FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fortress of Louisbourg
Costumed interpreters perform a dance in the street at Fortress Louisbourg.
Costumed interpreters perform a dance in the street at Fortress Louisbourg.

The Fortress of Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. Image File history File links Splitsection. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 838 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fortress of Louisbourg... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 838 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fortress of Louisbourg... National Historic Site is a designation for a protected area of historic significance. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island Louisbourg is a town in southeastern Cape Breton Island, in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...

Contents

History

Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island.
Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island.

French settlement on Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island) can be traced to the early 17th century following settlements in Acadia that were concentrated on Baie Français (now the Bay of Fundy) such as at Port-Royal and other locations in present-day peninsular Nova Scotia. Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia I used this online map creation tool to generate this map. ... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia I used this online map creation tool to generate this map. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... The Habitation at Port-Royal is a National Historic Site located at Port Royal in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...

Ste-Anne

A French settlement at Ste-Anne (now St. Anns) on the central east coast of Île Royale was established in 1629 and named Fort Ste-Anne, lasting until 1641. A fur trading post was established on the site from 1650–1659 but Île Royale languished under French rule as attention was focused on the St. Lawrence River colony of New France (now Quebec) and the small agricultural settlements of Acadia. St. ... The fur trade was a huge part in the early economic development of North America. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (Gift of God shall make prosper) Area: 547. ...


The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 gave Britain control of part of Acadia (peninsular Nova Scotia) and Newfoundland, however France maintained control of its colonies at Île Royale, Île St-Jean (now Prince Edward Island), and New France, with Île Royale being France's only territory directly on the Atlantic seaboard (now controlled by Britain from Newfoundland to Florida) and it was strategically close to important fishing grounds on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, as well as being well placed for protecting the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... The Grand Banks are a group of underwater plateaus southeast of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ...


That year, in 1713, France set about constructing Port Dauphin and a limited naval support base at the former site of Fort Ste-Anne, however the winter icing conditions of the harbour led the French to a harbour on the extreme southeastern part of Île Royale. The harbour, being ice-free and well protected, soon became a winter port for French naval forces on the Atlantic seaboard and they named it Havre Louisbourg after the King. Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ...


Louisbourg

Inside a restored building at Fortress Louisbourg.

In 1719, France began construction on a fortified town located along the sheltered southwestern shore of Havre Louisbourg, naming the settlement Louisbourg. Construction would only be finished by the eve of the first British siege in 1745. The sheer volume of the French investment in construction and a growing economy based almost entirely on the Grand Banks fishery, coupled with some out-migration of Acadians living in the British colony now named Nova Scotia, soon saw the town of Louisbourg become a thriving community. The mounting costs for construction[1] also led to King Louis XV's famous musing to his ministers (to whom he had authorized the fortress's construction) if he should one day be able to see Louisbourg rising over the western horizon from his palace at Versailles. French fortress at Louisbourg, partially reconstructed as a Canadian national historic site This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... French fortress at Louisbourg, partially reconstructed as a Canadian national historic site This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists (and eventual Metis) who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ...


As construction progressed and the settlement and its economy grew, Louisbourg soon became an important hub for commerce between France, New France, and French colonies in the West Indies. The fog-bound harbour at Louisbourg was a year-round hazard to shipping so a lighthouse was constructed on the southeastern headland opposite the town in 1734. A cross-fire battery was also built at this location to aid in harbour defences. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... A HDR image of a traditional lighthouse For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ...

A stamp booklet issued in 1995 marked the 275th anniversary of the Fortress

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Siege of 1745

The Louisbourg seaport thrived, however, world geopolitical events continued to evolve with the eventual deterioration by 1740 leading to the War of the Austrian Succession. Military operations in North America between French and British forces were referred to as King George's War. Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... King Georges War is the name given to the duck operations in North America that formed part of the 1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ...


While Louisbourg's construction and layout was acknowledged as having superior seaward defences, its landward defences were vulnerable to siege batteries as they were overlooked by a series of low rises. The declaration of war between France and Britain was seen as an opportunity by British colonists in New England who were increasingly wary of the threat Louisbourg posed to their fishing fleets working the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The wariness bordered on an almost fanatical paranoia or a religious fervour, stirred by false accounts of the size and scale of Louisbourg's fortifications and the general anti-French sentiment shared among most British colonists at the time. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


New Englanders' paranoia increased after a small French force sailed from Louisbourg in the summer of 1744 to the nearby British fishing port of Canso, attacking a small fort on Grassy Island and burning it to the ground. This port was used by the New England fishing fleet as it was the closest mainland North American British port to the fishing grounds, however the Canso Islands offshore (including Grassy Island) were contested by both Britain and France. Canso (2001 population: 992) is a small Canadian town in Guysborough County, on the north-eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia. ...

A monument was erected to Louisbourg in 1767, perhaps the earliest historic commemoration in Canada.

In 1744–1745, the governor of Massachusetts William Shirley, and New Hampshire governor Benning Wentworth, issued a call for volunteers in surrounding British colonies to join an expedition to take the Fortress of Louisbourg, however the force was largely raised in New England. Under the command of William Pepperrell of Kittery (in what is now Maine), the Massachusetts expedition set sail from Boston in stages beginning in early March 1745 with 4,200 soldiers and sailors aboard a total of 90 ships. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 601 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (640 × 638 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Copyright Canada Post Corporation. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 601 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (640 × 638 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Copyright Canada Post Corporation. ... William Shirley (1694-1771) William Shirley (1694-1771) was the British governor of Massachusetts from 1741 to 1759. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... Benning Wentworth (1696–1770) was the colonial governor of New Hampshire from (1741-1766). ... Sir William Pepperrell, 1746, by John Smybert Sir William Pepperrell, 1st Baronet (June 27, 1696 – July 6, 1759) was a merchant and soldier in Colonial Massachusetts. ... Location of town of Kittery in state of Maine Kittery is a town located in York County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


The force, beginning to take on the air of a religious crusade, stopped at Canso to reprovision and were augmented by a small number of British army and Royal Navy regulars. In late March, the naval forces began to blockade Louisbourg, however the ice fields of the Gulf of St. Lawrence were being swept by winds off Louisbourg that spring, presenting a considerable hazard to wooden-hulled sailing ships. The poor weather and general state of disorganization of the New England naval forces saw numerous delays to the expedition, however, they kept themselves busy harassing French fishing and shipping in the waters surrounding Île Royale, as well as destroying several coastal villages opposite from Canso. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ...

Louisbourg was one of the busiest seaports in the Americas in the 1740s, after Boston, Philadelphia, and New York.

With the ice fields gone by late April, the naval siege began in earnest on April 28 and Pepperell's land forces sailed in transports from Canso, landing 8 km west of Louisbourg at Fresh Water Cove in a flanking manoeuvre and proceeded overland with their cannon on sleds designed by Lieutenant Colonel Nathaniel Meserve of the New Hampshire Militia who was a shipwright by trade, to the series of low hills overlooking the west walls of the fortress. Pepperell's land forces were aided by the fact that conditions for French soldiers inside Louisbourg were almost mutinous over lack of pay and poor provisions. The French were not helped by the fact that the government in Paris had had forewarning of the New Englanders' intentions to attack, but the decision was made not to augment defences or send reinforcements. The French defenders were seriously outmanned, and French commanders kept their soldiers within the walls of the fortress, rather than confronting the British forces at the landing site, fearing that the French troops would defect. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nathaniel Meserve (1704-1758) was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire to Clement Maserve and his wife Elizabeth Jones. ... The New Hampshire Militia was first organized in March 1680, by New Hampshire Colonial President John Cutt. ... Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ...


The New Englanders' landward siege joined their naval counterparts on May 1 and following 46 days (6 weeks) of siege and bombardment, French forces at Louisbourg capitulated on June 16, 1745. News of the victory reached Governor Shirley in Boston on July 3 and New Englanders celebrated as they controlled France's mighty fortress on the Atlantic. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Ghostly images of buildings not reconstructed include the Hospital, Convent, King's Garden, and British Barracks.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Louisbourg Returned

The New Englanders' victory turned to disgust 3 years later when the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, signed on October 18, 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession and stipulated the restitution of the Fortress of Louisbourg to France by the New England occupation forces (more likely a small garrison was maintained at the fortress). The New England forces left, taking with them the famous Louisbourg Cross which had hung in the fortress chapel. This cross was only rediscovered in the Harvard University archives in the latter half of the 20th century; it is now on long-term loan to the Louisbourg historic site. The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...

Rochfort Point

France, while not having control of the Atlantic seaboard (aside from the newly reinstated Île Royale), did control vast amounts of North America – far more than Britain. At the time of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, France claimed all territories from the Alleghenies to the Rockies and from the Gulf of Mexico to the North Pole. France also controlled the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. And the French wanted to keep the British penned in on the Atlantic coast to prevent the separation of New France from their Louisiana territory. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Allegheny Mountain Range (also spelled Alleghany and Allegany) -- informally, the Alleghenies -- is part of the Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


Britain's response, in 1749, to the reinstatement of Louisbourg was to create their own fortified town on Chebucto Bay which they named Halifax. It soon became the largest Royal Navy base on the Atlantic coast and hosted large numbers of British army regulars as well including the 29th Regiment of Foot who cleared the land for the port and settlement. Halifax skyline at night Halifax neighbourhoods and boundaries of former city in relation to Halifax Regional Municipality Halifax, founded in 1749, is a community and former city in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... // Early History The 29th Regiment of Foot was raised in 1694 by Colonel Thomas Farrington, an officer of the Coldstream Guards during War of the Grand Alliance known in America as King Williams War. ...


Britain's North American (American) colonies were getting restless and the efforts by French forces, with aid from their First Nations allies, to seal off the westward passes and approaches through which American colonists could move west soon led to the skirmishes which would develop into the French and Indian War in 1754 and devolve into the larger Seven Years' War by 1756, which also involved all the major European powers. Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Lenape * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy American Colonies Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,400 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia...


Siege of 1758

Siege of Louisbourg
Part of the French and Indian War
Date June 8-July 26, 1758
Location Louisbourg, Nova Scotia
Result British victory
Combatants
Britain France
Commanders
Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst

Edward Boscawen (naval commander) Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Lenape * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy American Colonies Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,400 killed, wounded or captured The French and... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island Louisbourg is a town in southeastern Cape Breton Island, in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Jeffrey Amherst, painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1765 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 – August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British Army. ... Edward Boscawen (August 10, 1711 - January 10, 1761) was a British (Cornish) admiral. ...

Chevalier de Drucour
Strength
14,000 soldiers, 150 transport vessels, 40 men-o-war 3,500 soldiers, 3,500 sailors and marines, 5 warships (including 74-gun L'Entreprenant)
Casualties
 ???  ??? KIA, remainder surrendered

5 warships A man of war (also man-of-war, man-o-war or simply man) is an armed naval vessel. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...

Early in 1758, the planning for a large assault on the Fortress of Louisbourg was conducted. The British government realized that with Louisbourg under French control, there was no way that the Royal Navy could sail down the St. Lawrence River for an attack on Quebec unmolested. Thus, it seemed logical to retake the fortress. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Lenape * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy American Colonies Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,400 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders George Washington James Mackay Louis Coulon de Villiers Strength 100 regulars 193 militia, and natives 100 natives 600 marines, and militia Casualties 31 dead 70 wounded 192 captured 3 dead 19 wounded The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor Robert Monckton Strength 162 2,000 Casualties 162 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Fort Beauséjour marked the opening of a British-American offensive in North America in the Seven Years War. ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... Combatants Britain France Commanders William Johnson, 1st Baronet Johnson, King Hendrick † Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau Strength 1,500 militia, 200 Mohawks 3,500 regulars, militia, and natives Casualties 331 killed, wounded or missing [1] 339 killed, wounded or missing [2] Seven Years War in North America: The French and Indian... Combatants France Britain Commanders Chaussegros de Léry James Wolfe Strength 259 regulars and militia 103 natives Unknown Casualties 1 dead 2 wounded 103 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Fort Bull was a French raid on the British-held Fort Bull on March 27, 1756. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm James Mercer † Strength 3,000 2,000 Casualties 30 dead or wounded 80 dead 1,700 captured The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theater of the Seven Years War won... The Kittanning Expedition, also known as the Armstrong Expedition, was a raid during the French and Indian War that led to the destruction of the Native American village of Kittanning, which had served as a staging point for attacks by Delaware (Lenape) and Shawnee warriors against European-American colonists in... Combatants France Britain Commanders Louis-Joseph de Montcalm Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro Strength 1,600 natives 6,000 regulars and militia 2,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 297 dead or wounded 2,308 captured The Battle of Fort William Henry in August 1757 resulted in Britains loss of... The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in what was then the British colony of New York, July 7-July 8, 1758 during the French and Indian War, and resulted in a victory of the French garrison... The Battle of Fort Frontenac took place from August 25 to August 27, 1758 near the end of the Seven Years War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States) between France and Britain. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery James Grant Strength 500 militia and natives 400 regulars 350 militia Casualties 16 dead or wounded 300 dead 100 captured The Battle of Fort Duquesne was a failed attempt by elements of General John Forbess British-American army... The battle of fort Ligoneir was fought in 1758 and was a battle of the French-Indian war. ... The Battle of Ticonderoga of 1758 was an engagement of the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years War not so much a battle as an investment. ... The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Beauport was fought on July 31, 1759 between a British fleet and French land forces. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War... Combatants France Britain Commanders François Gaston de Lévis James Murray Strength 2,600 regulars 2,400 militia[1] 3,800 regulars 20 guns Casualties 833 dead or wounded 1,124 dead or wounded The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec (1760), was fought on... Combatants Britain France Commanders Capt. ... The Battle of the Thousand Islands was fought between 16 August and 24 August 1760, in the upper St. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guillaume de Bellecombe MacDonell Strength 295 regulars 200 regulars Casualties 10–20 dead or wounded 4–5 dead 19 wounded The Battle of Signal Hill (September 15, 1762) forced the French to surrender St. ...


Prime Minister William Pitt assigned the duty of capturing the fortress to Major General Jeffery Amherst. On this mission, Amherst's brigaders would be Charles Lawrence, James Wolfe and Edward Whitmore. Naval Command was assigned to Edward Boscawen.


Order of Battle

On May 29, 1758, a Royal Navy fleet departed from Halifax for Louisbourg. The fleet consisted of 150 transport ships and 40 men-of-war. Housed in these ships were almost 14,000 soldiers, almost all of whom were regulars (with the exception of four companies of American rangers). The force was to be divided into three divisions: Red:commanded by James Wolfe, Blue: commanded by Charles Lawrence and White: commanded by Edward Whitmore. On June 2, 1758, the British force anchored in Gabarus Bay, three miles from Louisbourg. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The French commander Chevalier de Drucour (Governor of Isle Royale) had at his disposal some 3,500 regulars as well as approximately 3,500 marines and sailors from the French warships in the harbour.


Drucour had ordered trenches to be prepared, along with other defences, such as an artillery battery, at Kennington Cove. 2,000 French troops manned the line of defences at the Cove.


Siege

Amherst launched the siege of Louisbourg at daybreak on June 8, 1758. Late in the morning of the eighth, a boatload of light infantry found a hole in the French defensive lines and secured a beach head. By noon on the eighth of June, the British soldiers began the actual siege of the fortress. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


After eleven days, on June 19, the British artillery batteries were in position and the orders were given to open fire on the French. The British battery consisted of seventy cannon and mortars of all sizes. Within hours, the guns had destroyed walls and damaged several buildings. is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 21, 1758, a mortar round from a British gun on Light House Point struck a 74 gun French ship of the line, L'Entreprenant, and set it ablaze. A stiff breeze fanned the fire, and shortly after the L'Entreprenant caught fire, two other French ships had caught fire. L'Entreprenant exploded later in the day, depriving the French of the largest ship in the Louisbourg fleet. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The next major blow to French morale came on the evening of July 23, at 10:00. At this hour, a British "hot shot" set the King's Bastion, which was inside the fort, on fire. The bastion was the largest building in North America in 1758. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The destruction of the bastion eroded any confidence that the French troops had left in their commanders and in their ability to lift the British siege of their fortress. Morale plummeted.


July 25 was the "straw that broke the camel's back", so to speak. Using a thick fog as cover, Admiral Edward Boscawen sent a cutting party to destroy the French ships in the harbour. The British raiders destroyed the last two French warships at Louisbourg, thus clearing the way for the Royal Navy to seize the harbour. Edward Boscawen (August 10, 1711 - January 10, 1761) was a British (Cornish) admiral. ...


Capitulation

On July 26, 1758, The French guns fell silent at Louisbourg for the last time. The French surrendered. General Amherst refused Drucour's garrison the "honours of war". The defenders of Louisbourg were ordered to surrender all of their arms, equipment and flags. These actions outraged the French commander, Drucour. Yet he realized that the safety of the non-combatant inhabitants of Louisbourg depended upon him making the correct decision, thus he reluctantly accepted the terms of surrender. is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The combination of receiving no "honours of war" and the orders stating that the regimental colours were to be handed over to the British caused defiance by the Cambis Regiment. This regiment refused to honour the terms of surrender, instead deciding to break their muskets and burn their regimental flags rather than hand them over to the British victors. (Fowler, 171)


Following the surrender of Louisbourg, British forces and engineers set about methodically destroying the fortress with explosives, ensuring the fortress could not return to French possession a second time in the eventual peace treaty. By 1760, the entire fortress was left as mounds of rubble.


National Historic Site

In 1961, the government of Canada undertook a historical reconstruction of one quarter of the town and fortifications with the aim being to recreate Louisbourg as it would have been at its height in the 1740s. The work required an interdisciplinary effort by archaeologists, historians, engineers, and architects. The reconstruction was aided by unemployed coal miners from the Industrial Cape Breton area, many of whom learned French masonry techniques from the 18th century and other skills to create an accurate replica. Where possible, many of the original stones were used in the reconstruction. French fortress at Louisbourg, partially reconstructed as a Canadian national historic site This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Industrial Cape Breton refers to the eastern portion of Cape Breton County fronting the Atlantic Ocean on the southeastern part of Cape Breton Island. ...


Today, the entire site of the Fortress of Louisbourg, including the one-quarter reconstruction, has been designated a National Historic Site with guided and unguided tours available. The fortress has also greatly aided the local economy of the town of Louisbourg as it has struggled to diversify economically with the decline of the North Atlantic fishery. National Historic Site is a designation for a protected area of historic significance. ... Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island Louisbourg is a town in southeastern Cape Breton Island, in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, Canada. ...

One in a series of first day covers of the Louisbourg stamps of 1995. The Dauphin Gate is in the cachet.
Reverse side of the first day cover, showing a 1745 map of Louisbourg from the French National Archives.

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... First Day Cover for the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, issued 22nd July 1981. ... In philately, a cachet is a picture or design, other than a cancellation or pre-printed postage on the envelope, postcard, postal card or other cover, that can be purely decorative, or commemorative. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Archives nationales (in French; English: National archives), established in their present form in 1806, preserve the national archives of the French state, apart from the archives of the Ministère de la défense (Ministry of Defence) and the Ministère des affaires étrangères (Ministry of Foreign Affairs...

References (Siege of 1758)

  • Fowler, William M. Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle For North America. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd., 2005
  • Warner, Oliver. With Wolfe to Quebec. Toronto: William Collins Sons and Company Ltd., 1972 ISBN 0002119420
  • Louisbourg: From its Founding to its Fall by J.S. McLennan, Macmillian and Co. LTD London, UK 1918

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Louisbourg
  • Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site - Parks Canada
  • Louisbourg Institute
  • Account of New England vessels used against Louisbourg in 1745
  • Louisbourg Resort Golf & Spa
  • An essay on Fortress Louisbourg

Coordinates: 45°55′17″N, 59°58′13″W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Louisbourg (570 words)
Louisbourg, 18th-century fortified town, capital and major settlement of the French colony of Île Royale (Cape Breton I), 1713-58.
Louisbourg was besieged in 1745 during the WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION by troops from New England supported by the Royal Navy, and in 1758 by the British army and navy.
The fall of Louisbourg, with the capture of Québec in 1759 and Montréal in 1760, ended France's military and colonial power in N America, although SAINT-PIERRE AND MIQUELON, acquired by France in 1763 after the SEVEN YEARS' WAR, partly replaced Île Royale as a base for the fishing industry.
Fortress Louisbourg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1600 words)
Fortress Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia.
As construction progressed and the settlement and its economy grew, Fortress Louisbourg soon became an important hub for commerce between France, New France, and French colonies in the West Indies.
That expedition, led by General James Wolfe (a Colonel in the Louisbourg expedition) succeeded at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759 giving Britain control of the entire Atlantic seaboard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m