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Encyclopedia > Fort McClellan

Fort McClellan was a United States Army installation located adjacent to the city of Anniston, Alabama. While it was in operation, Fort McClellan had been 'home' for an average military population of about 10,000 people, including about 5,000 who were permanently assigned, and employed about 1,500 civilians. The United States Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Nickname: The Model City Map Political Statistics Founded April 1872 (Settled) Incorporated 3 July 1883 (Opened to the public) County Calhoun Mayor Hoyt W. “Chip” Howell, Jr. ...

Contents


History

The history of Fort McClellan dates back to the Spanish-American War. Located in the Choccolocco foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, the area provided a suitable area for artillery training. Combatants United States and Cuban rebel forces Spain Casualties 379 dead (U.S. only) Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 1500... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


World War I

The United States Department of War formally established Camp McClellan on July 18, 1917. The camp was named in honor of Major General George B. McClellan, General-in-Chief of the United States Army from 1861 to 1862, and Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881. Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general (and briefly the general-in-chief of the Union Army) during the American Civil War. ... General-in-Chief (Russian: , probably originating from général en chéf), was a full General rank in the Russian Imperial army, the second top in Russian military ranks (the 2nd grade of Table of Ranks). ... The United States Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... HI A governor is also, a monkey who is smart and can fly like a penguin is a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Largest city Trenton Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq. ...


Camp McClellan was a mobilization camp used to quickly train men for World War I. By October 1917, there were more than 27,000 men training at the camp with the 29th National Guard Division from New Jersey. The 29th was deployed in France in June 1918 and suffered almost 6,000 casualties in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a major battle of World War I. It was the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in that war. ...


World War II

After the war, Camp McClellan was redesignated Fort McClellan, a permanent post, on July 1, 1929. During World War II, the 27th Division from New York trained at the fort during October 1940. After Pearl Harbor, this was one of the first units to depart for combat. The Division fought in the Marshall Islands, the Gilbert Islands, Saipan, Guam and the Philippines, and was later on occupational duty in Japan. Nearly 500,000 men were trained at Fort McClellan during the war. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The Gilbert Islands are a chain of 16 atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of the nation Kiribati. ... Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and site of the capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, (a chain of 14 tropical islands in the western Pacific Ocean) with a total area of 120 km² (46. ...


During the war, a 3,000 capacity Prison Internment Camp for prisoners of war was built during 1943 when Fort McClellan became the temporary home for many captured enemy soldiers. A cemetery on the post marks 26 German and 3 Italian prisoners of war who died during captivity. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


After World War II

After the war, the Infantry Replacement Training Center trained soldiers for occupation duty until November 1946, when the fort became a recruit training center. The Recruit Training Center was inactivated and the number of soldiers on post dwindled rapidly after the war. The installation was placed on inactive status on June 30, 1947. Only a small maintenance crew remained on the post. Plans were made during 1950 to again use the area for National Guard training. It has been suggested that National Guard Bureau be merged into this article or section. ...


Chemical Corps

In 1951, the Chemical Corp activated the replacement training center at Fort McClellan. In 1962, the name of the activity was changed from the Chemical Corps School to the U.S. Army Chemical Center and School, until it was disestablished in 1973. Another activity, the U.S. Army Combat Developments Command Chemical Biological-Radiological Agency, moved to Fort McClellan in 1962. It was later disestablished along with the Chemical School in 1973.


Women's Army Corps

The Women's Army Corps School was founded at Fort McClellan on September 25, 1952. Approximately two years later, official ceremonies were conducted to establish the post as the first permanent home of the U.S. Women's Army Corps Center. Fort McClellan remained its home until the Corps was disestablished and its flag retired in 1977. Participating in the final ceremony was Major General Mary E. Clarke, the last director of the Women's Army Corps and destined to later become the Commanding General of Fort McClellan, the first female officer ever to command a major Army installation.


Vietnam War

To meet the requirement for the Vietnam War, an Advanced Individual Training Infantry Brigade was activated in 1966. With the mission change, the fort was renamed the U.S. Army School/Training Center and Fort McClellan. Due to continued force reductions in Vietnam, the brigade was deactivated in April 1970, after training more than 30,000 men.


After the Vietnam War

Official ceremonies were held July 11, 1975, marking the move of the U.S. Army Military Police School from Fort Gordon, Georgia. A major reorganization of the post began in the fall of 1976 and was completed on May 13, 1977, when the colors of the Women's Army Corps Center and School were retired during ceremonies on Marshall Parade Field. After reestablishment in December, 1979, the U.S. Army Chemical School relocated here from Aberdeen, Maryland, and joined the Military Police School and the Training Brigade to make Fort McClellan the only military installation in the United States with three major missions.


Base Realignment and Closure

In 1995 the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission voted to permanently close Fort McClellan. The official closing ceremony ending Fort McClellan's illustrious past was held on 20 May, 1999. At the time of closure, Fort McClellan was home to the U.S. Army Chemical School, the U.S. Army Military Police School, the Training Brigade, and the Department of Defense Polygraph Institute. The Chemical School, Military Police School, and the Training Brigade relocated to Fort Leonardwood, Missouri, integrating with their Engineer School to form the U.S. Army Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN). The DoD Polygraph Institute relocated to Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) is a process of the United States federal government directed at the administration and operation of the US Armed Forces, used by the United States Department of Defense and Congress to close excess military installations and realign the total asset inventory in order to save...


Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge

In 2003, the Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge was established on 9000 acres (36 kmĀ²) of undeveloped land at Fort McClellan. Work is underway to restore the environment from the ecological problems introduced by the army's continued presence at the fort. Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge is a 9,016 acre National Wildlife Refuge located in eastern Alabama, near Anniston, Alabama on the former site of Fort McClellan. ...


See also

Anniston Army Depot Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) is a major United States Army facility fulfilling various depot operations. ...


External Links

  • Fort McClellan official website
  • Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge

References

  • http://www.mcclellan.army.mil/Info.asp

  Results from FactBites:
 
George B. McClellan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8554 words)
McClellan was born in Philadelphia, the son of a prominent surgical ophthalmologist, Dr. George McClellan, the founder of Jefferson Medical College.
McClellan's plan to seize Yorktown quickly was foiled when he discovered that the Confederates had fortified a line across the Peninsula, causing him to decide on a siege of the city, which required considerable preparation.
McClellan was also fortunate that the failure of the campaign left his army mostly intact because he was generally absent from the fighting and neglected to name a second-in-command to control his retreat.
Fort Monroe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2401 words)
Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States.
In cooperation with the Navy, troops from Fort Monroe extended Union control along the coasts of the Carolinas as Lincoln ordered a blockade of the Southern seaboard from the South Carolina line to the Rio Grande River on April 19, and on April 27 extended it to include the North Carolina and Virginia coasts.
Fort Monroe is also the place at which, on May 27, 1861, Major General Benjamin Butler made his famous "contraband" decision, by which escaping slaves reaching Union lines would not be returned to bondage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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