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Food fortification is the public health policy of adding Micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to foodstuffs to ensure that minimum dietary requirements are met. ... Fortification is a locality in the western part of the Catlins region of Southland in New Zealands South Island. ... Look up fortification, fortress, fort, fortify, fortified in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up fortification, fortress, fort, fortify, fortified in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

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Siege · Total war · Trench For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

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Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defense in warfare. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Nomenclature

Many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may class as fortresses, smaller ones formerly often bore the name of fortalices. The word fortification can also refer to the practice of improving an area's defense with defensive works. City walls are fortifications but not necessarily called fortresses. The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ...


The art of laying out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally classes as castrametation, since the time of the Roman legions. The art/science of laying siege to a fortification and of destroying it has the popular name of siegecraft and the formal name of poliorcetics. In some texts this latter term also applies to the art of building a fortification. The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Fortification is usually divided into two branches, namely permanent fortification and field fortification. Permanent fortifications are erected at leisure, with all the resources that a state can supply of constructive and mechanical skill, and are built of enduring materials. Field fortifications are extemporized by troops in the field, perhaps assisted by such local labor and tools as may be procurable and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth, brushwood and light timber. There is also an intermediate branch known as semipermanent fortification. This is employed when in the course of a campaign it becomes desirable to protect some locality with the best imitation of permanent defences that can be made in a short time, ample resources and skilled civilian labor being available. Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


History

Medieval-style fortifications were largely made obsolete by the arrival of cannons on the 14th century battlefield. Fortifications in the age of blackpowder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire. Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Black powder is a type of gunpowder invented in the 9th Century and practically the only propellant and explosive known until the middle of the 19th Century. ... In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ...

This placed a heavy emphasis on the geometry of the fortification to allow defensive cannonry interlocking fields of fire to cover all approaches to the lower and thus more vulnerable walls. Fortifications also extended in depth, with protected batteries for defensive cannonry, to allow them to engage attacking cannon to keep them at a distance and prevent them bearing directly on the vulnerable walls. The result was star shaped fortifications with tier upon tier of hornworks and bastions, of which Bourtange illustrated to the left is an excellent example. There are also extensive fortifications from this era in the Nordic states and in Britain, the fortifications of Berwick-upon-Tweed being a fine example. Fortification Bourtange, Groningen province, Netherlands. ... Fortification Bourtange, Groningen province, Netherlands. ... Bourtange is a Dutch star fort and village in the Westerwolde region of the province of Groningen. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... The point of a bastion on a reconstructed French fort in Illinois. ... Bourtange is a Dutch star fort and village in the Westerwolde region of the province of Groningen. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ...


The arrival of explosive shells in the nineteenth century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification. Star forts of the cannon era did not fare well against the effects of high explosive and the intricate arrangements of bastions, flanking batteries and the carefully constructed lines of fire for the defending cannon could be rapidly disrupted by explosive shells. Worse, the large open ditches surrounding forts of this type were an integral part of the defensive scheme, as was the covered way at the edge of the counter scarp. The ditch was extremely vulnerable to bombardment with explosive shells.

Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.
Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

In response, military engineers evolved the polygonal style of fortification. The ditch became deep and vertically sided, cut directly into the native rock or soil, laid out as a series of straight lines creating the central fortified area that gives this style of fortification its name. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2065x2811, 1868 KB) This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2065x2811, 1868 KB) This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... A polygonal fort is a fortification in the style that evolved around the middle of the nineteenth century, in response to the development of powerfull explosive shells. ...

Krakow Old City, St.Florian gate, medieval fortification in Krakow, Poland
Krakow Old City, St.Florian gate, medieval fortification in Krakow, Poland

Wide enough to be an impassable barrier for attacking troops, but narrow enough to be a difficult target for enemy shellfire, the ditch was swept by fire from defensive blockhouses set in the ditch as well as firing positions cut into the outer face of the ditch itself. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


The profile of the fort became very low indeed, surrounded outside the ditch by a gently sloping open area so as to eliminate possible cover for enemy forces, while the fort itself provided a minimal target for enemy fire. The entrypoint became a sunken gatehouse in the inner face of the ditch, reached by a curving ramp that gave access to the gate via a rolling bridge that could be withdrawn into the gatehouse.


Much of the fort moved underground, with deep passages to connect the blockhouses and firing points in the ditch to the fort proper, with magazines and machine rooms deep under the surface.


The guns however, were often mounted in open emplacements and protected only by a parapet - both in order to keep a lower profile and also because experience with guns in closed casemates had seen them put out of action by rubble as their own casemates were collapsed around them. A parapet is a barrier at the edge of a roof or structure to prevent persons or vehicles from falling over the edge. ... A Casemate is a heavy duty structure originally a vaulted chamber in a fortress. ...

Surrounded by a fortified wall, the 16th-century city of Shibam, Yemen
Surrounded by a fortified wall, the 16th-century city of Shibam, Yemen

Steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries, however the advances in modern warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Only underground bunkers are still able to provide some protection in modern wars. Many historical fortifications were demolished during the modern age, but a considerable number survive as popular tourist destinations and prominent local landmarks today. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 594 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 594 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 through 1600. ... An example of Shibams architecture (Courtesy Encyclopedia of the Orient) Shibam is a town in Hadramawt, Yemen with about 7,000 inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the construction material. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Taj Mahal Big Ben Saint Basils Cathedral Azadi Square in Tehran For other senses of this word, see landmark (disambiguation). ...

The downfall of permanent fortifications had three causes. The ever escalating power of artillery and air power meant that almost any target that could be located could be destroyed, if sufficient force was massed against it. As such, the more resources a defender devoted to reinforcing a fortification, the more combat power that fortification justified being devoted to destroying it, if the fortification's destruction was demanded by an attacker's strategy. The second weakness of permanent fortification was its very permanency. Because of this it was often easier to go around a fortification, and with the rise of mobile warfare in the beginning of World War II this became a viable offensive choice. When a defensive line was too extensive to be entirely bypassed, massive offensive might could be massed against one part of the line allowing a breakthrough, after which the rest of the line could be bypassed. Such was the fate of the many defensive lines built before and during World War II, such as the Maginot Line, the Siegfried Line, the Stalin Line and the Atlantic Wall. (In the case of the Atlantic Wall, the purpose of the fortification was to delay an invasion to allow reinforcement.) The third weakness is that modern firepower has progressed far beyond the strength of permanent fortifications, as a simple artillery or bombing barrage can easily destroy the most complex modern fortification. It is also much easier and cheaper to produce those modern siege weapons than to build any kind of fortification. Download high resolution version (1984x1488, 802 KB) Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Download high resolution version (1984x1488, 802 KB) Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... , Jodhpur   (जोधपुर), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Rajasthan (राजस्थान) is the geographically largest state in northwestern India. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maÊ’inoː], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defences which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World... The Stalin Line was a line of fortifications along the western border of the Soviet Union. ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ...


Instead field fortification rose to dominate defensive action. Unlike the trench warfare which dominated World War I these defenses were more temporary in nature. This was an advantage because since it was less extensive it formed a less obvious target for enemy force to be directed against. If sufficient power was massed against one point to penetrate it, the forces based there could be withdrawn and the line could be re-established relatively quickly. Instead of a supposedly impenetrable defensive line, such fortifications emphasized defense in depth, so that as defenders were forced to pull back or were over-run, the lines of defenders behind them could take over the defense. Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Because the mobile offensives practiced by both sides usually focused on avoiding the strongest points of a defensive line, these defenses were usually relatively thin and spread along the length of a line. The defense was usually not equally strong throughout however. The strength of the defensive line in an area varied according to how rapidly an attacking force could progress in the terrain that was being defended--both the terrain the defensive line was built on and the ground behind it that an attacker might hope to break out into. This was both for reasons of the strategic value of the ground, and its defensive value. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 255 pixelsFull resolution (5487 × 1748 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 255 pixelsFull resolution (5487 × 1748 pixel, file size: 5. ... The Castillo de San Marcos is a Spanish built fort located in the city of St. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


This was possible because while offensive tactics were focused on mobility, so were defensive tactics. The dug in defenses consisted primarily of infantry and antitank guns. Defending tanks and tank destroyers would be concentrated in mobile "fire brigades" behind the defensive line. If a major offensive was launched against a point in the line, mobile reinforcements would be sent to reinforce that part of the line that was in danger of failing. Thus the defensive line could be relatively thin because the bulk of the fighting power of the defenders was not concentrated in the line itself but rather in the mobile reserves. A notable exception to this rule was seen in the defensive lines at the Battle of Kursk during World War II, where German forces deliberately attacked into the strongest part of the Soviet defenses seeking to crush them utterly. Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry and supporting troops 2,400 aircraft Casualties German... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Soviet redirects here. ...


The terrain that was being defended was of primary importance because open terrain that tanks could move over quickly made possible rapid advances into the defenders' rear areas that were very dangerous to the defenders. Thus such terrain had to be defended at all cost. In addition, since in theory the defensive line only had to hold out long enough for mobile reserves to reinforce it, terrain that did not permit rapid advance could be held more weakly because the enemy's advance into it would be slower, giving the defenders more time to reinforce that point in the line. For example the battle of the Hurtgen Forest in Germany during the closing stages of World War II is an excellent example of how impassable terrain could be used to the defenders' advantage. Battle of Hurtgen Forest (German: Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) is name given to series of fierce battles fought between the Americans and the Germans during World War II in the Hürtgen forest (or Huertgen forest), afterwards known to both Americans and Germans simply as the Huertgenwald (Hürtgenwald). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Modern usage

Forts in modern usage often refer to space set aside by governments for a permanent military facility; these often do not have any actual fortifications, and can have specializations (military barracks, administration, medical facilities, or intelligence). In the United States usage, forts specifically refer to Army installations; Marine Corps installations are referred to as camps. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The UKs Royal Marines in a Rigid Raider assault watercraft A marine corps (from French corps de marine) is a branch of a nations armed forces incorporating Marines, intended to be capable of mounting amphibious assaults using infantry, armour, aircraft, and watercraft. ... A military camp or bivouac is a minor, semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an army. ...


See also

The Kumbhalgarh Fort in Rajasthan, India is one of the longest forts in Asia. The Fort was built by Rana Kumbha in the 15th Century and more than 350 Hindu and Jain temples are located within it. For more than 3 centuries, the Fort remained impregnable until it was taken by the combined forces of Akbar, Malwa and the Gujarat Sultanate.
The Kumbhalgarh Fort in Rajasthan, India is one of the longest forts in Asia. The Fort was built by Rana Kumbha in the 15th Century and more than 350 Hindu and Jain temples are located within it. For more than 3 centuries, the Fort remained impregnable until it was taken by the combined forces of Akbar, Malwa and the Gujarat Sultanate.
Rödberget fort, a part of the modern Boden Fortress in Sweden, seen from the north. The moat and the armored turrets are clearly visible, as well as the magnificent view one has from the fort.
Rödberget fort, a part of the modern Boden Fortress in Sweden, seen from the north. The moat and the armored turrets are clearly visible, as well as the magnificent view one has from the fort.
Petrovaradin fortress "Gibraltar on the Danube" - Austrian fortress from XVIII century and one of the best preserved fortifications in Serbia
Petrovaradin fortress "Gibraltar on the Danube" - Austrian fortress from XVIII century and one of the best preserved fortifications in Serbia
View of Alamghiri Gate of Lahore Fort
Fortifications of Edinburgh Castle used the natural volcanic landscape to best advantage. Image painted by Alexander Nasmyth (~1780)
Fortifications of Edinburgh Castle used the natural volcanic landscape to best advantage. Image painted by Alexander Nasmyth (~1780)

Fort components It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... This is a list of fortifications past and present, a fortification being a major physical defensive structure often composed of a more or less wall-connected series of forts. ... This is a list for articles on notable historic forts which may or may not be under current active use by a military. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Kumbhalgarh is a fortress in Rajsamand District of Rajasthan state in western India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... The Gujarat Sultanate was an independent kingdom established in the early 15th century CE in Gujarat. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2953x1938, 5274 KB) Summary Rödberget fort, part of Boden Fortress seen from the north. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2953x1938, 5274 KB) Summary Rödberget fort, part of Boden Fortress seen from the north. ... Boden Fortress, or Bodens fästning, is a recently decommissioned fortress surrounding the city of Boden, in northern Sweden. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ... Image File history File links Tvrdjava_Petrovaradin_11. ... Image File history File links Tvrdjava_Petrovaradin_11. ... Petrovaradin fortress, on the Danube river, overlooking Novi Sad Petrovaradin fortress (Serbian: Петроварадинска тврђава or Petrovaradinska tvrÄ‘ava) is a fortress on Danube river, near Novi Sad in the Serbian province of Vojvodina. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 145 KB) Summary Picture by Kaiser Tufail, 25 Sep 2006 airknight_kt@yahoo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 145 KB) Summary Picture by Kaiser Tufail, 25 Sep 2006 airknight_kt@yahoo. ... painting of edinburgh castle, scotland, ~1780 by alexander nasmyth This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... painting of edinburgh castle, scotland, ~1780 by alexander nasmyth This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... Alexander Nasmyth (9 September 1758 _ 10 April 1840) was a Scottish portrait and landscape painter, often called the “father of Scottish landscape painting. Detail of Edinburgh Castle and NorLoch painted around 1780 Born in Edinburgh, he studied at the Trustees’ Academy under Runciman, and, having been...

Types of forts This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... Image:Scheermes-prikkeldraad. ... A wire entanglement was one of the most elaborate types of military wire obstacles. ... In the military science of fortification, wire obstacles are defensive obstacles made from barbed wire, barbed tape or concertina wire. ... The point of a bastion on a reconstructed French fort in Illinois. ... Antitank hedgehogs in front of Trehgornaya Manufactura in Moscow, Russia D-day beach. ... There are many types of defensive fighting positions (DFPs), more commonly known in U.S. military slang as foxholes. ... A bunker is a defensive warfare fortification to protect oneself. ... Building a sandbag dike along the Skagit River in anticipation of a flood, October 2003. ... Corbelled corner turrets at Newark Castle, Port Glasgow. ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ...

Historical Fortresses Olomouc bastion fortress in Czech Republic in 1757 Bourtange bastion fortress in Groningen in Netherland plan of bastion fortress (in Finnish) The bastion fortress was once a very modern type of fortress. ... A 19th-century-era block house in Fort York, Toronto In military science, a blockhouse is a small, isolated fort in the form of a single building. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... Qing dynasty wall of Xian, showing elaborate wall towers Chinese city walls (Chinese: ; pinyin: chéngqiáng; literally city wall) refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times. ... In military science, a compound is a type of fortification made up of walls surrounding several buildings in the center of a large piece of land. ... One of six Flak towers built during World War II in Vienna. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... A Land battery is a special type gun emplacement or anti-shipping naval interdiction fortification used in coastal defence to protect areas like anchorages, harbours, and rivers or in restricted waters such as straits or channels, or coastal inland waterways which have the tactical and strategic purpose of area denial... Martello towers (or simply Martellos) are small defensive forts built in several countries of the British Empire during the 19th century, from the time of the Napoleonic Wars onwards. ... For other uses, see Keep (disambiguation). ... Medieval fortification is the military aspect of Medieval technology that covers the development of fortification construction and use in Europe roughly from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance. ... A pā or pa (pronounced pah) was a type of Māori village or community fortified and built for defence. ... Smailholm Tower. ... A polygonal fort is a fortification in the style that evolved around the middle of the nineteenth century, in response to the development of powerfull explosive shells. ... Dunbeg, promontory fort on Mount Eagle, Dingle Peninsula, Co. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ... A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened to provide some security. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ...

Fortification and siege warfare Chittorgarh Fort A view of Chittorgarh Fort Chittorgarh Fort is a massive and majestic fort situated on a hilltop near Chittorgarh town in Rajasthan state in India. ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Bastle houses are found along the Anglo-Scottish border, in the areas formerly plagued by border Reivers. ... Beaumaris Castle and moat. ... Fort Knox, Maine painting Fort Knox in Maine was built from 1844-1869. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... This article is about Russian citadels. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... Rohtas Fort (Urdu: قلعہ روہتاس Qila Rohtas) is a garrison fort built by the Great Afghan King Sher Shah Suri. ... The Lines of Torres Vedras The Lines of Torres Vedras were a line of forts in Portugal built in secrecy between November 1809 and September 1810 during the Peninsular War. ... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maʒinoː], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defences which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and... This article is about the Judean fortress. ... Raigad was the capital of Shivajis kingdom. ... Norwegian Fortresses A Historical Context for Norwegian Fortresses Most Norwegian fortresses were constructed in the period of intense competition among the Baltic powers (Denmark-Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland and the German states) for northern supremacy. ... // Eastbourne Redoubt was built at what is now Royal Parade, Eastbourne, East Sussex, England between 1804 and 1810 to support the associated Martello Towers. ... Fort Drum (El Fraile Island), also known as the “concrete battleship,” was a heavily fortified island fortress situated at the mouth of Manila Bay in the Philippines, due south of Corregidor Island. ... The Mannerheim Line was a defensive fortification line on the Karelian Isthmus built by Finland against the Soviet Union. ...

Famous experts Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ...

Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ... Fritz Todt in the uniform of a major general of the Luftwaffe Fritz Todt (September 4, 1891 – February 8, 1942) was an German engineer and senior Nazi figure, the founder of Organisation Todt. ... Henri Alexis Brialmont (May 25, 1821 - June 21, 1903) was a Belgian military engineer. ... James of St George (circa 1230 - 1309) was an architect from Savoy responsible for designing many of Edward Is castles, including Conwy Castle (begun 1283), Harlech Castle (begun 1283) and Beaumaris Castle in Anglesey (begun 1295). ... Menno, baron van Coehoorn (1641 - March 17, 1704), Dutch soldier and military engineer, of Swedish extraction. ... César Antonovich Cui (Russian: , Tsezar Antonovič Kjui) (January 6, 1835 (Old Style)-March 13, 1918) was a Russian of French and Lithuanian descent. ... Diades of Pella (Διάδης ο Πελλαίος) (The Besieger), Greek inventor of many siege engines. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...

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References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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