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Encyclopedia > Fort Orleans
French settlements in 1763
French settlements in 1763

Fort Orleans (sometimes referred to Fort D'Orleans) was French fort that was the first fort by any European country on the Missouri River. It was to be a lynch pin in a vast New France empire stretching from Montreal, Canada to New Mexico. It was the first multi-year settlement in Missouri. The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The fort was established in 1723 somewhere around the mouth of the Grand River (Missouri) near Brunswick, Missouri on the Missouri River by Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont. It was to be the Missouri River headquarters of the newly created Louisiana (New France) territory. It like the newly created New Orleans, Louisiana was named for the Duke of Orléans. Brunswick is a city located in Chariton County, Missouri. ... Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont (April 1679-1734) was a French explorer who made the first maps and documentation of the Missouri and Platte rivers. ... // Louisiana (French: La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of New France. ... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot, NOLA (acronym for New Orleans, LA) Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area    - City  350. ... Duke of Orléans is one of the most important titles in the French peerage, dating back at least to the 14th century. ...


Bourgmont had commanded the French fort at Fort Detroit but deserted along with other soldiers in 1706 when he was criticized by Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac for his handling of a skirmish with attacking Ottawa (tribe) members in which a priest and French soldier were killed along with with 30 Ottawa tribesmen. Building and origins of Fort Detroit Fort Detroit began as a settlement on the Detroit River called Fort Ponchartrain. ... Statue of Cadillac commemorating his landing, in Detroits Hart Plaza Antoine Laumet, dit de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac (March 5, 1658 – October 15, 1730), a French explorer, was a colourful figure in the history of New France. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ...


While on the lam from French authorities he lived with the Native Americans and explored the lower Missouri while trading (often illegally) in furs. Missionaries urged that he be arrested for indecency when he showed up at French outposts traveling with his Native American wife and child. His base was the Missouri (tribe) village near where Fort Orleans was to be established. On the lam or on the run refers to the state of being wanted by an authority and traveling to avoid capture. ... Apart from its literal meaning of “persons born in the Americas,” the term Native Americans may designate any of the following: Indigenous peoples of the Americas, natives of the American continents. ...


In 1713 Bourgemont wrote Exact Description of Louisiana, of Its Harbors, Lands and Rivers, and Names of the Indian Tribes That Occupy It, and the Commerce and Advantages to Be Derived Therefrom for the Establishment of a Colony. He followed this up in March 1714 following travels to the mouth of the Platte River with The Route to Be Taken to Ascend the Missouri River. The Platte River, showing the North Platte and South Platte The Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 310 mi. ...


His descriptions along with names of rivers based on the names of neighboring tribes were to be used by cartographer Guillaume Delisle for the first map of the region. Among the revelations in the map was the use of the term of "Missouri" for the river rather than "Pekitanoui" which explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette when they discovered it in 1673. Guillaume Delisle (February 28, 1675 - January 25, 1726) was a French cartographer, born in Paris, France (he also died there). ... Louis Jolliet, also known Louis Joliet (baptised September 21, 1645 – 1700), was a Canadian explorer born in Quebec who is important for his discoveries in North America. ... Father Jacques Marquette (French: Père Jacques Marquette) (June 10, 1637–May 18, 1675) and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to see and map the Mississippi River. ...


In 1718 Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville founder of the Louisiana territory said that instead of arresting Bourgemont they should work with him and he recommended that Bourgemont receive the Cross of Saint Louis for service to France. Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (February 23, 1680–March 7, 1767) was a colonizer and governor of Louisiana. ... Image:Medaille-Saint Louis. ...


In 1720 Bourgemont and his son along with a chief traveled to France where they were greeted as national heroes. His reputation was enhanced as news arrived that the Pawnee (who had been friendly with Bourgemont) had slaughter the Villasur expedition near modern day Columbus, Nebraska effectively stopping the Spanish from establishing settlements in the Missouri River valley. Pawnee The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte River in what is now Nebraska. ... The Villasur expedition (1720) was a Spanish military expedition intended to check the growing French presence on the Great Plains of central North America. ... Columbus is a city in Platte County, Nebraska, 92 miles (148 km) west by north of Omaha on the Loup River, a short distance above the confluence with the Platte. ...


In addition to there was a run up in stock for the Mississippi Company based on forecasted great riches in Louisiana. Bourgemont was promised a title of nobility if he could build a fort and strike up an an alliance with the Native Americans to keep the Spanish out of the Missouri valley. Bourgemont stayed in Normandy and married a woman in his hometown in 1721. In August 1717 Scottish businessman John Law acquired a controlling interest in the then derelict Mississippi Company and renamed it the Compagnie d’Occident (or Compagnie du Mississippi). ...


In 1722 he returned to New Orleans but was too sick to proceed on an expedition. In the meantime, funds in the Mississippi Company collapsed and he argued with his sponsors over whether a fort was even necessary -- just as long as he could enlist the Native Americans to unite to fight the Spanish.


Bourgmont argued that his mission had not changed. He established the fort on November 9, 1723 with 40 French soldiers.[1]


In 1724, he traveled at least part way up the Kansas River to the southwest where he smoked a peace pipe to establish peace treaty between the Commanche and the Missouri, Osage (tribe), Iowa, Pawnees, Oto, and Makah (the Commanche had earlier sided with the Spanish against the French). The Kansas River near De Soto and Lenape, Kansas The Kansas (or Kaw) River is a river in eastern Kansas in the United States. ... A Lakota (Sioux) peace pipe pipestem, without the pipe itself, displayed at the United States Library of Congress A peace pipe, also called a calumet or medicine pipe, is a ceremonial smoking pipe used by many Native American tribes, traditionally as a token of peace. ... Alternate meanings: Comanche helicopter and Comanche computer games The Comanche Nation is a Native American group of approximately 10,000 members, about half of whom live in Oklahoma and the remainder concentrated in Texas, California, and New Mexico. ... A Makah woman. ...


In celebration he was to take the chiefs of the tribes in 1725 to Paris to show them the "glory of France" including Paris and the palaces at Château de Marly, Fontainebleau and Versailles and to hunt on the royal preserve with Louis XV. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Château de Marly was located in what has become Marly-le-Roi, the commune that existed at the edge of the royal park. ... Location within France Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... Versailles (pronounced , in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ...


Bourgemont stayed at his home Normandy and did not accompany the chiefs back to Missouri. The fort was abandoned in 1726. One story says the fort was reduced to eight soldiers was attacked and burned by Native Americans who killed all its inhabitants[2]. Another story says it was merely abandoned. Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ...


No official trace of the fort has ever been discovered by archeologists despite some promising starts particularly south of the Missouri River. Lewis and Clark visited the area in June 1804 looking for the fort but reported they found no trace of it[3]



The three possible locations for the fort are:[4]

  • Near Malta Bend, Missouri in Saline County, Missouri on the south side of the Missouri - The argument for this location is archeological discoveries in what is now Van Meter State Park in area known as "the Pinnacles." Included in park is an earth works fort (which archeolgists believe is of Native American and not French origin).
  • North bank of the Missouri River by the mouth of Wakunda Creek in Carroll County, Missouri (based on Bourgemont's description of the Missouri village) on the north shore of the Missouri.
  • An island in the Missouri River between the two (based on a drawing about 1748 of the plans for the fort).

Malta Bend is a town located in Saline County, Missouri. ... Saline County is a county located in the state of Missouri. ... Carroll County is a county located in the state of Missouri. ...

References

  1. ^ Illinois Catholic Historical Review - 1924
  2. ^ Nebraska History & Record of Pioneer Days Vol. VI - rootseweb.com (Retrieved February 9, 2007
  3. ^ Lewis and Clark Journal Entries - 1804 Journal Entry Archives June 12- 17, 1804
  4. ^ - A History of Missouri By Eugene Morrow Violette - Published 1918

External links

  • Drawing about 1745 of the fort
  • Kansas City Public Library information on fort

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of New Orleans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1431 words)
The Battle of New Orleans, also known as the Battle of Chalmette Plantation, took place on January 8, 1815, at the end of the War of 1812, when the United States forces defeated the British.
A comparison is with the Battle of the Saintes in the American War of Independence, which did have an effect as it actually affected peace negotiations.
But for the Americans, the victory was celebrated with great enthusiasm in the United States, and gave Andrew Jackson the reputation of a hero, which later propelled him to the presidency.
fjHistory.txt (1273 words)
Fort Jackson and St. Phillip were important defenses of New Orleans and with their surrender, Farragut had reached the city, the control of the lower Mississippi was in Federal hands.
Fort Jackson is situated 32 nautical miles from the Gulf of Mexico, 22 miles from the lighthouse at the head of the passes, and 65 miles in a southeasterly direction from New Orleans.
Fort St. Phillip is located diagonally upriver from Fort Jackson on the east bank of the Mississippi in Section 11 of Township 19 South, Range 17 East on the east bank of the river.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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