FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fort McHenry
Fort McHenry

Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. It was during this bombardment of the fort that Francis Scott Key was inspired to write The Star-Spangled Banner, the poem that would eventually be turned into the national anthem of the United States, set to the tune of a British song "To Anacreon in Heaven." ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 840 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 840 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... The Inner Harbor is a historic seaport, tourist attraction, and iconic landmark of the City of Baltimore. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Francis Scott Key Maryland Historical Society plaque marking the birthplace of Francis Scott Key Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer... The Star-Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ...

Contents

History

Fort McHenry National Monument
IUCN Category III (Natural Monument)
Location Baltimore, Maryland , USA
Coordinates 39°15′47″N 76°34′48″W / 39.26306, -76.58
Area 43 acres (0.17 km²)
Established March 3, 1925
Visitors 620,636 (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service

Named after James McHenry, a Scots-Irish immigrant and surgeon-soldier who became Secretary of War under President Washington, Fort McHenry was built to defend the important Port of Baltimore from future enemy attacks, after America won its independence. It was positioned on the Locust Point peninsula which juts into the opening of Baltimore Harbor, and was constructed in the form of a five-pointed star surrounded by a dry moat - a deep, broad trench. The moat would serve as a shelter from which musketmen might defend the fort from a land attack. In case such a siege penetrated this first line of defense, each point, or bastion, was fortified, so that the invading army would be caught in a crossfire of cannon and musket fire. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... A Natural Monument is a natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... James McHenry (November 16, 1753 – May 3, 1816) was an early American statesman. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Port of Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, consists of seaport facilities for cargo, especially roll-on/roll-off ships, and passengers operated by the Maryland Port Administration (MPA). ... Locust Point is a pennisular neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... The point of a bastion on a reconstructed French fort in Illinois. ...


The only attack the fort ever received came during the War of 1812 in the naval portion of the Battle of Baltimore. Beginning at dusk on September 13, 1814, British warships continuously bombarded the fort for 25 hours under heavy rain. The American defenders had 18, 24, and 38 pound (8, 11 and 17 kg) cannons with a range of 1.5 miles (2.4 km). The British had a range of 2 miles (3 km), and their rockets had a 1.75 mile (2.8 km) range, but they were not very accurate. The British ships were unable to pass Fort McHenry and penetrate Baltimore Harbor because of defenses including a chain, sunken ships, and the American cannon. They were, however, able to come close enough to fire rockets and mortars on the fort. Due to the poor accuracy of the British weapons and the limited range of the American guns, little damage was done on either side, but the British ceased their attack on the morning of September 14, 1814, and the naval part of the British invasion of Baltimore had been repulsed. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Combatants Great Britain United States of America Commanders Robert Ross† Alexander Cochrane Arthur Brooke Samuel Smith John Stricker George Armistead Strength 5,000 2,000 (Baltimore defenses) 1,000 (Fort McHenry garrison) Casualties 46 dead, 300 wounded 310 killed or wounded In the Battle of Baltimore, one of the turning... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Congreve Rocket was a British military weapon designed by Sir William Congreve in 1804. ... The Inner Harbor is a historic seaport, tourist attraction, and iconic landmark of the City of Baltimore. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry.

The Americans did suffer casualties, amounting to four killed and 24 wounded, including one African American soldier and a woman who was cut in half by a bomb as she carried supplies to the troops. At one point during the bombardment a bomb crashed through the fort's powder magazine. Fortunately for the defenders, either the fuse was extinguished by the rain or the bomb was merely a dud. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x735, 158 KB) The caption reads A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x735, 158 KB) The caption reads A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which...


Francis Scott Key, a Washington lawyer who had come to Baltimore to negotiate the release of a civilian prisoner of war, Dr. William Beanes, witnessed the bombardment from a nearby truce ship. An oversized American flag had been sewn by Mary Pickersgill for exactly $574.44 in anticipation of the British attack on the fort. When Key saw the flag emerge intact in the dawn of September 14, he was so moved that he began that very morning to compose the poem "The Defense of Fort McHenry" which would be renamed "The Star Spangled Banner" and become America's national anthem. Francis Scott Key Maryland Historical Society plaque marking the birthplace of Francis Scott Key Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779 – January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer... Flag ratio: 7:12; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars... Mary Young Pickersgill Mary Young Pickersgill (1776 - 1857), is the flag-maker of the banner hoisted over Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. ... Nicholson took the copy Key gave him to a printer, where it was published as a broadside on September 17 under the title The Defence of Fort McHenry, with an explanatory note explaining the circumstances of its writing. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ...


Functions and services

Fort McHenry looking towards the position of the British ships (with the Francis Scott Key Bridge in the distance on the upper left) and with the Civil War-era guns in the foreground

Fort McHenry served as the primary defense for the port of Baltimore until about 1848, when Fort Carroll was constructed further down the Patapsco River. Picture of cannon at Ft. ... Picture of cannon at Ft. ... The Francis Scott Key Bridge, also known as the Outer Harbor Bridge, is a continuous truss bridge spanning the Patapsco River in Maryland, USA. The bridge was opened in March 1977 and is named for the author of the Star Spangled Banner, Francis Scott Key. ... Fort Carroll is a 3. ... The Patapsco is a river in central Maryland which flows into the Chesapeake Bay in Baltimore, Maryland. ...


During the American Civil War, Fort McHenry served as a military prison, confining both Confederate soldiers as well as a large number of Maryland political figures who were suspected of being Confederate sympathizers. Ironically, Francis Scott Key's grandson was one of these political detainees. In an earlier coincidence, James McHenry's son had served in the defense of the fort during the Battle of Baltimore. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


During World War I, an additional hundred-odd buildings were built on the land surrounding the fort in order to convert the entire facility into an enormous hospital for the treatment of troops returning from the European conflict. Virtually none of these buildings remain, while the original fort has been preserved and restored to essentially its condition during the War of 1812. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


During World War II Fort McHenry served as a Coast Guard base, helping to defend the port of Baltimore. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


Years as a national monument

The sally port (main entrance) into Fort McHenry.

The fort was made a national park in 1925; on August 11, 1939 it was redesignated a "National Monument and Historic Shrine," the only such doubly designated place in the United States. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. It has become national tradition that when a new flag is designed it first flies over Fort McHenry. The first official 49 and 50 star American flags were flown over the fort and are still located on the premises. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 839 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 839 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An example of a Sally port, here is the main entrance to Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland. ... This article is about national parks. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Navajo National Monument Devils Tower National Monument Statue of Liberty National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


The Fort has become a vital center of recreation for the Baltimore locals as well as a prominent tourist destination. Thousands of visitors come each year to see the "Birthplace of the Star Spangled Banner."

Design of 15-star U.S. flag that flies over the Fort
Design of 15-star U.S. flag that flies over the Fort

Every September the City of Baltimore commemorates Defenders Day in honor of the Battle of Baltimore. It is the biggest celebration of the year at the Fort, accompanied by a weekend of programs, events, and fireworks. Image File history File links US15. ... Image File history File links US15. ... Defenders Day is a Maryland state holiday celebrated on September 12 each year, commemorating the successful defense of the city of Baltimore from an invading British force during the War of 1812. ...


In 2005 the Living History volunteer unit, the Fort McHenry Guard was awarded the George B. Hartzog award for serving the National Park Service as the best volunteer unit. Among the members of the unit is Martin O'Malley, the former mayor of Baltimore, and current Governor of Maryland, who was made the unit's honorary colonel in 2003. This article is about the term as used among historical reenactors. ... The Fort McHenry Guard is a dynamic volunteer unit that serves Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. ... For the journalist, see Martin OMalley (journalist). ...


The flag that flew over Fort McHenry, the Star Spangled Banner Flag, is currently undergoing restoration at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. It is in extremely fragile condition, but is expected to be put back on display in 2008. The restoration process can be viewed by the public. The Star Spangled Banner Flag is the garrison flag that flew over Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor during the naval portion of the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... The National Museum of American History is a museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution and located in Washington, D.C., on the National Mall. ...


See also

This is a list for articles on notable historic forts which may or may not be under current active use by a military. ... The Fort McHenry Tunnel is one of two tunnels that carry traffic underneath Baltimore Harbor. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Fort Henry, Ontario, is a National Historic Site of Canada. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Star-Spangled Banner and the War of 1812 (2939 words)
Armistead commissioned Mary Pickersgill, a Baltimore flag maker, to sew two flags for the fort: a smaller storm flag (17 by 25 ft) and a larger garrison flag (30 by 42 ft).
Major Armistead, commander of Fort McHenry and its defending force of one thousand troops, ordered his men to return fire, but their guns couldn’t reach the enemy’s ships.
Waving proudly over the fort, the banner could be seen for miles around—as far away as a ship anchored eight miles down the river, where an American lawyer named Francis Scott Key had spent an anxious night watching and hoping for a sign that the city—and the nation—might be saved.
jeffcovey.net -- fort mchenry (548 words)
fort mchenry has some happy memories for me; it was where dan and i went to have a picnic on our second date.
a narrator describes what went on in baltimore during the seige of fort mchenry, the battle of north point, etc. every time we were there, dan had to go in here and push the button.
was captured during the battle of baltimore in the war of 1812 and watched the bombardment of fort mchenry from the deck of a british ship.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m