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Encyclopedia > Fort Massac

Fort Massac is a colonial era fort on the Ohio River in Massac County, Illinois. Ohio River viewed from Liberty Hill in Ripley, Ohio. ... Massac County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ...

Legend has it that, as early as 1540, the Spanish explorer Hernando DeSoto and his soldiers constructed a primitive fortification here to defend themselves from hostile native attack. Hernando de Soto is a: Spanish explorer. ...

Fort Massac was built by the French in 1757, during the French and Indian War. The Fort was originally called Fort De L’Ascension. The name was changed in 1759, to honor of Claud Louis d'Espinchal, Marquis de Massiac, the French Naval Minister. Massiac is a place which is in the Communes of the Cantal département, in France. The French and Indian War is the common American name for the decisive nine-year conflict (1754–1763) in North America between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its North American Colonies against France and its North American Colonies, which was one of the theatres of the Seven Years War. ... One of ancien régime Frances Secretaries of State was entrusted with control of the French Navy. ... The following is a list of the 260 communes of the Cantal département in France. ...

Many sources, going back into the early 1800's, say that "Massac" was derived from "Massacre", a reference to a massacre at the site. One problem with this is that there seems to be no record of such a massacre. This story seems to be an old urban legend.

Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the French abandoned the fort and a band of Chickasaws burned it to the ground. When Captain Thomas Stirling, commander of the 42nd Highland Regiment, arrived to take possession for Britain, all he found was a charred ruin. The French and Indian War is the common American name for the decisive nine-year conflict (1754–1763) in North America between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its North American Colonies against France and its North American Colonies, which was one of the theatres of the Seven Years War. ...

The British never rebuilt the fort. In 1778, during the Revolutionary War, Col. George Rogers Clark led his “Long Knives” regiment into Illinois near the fort at Massac Creek. Clark marched overland to Fort Kaskaskia, 100 miles to the north, without firing a shot. From there, Clark marched across Illinois to Fort Vincennes, capturing the entire Illinois Territory, and then some, for the State of Virginia. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825 George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was the preeminent American military leader on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ... Kaskaskia is a village located in Randolph County, Illinois. ... The city of Vincennes is the county seat of Knox County, Indiana. ... Categories: Stub | Illinois history | U.S. historical regions and territories ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ...

In 1794, during the Northwest Indian War, President George Washington ordered the fort rebuilt, and for the next 20 years it protected U.S. military and commercial interests in the Ohio Valley. During this time, Fort Massac was the largest outpost of the U.S. Military. The Northwest Indian War (1785-1795), often known as Little Turtles War in older reference works, was a war fought between the United States and a large confederation of Native Americans (Indians) for control of the Old Northwest, which ended with a decisive U.S. victory at the Battle... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) was the successful Commander in Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783, and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was twice elected unanimously, and held from 1789...

In the Fall of 1803, the Lewis and Clark Expedition stopped at Fort Massac on its way west, recruiting two volunteers. Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804–1806) was the first United States overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back, led by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark, of the US Army. ...

During the summer of 1805, former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr and Gen. James Wilkinson allegedly met at Fort Massac, where they drew up plans to personally conquer Mexico and the American southwest. Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... Vice President Aaron Burr This article is about the U.S. Vice President. ... General James Wilkinson James Wilkinson (1757 - December 28, 1825) was a U.S. soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies. ...

The Fort was ravaged by the New Madrid Earthquake in 1811-12. It was was again rebuilt in time to play a minor role in the War of 1812, only to be abandoned again in 1814. Local citizens dismantled the fort for timber, and by 1828 little remained of the original construction. In 1839 the city of Metropolis was platted about a mile west of the fort. The New Madrid Earthquake, the largest earthquake ever recorded in the continental United States, occurred on February 7, 1812. ... The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and British Empire from 1812 to 1815, on land in North America and at sea around the world. ... Statue of Superman in the town square The sign outside the Superman Museum Metropolis is a city located in Massac County, Illinois, along the Ohio River. ...

The Fort Massac site was made an State Park in 1908, becoming the first Illinois State Park. A replica of the old Fort has been built. Each Fall, reenactors gather for the Fort Massac Encampment, acting out life in the 1700's.

External links

  • Fort Massac State Park
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition

  Results from FactBites:
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Mascoutens Indians (1262 words)
This is apparently the last notice of the Mascoutens mission, which seems to have dwindled out from neglect, and from the growing hostility manifested to the French by the Sauk, Foxes, and Kickapoo, with whom the Mascoutens were so closely connected.
In 1702, a band of the tribe had drifted down into Southern Illinois, and had their village on the Ohio near the French post of Fort Massac.
Here Father Jean Mermet, stationed at the post, attempted to minister to them, but found them entirely under the influence of their medicine men, and opposed to Christianity.
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