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Encyclopedia > Fortress Europe
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"Fortress Europe" (symbolic photo), European Parliament, Strasbourg

Fortress Europe is the term given (usually pejoratively) to the concept of the European Union efforts to keep non-EU goods, businesses and nationals out of the Union's twenty-seven member states. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Asian Dub Foundation is a British alternative electronica band, that play a mix of breakbeat, dub, dancehall and ragga, also using rock instruments, acknowledging a punk influence. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Occupied Europe was the name given to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 387 KB) Description = Fortress Europe (European Parliament, Strasbourg) Author = Philipp Hertzog File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fortress Europe Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 387 KB) Description = Fortress Europe (European Parliament, Strasbourg) Author = Philipp Hertzog File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fortress Europe Metadata This file contains additional information, probably...


In the view of critics the Common Agricultural Policy is the classic example of a Fortress Europe policy, protecting European agriculture with the effects of higher prices for consumers within the EU and a negative impact on the wider world market. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ...


Other critics point to the development of a common asylum and immigration policy as a sign of Fortress Europe at work. Traditionally many European States' immigration has come from ex-colonies, this has been replaced by encouraging movement within the European Union by Europeans.


Opponents of the angry cow idea of Fortress Europe come from many political viewpoints. British politicians Tony Blair and Gordon Brown are amongst its most prominent critics in the field of economics, though both support a tougher line on asylum and immigration. Generally, British politicians have been among the most skeptical of the concept, not least because of the country's links to the United States and the Commonwealth of Nations. For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... For the sportsmen, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Others have suggested that the decision of the people of France, on 29 May 2005 to reject the European Constitution was because of a desire from many to retreat into a Fortress Europe sheltered from the impact of globalization. May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ...

Contents

Non-European Discrimination

It was very easy for non-Europeans to enter the EEC until the 1980s. Citizens of underdeveloped countries were seen as victims of capitalism by the communist countries of Eastern Europe. Many Africans and Asians could enter Western Europe via the border of West and East Germany after being transported for very cheap prices by Eastern European airplanes. There were hardly any barriers for foreigners to become a citizen of the EEC-countries. Motto (Latin) United in diversity Anthem Ode to Joy(orchestral) Commission seat Brussels Official languages 23 Bulgarian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hungarian Irish Italian Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Polish Portuguese Romanian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Member states 27 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia...


This changed in the late 1980s, when West Germany started to control the borders with East Germany for strangers from underdeveloped countries. Revolutions made an end to the communist regimes in Eastern Europe in 1989. Measurements became more and more stringent to keep non-nationals out of the European Union during the 1990s.


Making travel more difficult

The European Union has made agreements with neighboring countries to help curb illegal immigration. Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary and other countries that joined the EU in 2004 were required to enforce border protection in order to join the EU.


Protecting the European borders

The Strait of Gibraltar was in the news regularly. Africans used boats to get to Spain. The Spanish coastal police checks the sea day and night. The beaches in southern Spain are regularly checked. Many Africans have drowned and were found on the Spanish beaches. Melilla and Ceuta have been turned into fortresses with several layers of fences and walls are build to keep the Africans out. Last year, desperate Africans stormed the fences on some occasions, while being shot at by the Spanish and Moroccan police. Moroccan border control has been increased in 2005. Nowadays, immigrants try to reach the Canary Islands with boats starting from Mauretania. This means that they sail for hundreds of kilometres over the Atlantic Ocean. An estimation is that thousands emmigrants have died, although it is not measurable. Camps in the Canary Islands are overcrowded, so immigrants are transported to the Spanish mainland by the authorities. The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ...


Africans try to reach Italy as well. The Italian island of Lampedusa has a permanent camp for illegal immigrants who are imprisoned for months and even more than a year. Civil Rights Movements are complaining about the poor conditions and the long imprisonment on the island. Many immigrants reach Sicily as well. The Mediterranean island of Lampedusa ( ) is the largest of the Pelagie Islands and is situated 205 km from Sicily and 113 km from Tunisia. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


The Maritsa border is the border between Turkey and EU-member Greece. This border is overcrowded with illegal immigrants as well from all kinds of countries. The Maritsa or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Greek: Εβρος, Romanized as Hebrus, Turkish: Meriç) river is ca . ...


Germany needed many customs officers to check the long borders with Poland and Czech Republic before 2004. Immigrants tried to enter Germany through the hills with forests on the border with Czech Republic, using small hiker paths or they swam over the Oder river. The German police checked the direct borders, but also the highways and other roads further away from the borders. The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ...


All borders are checked, because immigrants are even trying the Russian-Finnish borders.


Illegal immigrants in the European Union

Some EU member countries have more lenient attitudes towards illegal immigrants, while several are quite harsh. Laws have been made to keep the illegal immigrants living in the EU outside the society by restricting their access to all public institutions, like social security, health care, and education. In some areas police check the streets and houses for illegal immigrants. Those who are caught face prison time and/or deportation. There have been several prominent incidents, like the murder of an illegal immigrant on a civilian airplane by the Belgian police. 11 imprisoned illegal immigrants died in 2005 during the Schiphol fire.


Spain has legalized 800,000 illegal immigrants in 2003, mainly from Latin America, resulting in public outcry and protests in other countries. Other countries and opposition movements are considering legalization as well. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Victims of illegal migration

According to Fortress Europe observatory, at least 8,966 people have died since 1988 along the European frontiers. Among them 3,079 were missing in the sea In the Mediterranean sea, and through the Atlantic Ocean towards Spain, 6,495 migrants died. In the Sicily channel 2,023 people died along the routes from Libya, Egypt and Tunisia to Malta and Italy, including 1,209 missing; 35 other people drowned sailing from Algeria to Sardinia. Along the routes from Mauritania, Morocco and Algeria towards Spain, through the Gibraltar strait or off Canary islands, at least 3,086 people died, including 1,277 who were missing. Then 693 people died in the Egean sea, between Turkey and Greece, including 343 missing, and 553 people died in the Adriatic sea, between Albania, Montenegro and Italy, including 250 missing. But the sea is not only crossed aboard makeshift boats. Sailing hidden inside registered cargo vessels 140 men died asphyxiated or drowned.


Sahara is a dangerous obliged passage in order to arrive to the sea. People crosse it on trucks as on off-road vehicle along the tracks between Sudan, Chad, Niger and Mali from one side and Libya and Algeria on the other one. Here at least 1,079 people have died since 1996. But according to the survivors, nearly every travel counts its victims. So the number of the victims could be higher and higher. The data includes also the victims of the collective deportations practiced by Tripoli, Algeri and Rabat Governments, accustomed to abandon groups of hundreds migrants in open desert border areas.


In Libya serious migrants abuses are also recorded. There is not any official data, but in 2006 Human rights watch and Afvic accused Tripoli of arbitrary arrests, beatings and tortures in the migrants detention centers, three of which are financed by Italy. In September 2000 in Zawiyah, in the north-west of the Country, at least 560 foreigners were killed during racist putsches


Travelling stowaways in the trucks 273 people were found dead. And 180 migrants drowned crossing border rivers , the majority in the Oder-Neisse, between Poland and Germany; in the Evros, between Turkey and Greece; the Sava, between Hroatia and Bosnia; and the Morava between Slovakia and Czech Republic. Then 108 other people froze to death in their tracks through the icy mountains frontiers, especially in Turkey and Greece.


In the Greek border with Turkey there are still mine-fields along Evros river. Here at least 88 people died over the mines trying to enter Greece.


87 migrants were shot dead by border police, from which 35 in Ceuta and Melilla Spanish enclaves in Morocco, and 28 in Van district in eastern Turkey, along the Iranian border. But few people were also killed by French, German and Swiss policemen . Then 41 men were found dead hidden in the undercarriage of the planes, and 22 people died in Calais, or under the trains in The Channel tunnel trying to reach England, while other 12 people died under other trains in different borders and 2 drowned crossing the Channel


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fortress Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1042 words)
Fortress Europe is the term given (usually pejoratively) to the concept of the European Union efforts to keep non-EU goods, businesses and nationals out of the Union's twenty-five member states.
In the view of critics the Common Agricultural Policy is the classic example of a Fortress Europe policy, protecting European agriculture with the effects of higher prices for consumers within the EU and a negative impact on the wider world market.
Few would willingly be described as supporters of the concept of Fortress Europe, though many Greens and Communists, Irish Republicans and others on the left, together with fascist supporters of autarky remain opposed to the expansion of global trade.
The Fortress of Europe (797 words)
Mehmet planned the fortress himself and then supervised the construction of the walls, having appointed his grand vizier and two other viziers to supervise the construction of the three great towers (in Turkish, the word for tower is "kulesi").
Overlooked by the Sarlica Pasa Kulesi is the Dag Kapi - the eastern gate of the Fortress of Europe.
The chain was stretched from the Fortress of Europe to the Fortress of Asia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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