FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
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Encyclopedia > Fortification wall
The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania.

Defensive walls were common from the ancient period into the medieval period. Generally, these are referred to as city walls or town walls, although there were also walls, such as the Great Wall of China and the Atlantic Wall, which extended far beyond the borders of a city and were used to enclose vast regions.

City walls were still occasionally used as late as the 19th century, although by this time they were generally of wood (rather than stone) construction and used only around small frontier settlements. City walls also had towers and were frequently surrounded by trenches.

The practice of building these massive walls had been developed sometime before the rise of the Sumerian Empire and was connected with the rise of city-states.

Often the walls proved impenetrable to attacking armies which then laid siege to the city.

Within walled cities, the poor and "noxious trades" were generally located near or outside the walls.





  • Dubrovnik has well-preserved city fortifications including towers, gate, rampart walk and two citadels guarding the docks.
  • Stone walls built in 14th-16th century, at the isthmus of the Pelješac peninsula, to the north of Dubrovnik; 890 meters long town wall and 5 km Great Wall outside the town
  • Karlovac city walls, built in 1579 as a six-point star with bastions.





Middle East

  • Jericho's Ancient City Walls - probably the most ancient stone wall ever discovered.

Morocco and Western Sahara


  • Intramuros - partially preserved, partially restored after WWII. Original walls are still on are well preserved.
  • Fort San Pedro - in Cebu
  • Fort San Antonio Abad - in Manila
  • Fort Pillar- a Spanish defence fort in the island of Mindanao




United Kingdom

United States

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Lal Bagh Fort - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1167 words)
The boundary wall on the eastern side, connecting the southern and northern gateways, is a modern wall, and it is now assumed that the fort originally embraced areas further east, beyond the present Shaista Khan Road.
On the northern side of the southern fortification are placed utility buildings, such as the stable, the administrative block, and its western part accommodates a beautiful roof-garden, with arrangements for fountains and a water reservoir.
The entire inner wall of the central room is covered with white marble, while the four rooms at the sides had stone skirting up to a height of one metre.
  More results at FactBites »



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