominally no internal opposition (althrough some critical voices are raising up, as those of Senators Paolo Guzzanti and Raffaele Iannuzzi), and it used TV advertising extensively, although this has been severely restricted since 2000 by a law passed by the then centre-left majority.


Popular support

The electoral results of Forza Italia in the 10 most populated Regions of Italy are shown in the table below. These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. ...

1994 general 1995 regional 1996 general 1999 European 2000 regional 2001 general 2004 European 2005 regional 2006 general
Piedmont 26.5 26.7 21.7 28.8 30.8 32.0 22.2 22.4 23.5
Lombardy 26.0 29.2 23.6 30.5 33.9 32.3 25.7 26.0 27.1
Veneto 23.7 24.0 17.1 26.0 30.4 32.0 24.6 22.7 24.5
Emilia-Romagna 16.5 18.2 15.1 20.4 21.2 23.8 19.8 18.2 18.6
Tuscany 16.4 19.1 14.3 19.5 20.3 21.7 17.8 17.2 16.9
Lazio 20.5 18.9 16.1 20.6 21.5 26.4 17.5 15.4 21.4
Campania 19.9 18.9 23.4 25.2 20.9 33.8 19.5 11.9 27.2
Apulia -[4] 20.7 24.6 28.0 28.7 30.1 20.4 26.8[5] 27.3
Calabria 19.0 19.7 18.3 21.4 18.3 25.7 13.0 10.0 20.7
Sicily 33.6 17.1 (1996) 32.2 26.8 25.1 (2001) 36.7 21.5 19.2 (2006) 29.1
ITALY 21.0 - 20.4 25.2 - 29.4 21.0 - 23.7

Leadership

  • Vice President: Giulio Tremonti (2004−...)
  • Spokesman: Antonio Tajani (1994−1996), Paolo Bonaiuti (1996−2001), Sandro Bondi (2001−04), Elisabetta Gardini (2004−...)
  • Vice President of the President's Committee: Carlo Vizzini (2005−...)
  • President of the National Council: Alfredo Biondi (2004−)
  • National Coordinator: Domenico Mennitti (1994), Luigi Caligaris (1994), Cesare Previti (1994−1996), Caludio Scajola (1996−2001), Roberto Antonione (2001−2003), Claudio Scajola (2003), Sandro Bondi (2003−...)
  • Deputy-National Coordinator: Giuliano Urbani / Mario Valducci (1995-1996), Fabrizio Cicchitto (2003-...), Gianfranco Miccichè (2004-...)
  • Treasurer: Mario Valducci (1994−1995), Domenico Lo Jucco (1995−1997), Giovanni Dell’Elce (1997−2003), Rocco Crimi (2003−...)
  • Party Leader in the Chamber of Deputies: Raffaele Della Valle (1994), Vittorio Dotti (1994−1996), Giuseppe Pisanu (1996−2001), Elio Vito (2001−...)
  • Party Leader in the Senate: Enrico La Loggia (1994−2001), Renato Schifani (2001−...)
  • Party Leader in the European Parliament: Giancarlo Ligabue (1994−1997), Claudio Azzolini (1997−1999), Antonio Tajani (1999−...)

  (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... ÁÁGiulio Tremonti (August 18, 1947, Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian politician and economist, and the current Italian minister of Economy and Finance under the government of Silvio Berlusconi. ... Antonio Tajani Antonio Tajani (born on 4 August 1953 in Roma) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Central with the Forza Italia, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Foreign Affairs. ... Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Carlo Vizzini (born April 28, 1947, in Palermo) is an Italian politician. ... Alfredo Biondi was Secretary of the Italian Liberal Party from 1985 to 1986, and later president of the same party. ... Cesare Previti (born on October 21, 1934) is a former Italian Defence Minister. ... Claudio Scajola (born January 15, 1948 in Imperia) is the Italian Minister of Productive Activities. ... Fabrizio Cicchitto (born October 26, 1940) is an Italian politician, economist, journalist, and essayist. ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ... Giuseppe Pisanu (born January 22, 1937 in Ittiri, Sassari) is the current Italian Minister of the Interior. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Antonio Tajani Antonio Tajani (born on 4 August 1953 in Roma) is a Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Central with the Forza Italia, Member of the Bureau of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Foreign Affairs. ...

External links

  • Official website

References

  1. ^ The name is not usually translated into English: forza means "force" or "strength", while Italia is Italy. The party's name seems to originate from a football chant with the meaning "Forward(s) Italy!", but it is not to forget that this was also the slogan of Christian Democracy in 1987 general election (see Giovanni Baccarin, Che fine ha fatto la DC?, Gregoriana, Padova 2000). See article body for details.
  2. ^ Forza Italia's "Who we are" and Forza Italia's official statute.
  3. ^ The central idea was the so-called "light party" (partito leggero), intended to be different from Italian traditional, bureaucratic and self-referential, party machines.
  4. ^ Forza Italia failed to present a list.
  5. ^ Combined result of Forza Italia (17.8%) and La Puglia prima di tutto (9.0%), personal list of FI regional leader Raffaele Fitto.

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Forza Italia Coordinamento della Provincia di Milano (4225 words)
Il Movimento Politico Forza Italia è una associazione di cittadini che si riconoscono negli ideali propri delle tradizioni democratiche liberali, cattolico liberali, laiche e riformiste europee.
Sono soci del Movimento Politico Forza Italia i cittadini italiani di età maggiore di 14 anni che, condividendo i principi ed il programma politico del Movimento, vi abbiano formalmente aderito in ottemperanza alle disposizioni contenute nel Regolamento predisposto dal Responsabile Nazionale Organizzazione ed approvato dal Comitato di Presidenza.
Il Presidente del Movimento Politico Forza Italia è eletto dal Congresso Nazionale secondo le modalità previste da apposito Regolamento.
Forza Italia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2425 words)
Forza Italia was formed in 1993 by Silvio Berlusconi, a successful businessman and owner of three of the main private television stations in Italy, along with Antonio Martino, Mario Valducci, Antonio Tajani, Marcello Dell'Utri, Cesare Previti and Giuliano Urbani.
Forza Italia's aim was to attract moderate voters who were "disoriented, politically orphans and which risked to be unrepresented" (as Berlusconi described them), especially if the ex-Communist Democratic Party of the Left was to win the next election and enter in government for the first time from 1947.
Forza Italia's leader was replaced as prime minister by Lamberto Dini, an independent politician who had been his tresury minister.
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