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Encyclopedia > Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline National Memorial
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Location Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Coordinates 30°23′13″N 81°30′2″W / 30.38694, -81.50056
Area 138.39 acres (0.56 km²)
Established January 16, 1953
Total visitation 145,736 (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service
Fort Caroline shown in an old etching
Fort Caroline shown in an old etching

Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Established in present-day Jacksonville, Florida in 1564, it lasted only a year before being obliterated by the Spanish. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fort_caroline. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fort_caroline. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...

Contents

History

A French expedition, organized by Protestant leader Admiral Gaspard de Coligny and led by the Norman navigator Jean Ribault had landed at the site on the River of May (now the St. Johns River) in February 1562, before moving north to Port Royal Sound. There, on present-day Parris Island, Ribault left twenty eight men to build a settlement known as Charlesfort. Ribault then returned to Europe to arrange supplies for the new colony, but was arrested in England due to complications arising from the French Wars of Religion, which prevented his return. Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... Jean Ribault (1520 – October 12, 1565) was a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States. ... The St. ... Port Royal is a town in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. ... Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island is an 8,500 acre military installation near Beaufort, South Carolina tasked with the training of enlisted Marines. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ...


Without supplies or leadership, and beset by hostility from the native populations, all but one of the colonists sailed back to Europe after only a year. During their voyage in an open boat, they were reduced to cannibalism before the survivors were rescued in English waters. Meanwhile, René Goulaine de Laudonnière, who had been Ribault's second-in-command on the 1562 expedition, led a contingent of around 200 new settlers back to Florida, where they founded Fort Caroline (or Fort de la Caroline) atop St. Johns Bluff on June 22, 1564. The fort was named for the reigning French king, Charles IX. For just over a year, this colony was beset by hunger, Indian attacks, and mutiny, and attracted the attention of Spanish authorities who considered it a challenge to their control over the area. René Goulaine de Laudonnière (c. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ...


In June of 1565, Ribault had been released from English custody, and Coligny sent him back to Florida. In late August, Ribault arrived at Ft. Caroline with a large fleet and hundreds of soldiers and settlers and took command of the settlement. However, the recently appointed Spanish Governor of Florida, Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, had simultaneously been dispatched from Spain with orders to remove the French outpost, and arrived within days of Ribault’s landing. After a brief skirmish between Ribault's ships and Menéndez's ships, the latter retreated 35 miles south, where they established the settlement of St. Augustine. Ribault pursued the Spanish with several of his ships and most of his troops, but he was surprised at sea by a violent storm lasting several days. In a bold stroke, Menéndez marched his forces overland, launching a surprise dawn attack on the Fort Caroline garrison which then numbered about 200 to 250 people.. The only survivors were about 50 women and children who were taken prisoner and a few defenders, including Laudonnière, who managed to escape; the rest were executed. Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, the founder of Saint Augustine, Florida Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (February 15, 1519 - September 17, 1574), was a sixteenth century Spanish admiral and pirate hunter, known most notably for his founding of St. ... Nickname: Location in St. ...


As for Ribault's fleet, all of the ships either sank or ran aground south of St. Augustine during the storm, and many of the Frenchmen onboard were lost at sea. Of the rest, who included Ribault, most were later captured along the coast by Menéndez's troops and executed at a place now known as Matanzas ("massacres") Inlet. This place is known today by a fort built much later, Fort Matanzas. This massacre put an end to France's attempts at colonization of the east coast of North America. Created in 1924, Fort Matanzas National Monument is a United States National Monument run by the National Park Service. ...


The Spanish destroyed Ft. Caroline, but built their own fort on the same site. In April 1568, Dominique de Gourgues led a French force which attacked and burned the fort. The Spanish rebuilt, but permanently abandoned it the next year. The exact location of the settlement is not known. Dominique de Gourgue, or Domingue de Gourgues, was a French nobleman and soldier who led an attack against the Spaniards in North-Florida in 1568. ...


Reconstruction

Fort Caroline was authorized as a National Memorial on September 21, 1950, and established on January 16, 1953. The memorial features a scaled-down reconstruction of the fort, based on historic renderings, and a visitor center. The memorial is administered in conjunction with Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. In the United States, National Memorial is a designation for a protected area that is commemorative of an historic person or episode. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A visitor center is a place where visitors to a location can get information on the areas attractions, lodging, maps, and other items relevant to tourism. ... The Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve is located in the city of Jacksonville, Florida, in the United States. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

Fort Caroline reconstruction
Fort Caroline reconstruction

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

References

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ...

External links

  • Fort Caroline National Memorial - official National Park Service website
  • Fort Caroline shown on an engraving by Jacques Le Moyne
  • Les expéditions françaises en Floride (1562-1568) - In French by Hélène LHOUMEAU
  • Fort Matanzas National Monument

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fort Frederica National Monument - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (298 words)
Simons Island, Georgia, preserves the archaeological remnants of a fort and town built by James Oglethorpe between 1736 and 1748 to protect the southern boundary of the British colony of Georgia from Spanish raids.
Fort Frederica was established in 1736 by colonists from England, Scotland, and the Germanic states to support this endeavor.
Fort Frederica was authorized as a National Monument on May 26, 1936.
Fort Caroline - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (466 words)
Fort Caroline was the first permanent, year-round French colony in North America, founded in present-day Jacksonville, Florida in 1562, but it lasted only a few years before being obliterated by the Spanish.
Marching his troops overland, he surprised the Fort Caroline garrison at dawn on September 20, which then numbered about 200 to 250 people.
Fort Caroline was authorized as a National Memorial on September 21, 1950, and established on January 16, 1953.
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