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Encyclopedia > Fort Detroit

Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. The location of the former fort is now in the city of Detroit in the U.S. state of Michigan, an area bounded by Larned Street, Griswold Street, and the Civic Center. Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Statue of Cadillac commemorating his landing in Detroit Antoine Laumet, dit de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac (March 5, 1658-October 15, 1730), a French explorer, was a colourful figure in the history of New France. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: , Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Founded 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties/Parishes/Boroughs, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...

Contents

Background and construction

Fort Detroit began as a settlement on the Detroit River built to try to keep the British from moving west of New England and to monopolize the fur trade in North America. Before he built Fort Detroit, Cadillac was commandant of Fort de Buade, another French outpost in North America. Fort de Buade was abandoned in 1697 due to conflicts with religious leaders over the trading of alcohol to the Native Americans. Cadillac then persuaded his superiors to let him build a new settlement. He reached the Detroit River on July 23, 1701. Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Fort de Buade was a French fort operating at the present site of St. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ...


When he landed on the site he held a celebration to formally take control of the area. In honor of Louis Phélypeaux, Comte du Pontchartrain (or his son, Jerome), Minister of Marine to Louis XIV he named the new settlement Fort Ponchartrain du Detroit. The storehouse and the stockade were started immediately, but the first building completed was Ste. Anne's Church. The stockade came next and was made of logs rising about 12 feet into the sky with towers in each corner. Louis Phélypeaux (1643–1727), marquis de Phélypeaux (1667), comte de Maurepas (1687), comte de Pontchartrain (1699), known as the chancellor de Pontchartrain, was a French politician. ... Jérôme Phélypeaux (March 1674–8 February 1747), comte de Pontchartrain, was a French politician, son of Louis Phélypeaux. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Ste. ...


Military conflicts

Fort Detroit in 1763

The first major conflict of Fort Detroit occurred in March 1706 while Cadillac was away. The Ottawas heard a rumor about a Huron tribe ambush. The Ottawas then attacked and killed several members of the Miami tribe. The Miamis then went inside the fort and were defended by the soldiers. About 30 Ottawas were killed when they attacked the fort. After the battle the Miamies attacked an Ottawa village. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... This article is about the First Nations people, the Wyandot, also known as the Huron. ... The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana and Ohio. ...


A priest and a French sergeant outside the walls were killed. This has been called Detroit's first murder.[1]


The fort was commanded by Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont. Bourgmont was criticized for his handling of the incident. When Cadillac returned Bourgmont and some soldiers from the fort deserted. The French captured one of the deserters who testified that the deserting party had shot and killed one of its own and cannibalized him.[2] Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont (April 1679-1734) was a French explorer who made the first maps and documentation of the Missouri and Platte rivers. ... Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ...


Bourgmont remained on the lam living with the Native Americans and taking a Native American wife and having a child. In 1718 he was decorated with the Cross of St. Louis and given an order of nobility for being the first European to map the Missouri and Platte rivers and for enlisting the Native Americans to side with the French against the Spanish.[3] On the lam or on the run refers to the state of being wanted by an authority and traveling to avoid capture. ... Image:Medaille-Saint Louis. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Platte River, showing the North Platte and South Platte The Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 310 mi. ...


In 1712 as Cadillac was removed under a cloud of greed and replaced by Dubuisson. The Fox heard of this, and planned an attack on the fort. (After some of Cadillac's supporters had left.) The besieged the fort in late april, about 1,000 Fox, Sac and Mascoutens. The Ottawas and the Hurons were out on a raid and so could not help the French. Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, commander of the French outpost at Kekionga (now Fort Wayne, Indiana) and seven fur traders came to the fort, sneaking through Fox lines. [4] Dubuisson sent messengers and the Ottawa and Huron indians came to the fort's aid. When the warriors came the Fox were then caught between the French and their Allies, and were themselves besieged until the end of May. They fled to what is now Windmill Point, where the French and Huron indians pursued them. After four days siege there, the Fox surrender so their families would be spared. The French agreed, but after the Fox were disarmed, they attacked and killed all the Fox. This event is known in the Grosse Pointe area as the Fox Indian Massacre. The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... SAC can mean: S-Allyl cysteine, a chemical constituent of garlic SAC Capital Partners, a hedge fund managed by Steven A. Cohen SAC programming language St. ... The Mascouten were an American Indian tribe, originally from what is now the U.S. state of Michigan. ... A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ... Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, was a Canadian soldier, explorer, and friend to the Miami Nation. ... Capital of the Miami Indian nation. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Indiana, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Indiana County Allen Founded October 22, 1794 Incorporated February 22, 1840 Government  - Mayor Graham Richard (D)  - City Clerk Sandra Kennedy (D)  - City Council John N. Crawford (R) Samuel J. Talarico, Jr (R) John Shoaff (D) Tom Smith...



After a few years the English and the French conflict over North America came to a head in the French and Indian War. Detroit was far removed from the main areas of conflict and did not see combat. On November 29, 1760, Fort Detroit was turned over to the British Army's Rogers' Rangers, two months after the capitulation of the French at Montreal. British rule differed in several major ways from French rule. The British required greater taxes and confiscated weapons from "unfriendly" settlers while refusing to sell ammunition to them or to the natives. This limited their ability to trap and hunt as well as rendering them less of a threat. The British did not emphasize maintaining good relationships with the Native Americans. After the French left the conflict, Chief Pontiac of the Ottawas rallied several tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion and attempted to capture Detroit from the British on May 7, 1763. They failed to capture the fort, as the British were forewarned of the attack, but did lay siege to it (see the Siege of Fort Detroit). The British force in the fort consisted of 130 soldiers with two 6-pound cannons, one 3-pound cannon, and three mortars. As well, the 6-gun schooner Huron was anchored in the Detroit River. Two months into the siege, on July 29, 1763, the British brought a large relief force into the area. Skirmishing in the area, including the Battle of Bloody Run, continued until mid-November when the Indians dispersed. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Lenape * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy American Colonies Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Rogers Rangers — commanded by Major Robert Rogers — was an Independent Company of Rangers attached to the British Army during the French and Indian War. ... No authentic images of Pontiac are known to exist. ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Pontiacs confederacy Great Britain Commanders Pontiac Wasson Henry Gladwin Donald Campbell † Strength Casualties For the action in the War of 1812, see the Siege of Detroit The Siege of Fort Detroit was an ultimately unsuccessful attempt by North American Indians to capture Fort Detroit during Pontiacs Rebellion. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


During the American Revolutionary War, Detroit was far to the west of the main area of action. The fort's main contribution was to arm American Indian raiding parties who attacked American settlements to the southeast. American revolutionaries, particularly George Rogers Clark, hoped to mount an expedition to Detroit in order to neutralize these operations, but could not raise enough men to make the attempt. Clark did manage to capture Henry Hamilton, the Lieutenant-Governor of Canada and senior officer at Fort Detroit. While Hamilton was a prisoner of war, in late 1778 Captain Richard B. Lernoult began construction on a new fortification a few hundred yards to the south of the original fortification. It was named Fort Lernoult on 3 October 1779. Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George... Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825 George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was the preeminent American military leader on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ... Henry Hamilton (c. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


On July 11, 1776, Fort Detroit, Fort Lernoult and the surrounding settlement was surrendered by the British to the Americans, 13 years after the Treaty of Paris ended the war between Britain and France over the region. It is claimed that only Fort Lernoult survived the 1805 fire which destroyed Detroit, so presumably no parts of Fort Detroit remained after this time. July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Timeline - historydetroit.com - Retrieved February 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  2. ^ Etienne de Véniard sieur de Bourgmont - A timeline compiled by Dan Hechenberger - The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery - National Park Service
  3. ^ Etienne de Véniard sieur de Bourgmont - A timeline compiled by Dan Hechenberger - The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery - National Park Service
  4. ^ "Vincennes, Sieur de (Jean Baptiste Bissot)," The Encyclopedia Americana (Danbury, CT: Grolier, 1990), 28:130.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Dunnigan, Brian Leigh. "Fortress Detroit, 1701–1826" in David Curtis Skaggs and Larry L. Nelson, eds., The Sixty Years' War for the Great Lakes, 1754-1814, pp .167–185. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2001.
  • Historydetroit.com, "Fort Detroit - British Rule - 1760-1796"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fort Detroit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (926 words)
Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701.
Fort Detroit began as a settlement on the Detroit River built to try to keep the British from moving west of New England and to monopolize the fur trade in North America.
On July 11, 1796, Fort Detroit, Fort Lernoult and the surrounding settlement was surrendered by the British to the Americans, 13 years after the Treaty of Paris ended the war and gave the area to the United States.
Detroit: Weather and Much More from Answers.com (5944 words)
In 2005, Detroit ranked as the United States's 11th most populous city with 886,675 residents; this is less than half of the peak population it had in 1950, and Detroit leads the nation in terms of declining urban population.
Detroit fell to British troops during the War of 1812 in the Siege of Detroit, was recaptured by the United States in 1813 and incorporated as a city in 1815.
Detroit was once the home of the University of Michigan, which was founded in Detroit in 1817 but later moved to Ann Arbor in 1837.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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