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Encyclopedia > Former countries in Europe after 1815

This article gives an overview of countries (including puppet-countries) that existed in Europe after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. For each country, information is given about the period of existence and what has happened to the territory since. World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Contents Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Ajaria (1921; Georgian: აჭარა / Ačara) Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ...

  • In 1921 the former Russian region of Adjaria seceded from Turkey as the Republic of Adjaria. It became part of Georgia later that year.

Alsace-Lorraine (1918; German: Elsaß-Lothringen) Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

  • After the collapse of the German Empire in World War I (1918) the Republic of Alsace-Lorraine was formed. Eleven days later it was occupied by and incorporated into France.

Anhalt (18131867, Anhalt-Dessau until 1863) Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen (497 Kb) The Republic of Alsace-Lorraine was a short-lived independent state comprised of the Alsace and Lorraine regions of what is now France. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Anhalt-Bernburg (181363) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Anhalt-Köthen (181347) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Armenia (191822; Armenian: Հայաստան / Hayastan) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...

  • Armenia, part of Russia, became part of the Transcaucasia in 1918, but after a month proclaimed independence as the Republic of Armenia. From 1919 to 1920 it also included Turkish Armenia. In 1920 it was renamed the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, and in 1922 it joined the Transcaucasian SFSR of the Soviet Union. It is now independent again as Armenia.

Austrian Empire (180467; German: Kaisertum Österreich)
Austria–Hungary (18671918; German: Österreich-Ungarn, Hungarian: Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia) The Trans-Caucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TCDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР), Zakavkazskaja Diemokratitchieskaja Phiedierativnaja Riespublika (ZKDPR)) (February 1918 – May 1918) was a short-lived state in the Caucasus after the October Revolution. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Azerbaijan (191822; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The historical term Lands of the Holy Crown of St. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... Anthem Il Canto degli Italiani (also known as Fratelli dItalia) Italy() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Rome Official languages Italian1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Giorgio Napolitano  -  Prime Minister Romano Prodi Formation  -  Unification 17 March 1861   -  Republic 2 June 1946  Accession to the... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...

The Trans-Caucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TCDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР), Zakavkazskaja Diemokratitchieskaja Phiedierativnaja Riespublika (ZKDPR)) (February 1918 – May 1918) was a short-lived state in the Caucasus after the October Revolution. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ...

B

Baden (1813-1871) For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ...

  • Baden was a member state of the German Confederation between 1815 and 1866. In 1849 Baden was briefly renamed the Republic of Baden. Its more or less independent status ended with the formation of the German Empire in 1871, of which it became a state. Nowadays it is part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Baltic Duchy, United (1918: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia...

  • Livonia, Estonia and Riga and its surrounding area seceded from Russia in 1918 and formed the United Baltic Duchy. Courland joined the new country later, but by the end of the year the United Baltic Duchy collapsed and was succeeded by Estonia and Latvia.

Banat (1918) Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Banat Republic in 1918 The Banat Republic was proclaimed in Timisoara, on October 31, 1918, as the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed. ...

Baranya-Baja (August 14-25 1921) “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... The Serb-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic was proclaimed on August 14, 1921. ...

Bavaria (1806-1871: Königreich Bayern) August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...

Belarus (1918-1919, 1919-1922: Беларусь / Biełaruś) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...

  • In 1918 Belarus, a part of Russia under German occupation, seceded from Russia as the Belarusian People's Republic. It was defeated in 1919 by the Belarussian Soviet Socialist Republic, which later that year became part of Litbel. Litbel was disbanded during the Polish-Soviet War, but in 1920 Soviet rule was restored as was the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. It ceded its western part to Poland in 1921 and became in 1922 a founding component of the USSR. Nowadays it is independent as Belarus.

Bihać, (1994-95). National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile in Canada National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... V. Mickevicius- Kapsukas Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR, Litbel) existed within the territories of modern Belarus and Lithuania for a brief period within 1919, before the area has been annexed to Poland. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... language None. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 70,896 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Hamdija Lipovača (SDP) Website http://www. ...

  • In 1994 the Muslim towns of Bihać, Bosanska Krupa and Bosanski Nova (with some neighboring lands along on river Una) on Bosnia's northwestern border with Croatia, set up their own republic. It reunited with the Muslim part of Bosnia in 1995 after peace.

Bremen (1813-1867) Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 70,896 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Hamdija Lipovača (SDP) Website http://www. ... Bosanska Krupa (Serbian: Босанска Kрупа) is a town in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the Una river. ... Motto none Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members NebojÅ¡a Radmanović1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (official name in German: Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest of Germanys 16 Federal States (Bundesländer). ...

Brunswick (1813-1867: Braunschweig) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ...

The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...

C

Carpatho-Ukraine (1939: Карпатська Україна / Karpats’ka Ukrayina) Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ...

  • In 1939 the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine seceded from Czechoslovakia, but was annexed by Hungary within three days. Nowadays it is part of Ukraine.

Central Lithuania (1920-1922: Litwa Środkowa/Vidurinė Lietuva) Carpatho-Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Karpats’ka Ukrayina), also called Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Підкарпатська Русь, Pidkarpats’ka Rus’), was an autonomous state within Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. ... Map of the region, with Central Lithuania marked in Green Central Lithuania (Polish: Litwa Åšrodkowa, Lithuanian: Vidurio Lietuva or VidurinÄ— Lietuva, Belarusian: Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva) was a semi-independent state, created in 1920 by allegedly rebellious soldiers of the so called Lithuanian-Belarusian division of the Polish Army. ...

  • In 1920 Polish troops occupied a part of Lithuania, where they established Central Lithuania. In 1922 the country was formally annexed by Poland. Nowadays it is divided between Lithuania and Belarus.

Cospaia (1441-1826) Cospaia was a small republic in Italy. ...

  • Due to an error in a treaty between Florence and the Papal States in 1441, a small area of territory between the two was no longer incorporated in either; the inhabitants then declared the Republic of Cospaia. In 1826 it was divided between Tuscany and the Papal States.

Courland (1918: Kurland/Kurzeme) Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ...

  • Courland seceded in 1918 from Russia as the Duchy of Courland. Later that year it became part of the United Baltic Duchy. Nowadays it is part of Latvia.

Cracow (1815-1846: Kraków) Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ...

  • In 1815 the Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of Cracow With Its Territory (or the "Republic of Cracow" for short) was established under a joint Austrian, Prussian and Russian protectorate. It was occupied by Austria between 1836 and 1841, and was formally annexed by Austria in 1846. Nowadays it is part of Poland.

Crete (1908-1913: Kriti) For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...

  • After various periods of rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, in 1908 the Cretan State became independent. It joined Greece in 1913.

Croatia (1941-1945: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska) Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...

  • After the Axis invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in 1941 the puppet state Independent State of Croatia was established. Parts of the country were reincorporated into liberated Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, starting in 1943. In 1945 the state was dissolved. Nowadays Croatia is independent again, but its territory is much smaller from the 1941-1945 Croatia.

Czechoslovakia (1918-1939, 1945-1993: Československo) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...

  • After World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary, the Czechoslovak Republic was formed in 1918 out of the Austrian territories of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia and the Hungarian territory of Slovakia. It was joined in 1919 by Ruthenia. In 1938 it ceded the Sudetenland territory to Germany and Tesin to Poland. In 1939 the remainder of the "Czech" half was occupied by Germany as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, while Slovakia became a state under the influence of Germany, except for Carpatho-Ukraine, which was occupied by Hungary.
  • Czechoslovakia was reconstituted in 1945, renamed from 1960 the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, in March 1990 the Czechoslovak Federal Republic, and finally from April 1990 the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. In 1993 it was separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

“The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... It has been suggested that Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938) be merged into this article or section. ... Český Těšín is a town in the northeastern Czech Republic, at the Olza river, in Moravian-Silesian Region. ... Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ...

D

Dagestan (1919-1920) The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , Daɣistanłul Džumħuriyat), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...

Danzig (1920-1939: Danzig/Gdańsk) State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ...

  • After the defeat of Germany in World War I, the city of Danzig in 1920 became the Free City of Danzig, an international protectorate. It was annexed by Germany in 1939. Nowadays it is part of Poland and named Gdańsk.

GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ...

E

Eastern Rumelia (1879-1908: Източна Румелия / Istočna Rumelija) Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ...

  • In 1878 inside the Ottoman Empire the Vilayet of Eastern Rumelia was created, gaining autonomy in 1879. Between 1885 and 1886 it was annexed to Bulgaria, but nominal Ottoman rule was restored in 1886. In 1908 Eastern Rumelia was incorporated into Bulgaria.

Estonia (1918-1940: Eesti) Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ...

  • After the Russian revolution Estonia seceded from Russia in 1918 as the Republic of Estonia. It was added by German occupiers to the Baltic State during most of 1918, but restored later that year. A counter-government of the Estonian Conciliar Republic was active from 1918-1919 in Russian-occupied territory. In 1940 Estonia is occupied by the USSR, renamed into Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in the USSR. It was restored for 5 days in 1944, but remained part of the USSR. Nowadays it is independent again.

This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered a fourth Baltic state. ...

F

Finnish Democratic Republic (1939-1940: Suomi) The Finnish Democratic Republic (Finnish: Suomen Kansanvaltainen Tasavalta) was a short-lived Communist regime in those minor parts of Finland that were occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War. ...

  • During the Russo-Finnish War the USSR created the Finnish Democratic Republic in 1939. It was dissolved the following year and its part of Finland incorporated into the USSR.

Fiume (1920-1924) Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Free state of rijeka. ...

  • The status of the Hungarian city of Fiume was disputed between Italy and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after World War I. In 1920 the city gained de facto independence as the Independent State of Fiume, but in 1924 was incorporated into Fascist Italy. Nowadays it is part of Croatia and named Rijeka.

Flanders (1917-1918: Vlaanderen) Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution...

  • In 1917, during the German occupation of Belgium, the Independent State of Flanders was proclaimed. This state was terminated by the Allied occupation forces in 1918.

Frankfurt (1813-1866) Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other articles with similar names, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ...

The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2...

G

Gagauzia (1992-1995: Gagauz-Yeri/) Capital Comrat Largest city Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan and Russian Government Governor Chairman of People Assembly Autonomous region of Moldova Gheorghi Tabunshik Stepan Esir Surface 1,832 km² 707 mi² Population 155,700 (2006) [1] Density 85/km² Creation April 23, 1994 Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı State religion Eastern...

  • In 1992 Gagauzia unilaterally seceded from Moldova as the Republic of Gagauzia. After negotiations Gagauzia was reincorporated into Moldova in 1995.

Georgia (1918-1922: საქართველო / Sakartvelo)

German Democratic Republic (1949-1990: Deutsche Demokratische Republik) The Trans-Caucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TCDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР), Zakavkazskaja Diemokratitchieskaja Phiedierativnaja Riespublika (ZKDPR)) (February 1918 – May 1918) was a short-lived state in the Caucasus after the October Revolution. ... Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ...

Guastalla (1814-1859) Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Guastalla is a town and commune in the province of Reggio Emilia in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ...

  • After periods of French occupation, the Duchy of Guastalla, an Italian state since 1402, was restored in 1814. It was annexed by Modena in 1859. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Republic of Gumuljina (1913) Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Provisional flag Capital Komotini (Gumuljina) Political structure Provisional President Hoca Salih Efendi History  - Established July 28, 1913  - Disestablished September 16, 1913 The Provisional Government of Western Thrace (July 28 - September 16, 1913) was a small, short-lived republic that occupied Western Thrace. ...

  • The Republic of Gumuljina, was a short-lived republic in Thrace established in 1913 after Bulgarian forces retreated at the end of the second Balkan War. Nowadays it is part of Greece and its main town, Gumuldjina, is known as Komotini.

Guria (1352-1830: გურია / Guria) Thraciae veteris typvs. ... The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912-1913 in the course of which the Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria) first conquered Ottoman-held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils, Bulgaria suffering defeat at the... Komotini (or Komotene Greek: Κομοτηνή, Turkish: Gümülcine, Bulgarian: Гюмюрджина (Gyumyurdjina)) is a city in north-eastern Greece. ... Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ...

  • The Principality of Guria, established in 1352, was incorporated into Russia in 1830. Nowadays it is part of Georgia.

H

Hamburg (1813-1867) Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018...

In 1871 Hamburg became a member state of the German Empire. Nowadays it is a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...


Hanover (1814-1866: Hannover) Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ...

Herceg-Bosna (1993-1994) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Coat of Arms of Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia existed in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1994 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ...

Grand Duchy of Hesse (1813-1867/1871) Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ...

Hesse-Homburg (1813-1866: Hessen (-Homburg)) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Hesse-Homburg was formed into a separate landgraviate in 1622 by the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt to be ruled by his son, although it did not become independent of Hesse-Darmstadt until 1668. ...

Hesse-Kassel (1813-1866: Kurhessen) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ...

Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1813-1849) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Hohenzollern-Hechingen is a branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ...

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1813-1849) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ...

The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2...

I

Icaria {1912: Ικαρία / Ikaria) For the utopian place see the entry for Étienne Cabet Icaria, also spelled Ikaria (Greek: Ικαρία), locally Nikaria or Nicaria (Νικαριά), previous name: Doliche (Δολίχη), is a Greek island 10 nautical miles (19 km) south-west of Samos. ...

Ingria, North (1918-1920: Pohjois Inkeri) 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... After the Bolshevic revolution in Russia the Republic of North Ingria (Pohjois Inkeri) seceded from Russia with the support of Finland with the aim to be incorporated into Finland. ...

  • After the Russian Revolution, the Republic of North Ingria seceded from Russia with the support of Finland with the aim to be incorporated into Finland. It ruled parts of Ingria from 1919 until 1920. With the Peace Treaty of Tartu it was re-integrated into Russia.

Ionian Islands (1800-1807 and 1815-1864: Ιόνιοι Νήσοι / Isole Ionie) This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionioi Nisoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ...

  • The Ionian Islands, formerly part of the Venetian Republic, became after periods of occupation by various foreign countries (French Republic 1797-1799, Russian and Ottoman Empires 1799-1800, French Empire 1807-1815 and the United Kingdom 1809-1815), in 1800 the Septinsular Republic (Επτάνησος Πολιτεία / Repubblica Settinsulare), a republic under the suzerainty of the Ottoman and the protection of the Russian Empires and in 1815 the United States of the Ionian Islands (Ηνωμένον Κράτος των Ιονίων Νήσων / Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie), a republic under British protectorate. On postage stamps issued in 1859 the country is referred as Ιονικόν Κράτος (Ionian State). The islands were incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1864.

Irish Republic (1916-1922: Saorstát Éireann / Poblacht na hÉireann) The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ...

1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Dáil Chamber Dáil Éireann (pronounced ) is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...

K

Kruševo Republic (1903: Крушевo / Kruševo) The Ilinden Uprising as seen by the English daily The Times, Aug. ...

  • During the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising in Macedonia against the Ottoman Empire in 1903 the Kruševan Republic is proclaimed in the liberated part of Macedonia. The Kruševan Republic lasted for 10 days before it was re-taken by the forces of the Ottoman Empire. Nowadays it is part of the Republic of Macedonia.

The Ilinden Uprising as seen by the English daily The Times, Aug. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

L

Lajtabansag State (1921: Lajtabánság) Lajtabansag State (Hungarian: Lajtabánság) was a short lived Hungarian state in the territory of nowadays Burgenland after the Treaty of Trianon after the Hungarian Army left the territory but before the Austrian annexation. ...

Latvia (1918-1940: Latvija) Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or Felsőőrvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ...

  • After attempts to create an independent Latvia in early 1918, German puppet states of Courland and the Baltic State are formed. Courland joined the Baltic State later that year, but after the German defeat, Latvia became independent as the Republic of Latvia in the end of 1918. Russia took over power in 1919 and established the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic. Later in 1919 the Republic of Latvia is restored. After the occupation by the USSR in 1940, it was again renamed Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in the USSR. During the first days of the German attack on the USSR in 1941 an independent republic of Latvia was declared, as was the case for 1 day in 1945. Nowadays it is independent again.

Lemko-Rusyn (1918-1920: Ruska Lemkivshchyna) Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered a fourth Baltic state. ... Lemko - one of four major groups of Ruthenian montagnards of the northwest Carpathian mountain chain, having a unique dialect and culture. ...

Limerick Soviet (1919) Lemko-Rusyn Republic or Ruska Narodna Respublika Lemkiv was founded in Florynka on December 5, 1918, in the aftermath of World War I, after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Founded on April 15, 1919 by the the Limerick Trades and Labour Council, as a protest against the declaraction a Special Military Area under the Defence of the Realm Act which covered of most of Limerick city and a part of the county. ...

Lippe (1813-1867) Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... Founded on April 15, 1919 by the the Limerick Trades and Labour Council, as a protest against the declaraction a Special Military Area under the Defence of the Realm Act which covered of most of Limerick city and a part of the county. ... This article is about the district Lippe. ...

Litbel (1919: Litbelas) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... V. Mickevicius- Kapsukas Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR, Litbel) existed within the territories of modern Belarus and Lithuania for a brief period within 1919, before the area has been annexed to Poland. ...

  • In 1919 the two soviet republics of Lithuania and Belorussia merge into the Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Later that year the republic is defeated and the territory divided between Lithuania and Poland.

Lithuania (1918-1940: Lietuva) Motto none Anthem Мы, беларусы(Belarusian) My, Belarusy(transliteration) We Belarusians Belarus() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Minsk Official languages Belarusian, Russian Government Presidential republic  -  President Alexander Lukashenko  -  Prime Minister Sergey Sidorsky Independence from the Soviet Union   -  Declared July 27, 1990   -  Established August 25, 1991   -  Completed December 25, 1991...

  • After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1918 the independence of the State of Lithuania is proclaimed. It is renamed Kingdom of Lithuania and subsequently Republic of Lithuania the same year. Parts of the country came under control of the Russian puppet state of Litbel in 1918 and 1919, but Lithuanian rule is restored. Poland occupied parts of Lithuania to create Central Lithuania in 1920. After the occupation by the USSR in 1940, it is renamed Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in the USSR. During the first days of the German attack on the USSR in 1941 an independent republic of Lithuania is declared. Nowadays it is independent again.

Lübeck (1813-1867) Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Lübeck ( pronunc. ...

Lucca (1817-1847) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on) the Ligurian Sea. ...

  • After periods of French and Austrian occupation, the Duchy of Lucca, an Italian state since 1288, was restored in 1817. It was annexed by Tuscany in 1847. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...

M

Massa and Carrara (1814-1859) Princes, than Dukes of Massa Alberico I Cybo-Malaspina (1554-1623) Carlo I Cybo-Malaspina (1623-1662) Alberico II Cybo-Malaspina (d. ...

  • After periods of French occupation, the double state of the Duchy of Massa and Principality of Carrara, an Italian state since 1467, was restored in 1814. It was annexed by Modena in 1859. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1813-1867) Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ...

Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1813-1867) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ...

Memel Territory (1920-1923: Memelgebiet, Memelland, Klaipėda region) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... KlaipÄ—da Region (Memel Region, Memelland) is the name of the part of Lithuania Minor consisting of the coastland around KlaipÄ—da (formerly known as Memel) and along the Curonian Lagoon, on the right bank of Neman River. ...

  • In 1920, area on the northern bank of the Neman River up to the city of Memel and surroundings were detached from Germany. A form of free state was established as Memelland. In 1923 it was annexed by Lithuania under the name of Klaipėda Region.

Menton (1848) The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near Klaipėda. ... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia The Klaipėda Region (Lithuanian: ) or Memel Territory (German: ; French: ) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. ... Menton (Occitan: Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Italian: Mentone) is a town and commune in the Alpes-Maritimes département of the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur région of France. ...

  • The Free States of Menton and Roquebrune seceded from Monaco in 1848. Later that year it was de facto annexed by Sardinia. Nowadays it is part of France.

Mirdita Republic (1921: Mirditë) Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea,(after Sicily). ... The Republic of Mirdita (Mirditë) was proclaimed in northern Albania during the transition period to independence in 1921. ...

  • The Republic of Mirdita was proclaimed in northern Albania during the transition period to independence in 1921. Later that year it was extinguished by Albania.

Modena (1814-1859: Modena) Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ...

  • After periods of French occupation, the Duchies of Modena and Reggio, an Italian state since 1289, was restored in 1814. It was renamed Modena in 1859 and annexed by the United Provinces of Central Italy in 1859, Central Italy being annexed by Sardinia the same year. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Moldavia (1601-1861: Moldova) Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea,(after Sicily). ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ...

  • Moldavia, that had become independent from the Ottoman Empire and united with Wallachia in 1593, became finally in 1601 part of the Ottoman Empire as the tributary Principality of Moldavia with a various growing degree of independence. The eastern parts of Moldavia were separated by Russia in 1812. In 1861 it merged with Wallachia into the United Romanian Principalities (renamed Romania in 1866), that became independent in 1877. Parts of the former Principality are now part of Moldova and Ukraine.

Moldavia (1918: Moldova) Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Motto (each main institution has its own motto) Anthem DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Romania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bucharest (BucureÅŸti) Official languages Romanian1 Government Republic  -  President Traian Băsescu  -  Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Independence  -  Declared 9 May... Moldavian Democratic Republic was declared on December 16, 1917 by the National Council (Sfatul Ţării) of Bassarabia (Bessarabia) elected in September 1917 in the wake of the February Revolution in the Russian Empire. ...

  • In January 1918 Bessarabia, before 1812 part of the Principality of Moldavia secedes from Russia as Moldavian Democratic Republic. It merged in April 1918 into Romania. Nowadays it is independent again as Moldova, but some parts in the north and south are part of Ukraine.

Montenegro (1878-1918, 1941-1944: Црна Гора / Crna Gora) 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized...

Moresnet (1816-1919) Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized... Unofficial flag of Moresnet (1883) Moresnet or Neutral Moresnet was a tiny European territory of about 3. ...

  • In 1816 Neutral Moresnet became a territory under common administration of the Netherlands and Prussia. The Netherlands were replaced by Belgium in 1830. After World War I in 1919 the territory was ceded to Belgium by Germany under Treaty of Versailles and formally annexed in 1920.

Munster Republic (1922) Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... The IRA West Cork Flying Column (Anti-Treaty) during the War of Independence. ...

  • In 1922 Irish Republicans formed the Munster Republic. The republic was defeated later that year and was integrated into the Irish Free State. Today, the territory is part of the Republic of Ireland.

Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...

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Naissaar (1917 - 1918) National motto: None [[Image:|Location of Naissaar]] Official language Estonian, Russian Capital Lääneküla Chairman Stepan Petrichenko Area 18, 56 km² Population ca 200 Navigation From WP1 – 59°33. ...

  • After World War I the Soviet Republic of Naissaar was established in 1917. In 1918 it was conquered by Germany. Nowadays it is part of Estonia.

Nakhichevan (1747-1828, 1918-1921, 1990: Naxçıvan) The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, Armenian: Õ†Õ¡Õ­Õ«Õ»Ö‡Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Ô»Õ¶Ö„Õ¶Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика, Persian:جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان, Turkish: Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti), known simply as Nakhichevan, is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. ...

  • In 1747 the Khanate of Nakhichevan became more or less independent from Persia. In 1828 it was annexed by Russia.
  • Under the name of Republic of Araks it proclaimed independence in 1918, renamed in 1919 into Aradayan Republic. Aradayan was occupied by Armenia in 1919, but after the conquest by soviet forces in 1920 it became the soviet puppet state Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan. Nakhichevan was incorporpated into Azerbaijan in 1921.
  • In 1990 independence is declared again, without becoming reality.

Nassau (1813-1866) The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ...

The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2...

O

Oldenburg (1813-1867) Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ...

Ottoman Empire (1307-1920: Aliye-i Osmaniye) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...

  • In 1307 the Ottoman Emirate was formed. It gradually developed into the Ottoman Empire in 1473, a country that ruled large parts of South-Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In 1920 it was dissolved and continued in a smaller form by Turkey.

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Palatinate (1923: Pfalz) Location of Palatinate in Rhineland-Palatinate The Palatinate (German: ), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Latin: ; German: ), is a region in south-western Germany. ...

  • Separatists seceded in 1923 from Germany and proclaimed the Palatinate Republic. This effort collapsed within months.

Papal States (1814-1870: Stati Pontificii) Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ...

  • After periods of French occupation, the Papal States, an Italian state since 754 ruled by the Pope, was restored in 1814. It was temporarily named United Italian Provinces in 1831 and Roman Republic in 1849. In 1870 it was annexed by Italy. In 1929, during Mussolini's rule, Italy recognized the continuing sovereignty of the pope over the much smaller Vatican City State.

Parma and Piacenza (1814-1859: Parma e Piacenza) Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from... Military flag of the Roman Republic. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ...

  • After periods of French occupation, the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza, an Italian state since 1545, was restored in 1814. It was temporarily annexed by Austria in 1848 and Sardinia in 1859. The duchies were annexed by Modena in 1859. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Piana degli Albanesi (June 1940-December 1940) Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea,(after Sicily). ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Church of Sëndo Vitit, of Latin Catholic rite Piana degli Albanesi is a comune in the Province of Palermo, Sicily. ...

  • This small town in Sicily declared the Independent Arbëresh State of Hora e Arbëreshëvet for a small period. It was a communist state but allowed the Byzantine Catholic church.

Pindus (1941-1945: Pindo) The domes of an Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the See of Rome. ... The Principality of Pindus (also Pindo or Pindos) (in Aromanian: Principatu di la Pind) and Duchy of Macedonia was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian and Bulgarian control in northwest Greece and southern Yugoslavia during the Second World War and Greek Civil War. ...

Poland (November 1918-September 1939) Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

  • The Second Republic of Poland. Nowadays Poland is independent again.

Pontecorvo (1820-1821) Pontecorvo may refer to: Flavio Lucio Pontecorvo, a Mexican engineer Bruno Pontecorvo, an Italian physicist; Pontecorvo, a town in Italy. ...

  • In 1820 the Republic of Pontecorvo seceded from the Papal States, but Papal rule was restored in 1821.

Prussia (1525-1867) Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2...

  • Inside and outside the Holy Roman Empire the merger of the Markgraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia, leads in 1618 to the formation of the double state Electorate Brandenburg and Duchy of Prussia, the latter renamed in 1701 Kingdom of Prussia. In 1772 the double state becomes known as the Royal Prussian States. It was a member state of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866. After the Prussian-Austrian War it became the leading member state of the North German Federation in 1867. It was a leading force in the creation of the German Empire in 1871. Prussia as a state was abolished de facto by the Nazis in 1934 and de jure by the Allies of World War II in 1947.

The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ...

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Reuß Junior Line (1813-1867: Reuß jüngere Linie) Reuss (German: Reuß) was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. ...

Reuß Senior Line (1813-1867: Reuß ältere Linie) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Reuss (German: Reuß) was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. ...

Rhineland (1923: Rheinland) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ...

  • Separatists supported by French and Belgian occupation forces seceded in 1923 from Germany and proclaimed the Rhine Republic. This effort collapsed within months.

Russian Empire (1547-1922: Россия / Rossija) Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...

  • In 1547 Muscovy was succeeded by the Russian Tsardom, since 1721 known as Russian Empire. In 1917 the polity used the names of Russia, Russian Republic, Russian Soviet Republic, followed in 1918 by Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. It united with the soviet republics in Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. Nowadays most of its former territory forms the Russian Federation.

Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

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Saar Territory (1920-1935: Saargebiet) Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ...

  • The League of Nations separated the Saar region from Germany and established the Saar Territory under its administration. It was reincorporated by plebiscite into Germany in 1935.

Saarland (1947-1957) The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ...

Sardinia (1720-1861: Sardegna). Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ...

  • The islands of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1326, in a personal union with Aragon. In 1720 it is acquired by the House of Savoy, giving the name Kingdom of Sardinia or informally Piedmont-Sardinia to the combined Savoy ruled territories. The mainland parts of the countries were occupied between 1800 and 1814. Between 1859 and 1861 it annexed most other Italian states and after the unification with the Two Sicilies succeeded by Italy.

Saxe-Altenburg (1813-1867: Sachsen-Altenburg) Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea,(after Sicily). ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Saxe-Coburg (1815-1826: Sachsen-Coburg) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1826-1867: Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ...

Saxe-Gotha (1813-1826: Sachsen-Gotha) Saxe-Coburg (German Sachsen-Coburg) is a historical state in todays Bavaria, Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and the dissolution of the succeeding Confederation of the Rhine in 1813, the Principality of Saxe-Gotha, also known as Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, a German state since 1572, became more or less independent. The small Thuringian state was a member state of the German Confederation from 1815. In 1826 it merged with Saxe-Coburg into Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Nowadays it is part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Saxe-Hildburghausen (1813-1826: Sachsen-Hildburghausen) The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ...

  • After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and the dissolution of the succeeding Confederation of the Rhine in 1813, the Principality of Saxe-Hildburghausen, a German state since 1680, became more or less independent. The small Thuringian state was a member state of the German Confederation since 1815. In 1826 it became part of Saxe-Meiningen. Nowadays it is part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Saxe-Meiningen (1813-1867: Sachsen-Meiningen) The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1813-1867: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ...

Saxony (1813-1867: Sachsen) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ...

Schaumburg-Lippe (1813-1867) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1813-1867) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ...

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1813-1867) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ...

Serbia (1878-1918, 1941-1944: Србија / Srbija) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ...

  • In 1878 the independence of the Principality of Serbia, nominally under Ottoman suzerainty and de facto independent since 1815, is internationally recognized. It was renamed Kingdom of Serbia in 1882. It gradually enlarged its territory and became in 1918 part the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later became Yugoslavia). Between 1941 and 1944 Serbia was a Nazi-occupied puppet state. It is now independent again as Serbia.

Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006: Srbija i Crna Gora) The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ...

Slovakia (1939-1945: Slovensko) Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized...

  • The Slovak Republic was declared in 1939 under Nazi-Germany's "protection". It arose from Czechoslovakia, which split into the Slovak Republic, Carpatho-Ukraine (occupied by Hungary), and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. After the German capitulation it became part of Czechoslovakia again. Nowadays it is part of the territory of Slovakia

Sonderbund (1845-1847) Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Politcal structure Protectorate Reichsprotector  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting) Staatspresident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13, 1945 Currency Bohemian and Moravian... The Sonderbund (meaning separate alliance, in German), was a league created in 1845 in Switzerland between seven Catholic and Conservative cantons in order to protect their interests against a centralization of power. ...

  • Seven cantons from Switzerland created their own confederation, Sonderbund, in 1845. It was reincorporated into Switzerland in 1847.

Srpska (1992-1995: Српска / Srpska) Today, Republika Srpska is the poorer political entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

Srpska Krajina (1991-1997: Српска Крајина / Srpska Krajina) Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Serbian Krajina (Republika Srpska Krajina, RSK) was an internationally unrecognized Serbian republic in Croatia. ...

  • Serbs in Croatia created the Republika Srpska Krajina in 1991 after the breakup of Socialist Yugoslavia. In 1995 it was mostly captured by the Croatian forces after the military operation named Operation Storm (Oluja). The remainder of Srpska Krajina (Srem-Baranja Oblast) was peacefully incorporated into Croatia in 1997. Nowadays it is part of Croatia.

State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918: Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba / Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба / Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... map of the Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem stands for Serbian Autonomous Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem. ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ...

Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ...

T

Transcaucasia (1918, 1922: Закавказ / Zakavkaz) Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ...

  • After the Communists took power in Russia in 1918, the Democratic Federative Republic of Transcaucasia seceded from Russia. Later that year, Transcaucasia separated into Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia.
  • In 1922 these countries were united by Soviet occupiers into the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia, later in 1922 renamed the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The TSFSR became in the same month part of the USSR.

Transylvania (1918: Transilvania / Erdély / Siebenbürgen) Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ...

Trieste (1947-1954: Trieste / Trst) Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ...

Tuscany (1814-1859: Toscane) Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Mandate can mean: An obligation handed down by an inter-governmental body; see mandate (international law) The power granted by an electorate; see mandate (politics) A League of Nations mandate To some Christians, an order from God; see mandate (theology) The decision of an appeals court; see mandate (law) The... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ...

Two Sicilies (1759-1861: Due Sicilie) Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma (PR) Mayor Elvio Ubaldi (since May 28, 2002) Elevation 55 m Area 260 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 175,789  - Density 676/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Parmigiani (Parmensi are called the provinces inhabitants) Dialing code... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea,(after Sicily). ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ...

  • The southern parts of mainland Italy and Sicily become in 1130 the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1281 the kingdom was split into the Kingdom of Sicily, informally Kingdom of Naples, and the Kingdom of Sicily. The two kingdoms were sometimes in personal union and ruled by Aragon, Spain and Austria between 1442 and 1759. From 1759 the two kingdoms had a joint king, the king of Naples. After the French period the country was reunited as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816. Between 1848 and 1849 the entities had two separate administrations. It was united with Sardinia in 1860. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... “Napoli” redirects here. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... “Napoli” redirects here. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea,(after Sicily). ...

U

Ukraine (1917-1922: Україна / Ukrayina)

  • Ukraine seceded in 1917 from Russia as the Ukrainian Democratic Republic. Owing to the civil war, and the aftermath of World War I, power shifted between communists and non-communists, which led to a succession of names: Ukrainian People's Republic, Ukrainian State, Hetmanate of Ukraine, Ukrainian People's Republic and finally Ukrainian Socialist Conciliar Republic. The latter became in 1922 a founding component of the USSR. Nowadays it is independent again as Ukraine.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (1922-1991: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик / Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, SSSR) State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...

Užice (1941: Ужичка република / Užička Republika) Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ...

  • The Republic of Užice was a short-lived millitary state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. The Republic was established by the fighters of the Partisan resistance movement and its capital was in the town of Užice. In November 1941, German troops occupied this territory again, while the majority of Partisan forces escaped towards Bosnia and Sandžak.

National Socialism redirects here. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Užice (Serbian Cyrillic: Ужице) is a town located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ... Motto none Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members NebojÅ¡a Radmanović1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... Map of Sandžak Sandžak (Serbian: Санџак, Sandžak, Bosnian: Sandžak, Albanian: Sanxhak or Sanxhaku, Turkish: Sancak) is a geographical region in central Balkans. ...

V

Venice (1848-1849: Venezia) Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ...

  • Venice, part of Austria since 1813, declared independence twice in 1848 as the Venetian State as a restoration of the Republic of Venice. Austrian rule was restored in 1849. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Italian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789-1797 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 727 (697)  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. ...

W

Waldeck-Pyrmont (1813-1867) Waldeck (or Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ...

Wallachia (1593-1861: Ţara Românească or Valahia) The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...

  • Wallachia, which briefly gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1593, was subsumed back into the Empire in 1601 as the tributary Principality of Wallachia with a variable degree of independence. In 1861 it merged with Moldavia into the United Romanian Principalities (renamed Romania in 1866), that became independent in 1877.

Western Bosnia (1993-1995: Zapadna Bosna) Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Motto (each main institution has its own motto) Anthem DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Romania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bucharest (BucureÅŸti) Official languages Romanian1 Government Republic  -  President Traian Băsescu  -  Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Independence  -  Declared 9 May... Coat of Arms of Western Bosnia Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia existed in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ...

Western Ukraine (1918–1919: Західна Українa / Zakhidna Ukrayina) Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ...

  • After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, the Ukrainian State seceded in 1918 from Austria. It was renamed the West Ukrainian People's Republic within a month. In 1919 Western Ukraine united with the Ukrainian National Republic, but was incorporated into Poland in 1920, and annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939. Today it is part of Ukraine.

Württemberg (1813-1871) Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ...

The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...

Y

Yugoslavia (1918-2003: Jugoslavija / Југославија) Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

First Serbian state was founded in 800s by House of Vlastimirović under the name of RaÅ¡ka; it has evolved into Serbian Kingdom and Empire under House of Nemanjić. In modern era it was an autonomous principality (1817–1878), independent principality and kingdom (1878–1918), part of the Kingdom of... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II1 Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature Hrvatski državni Sabor NDH (briefly in 1942) Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 6, 1941  - Established April 10, 1941  - Roma Contract May 19, 1941  - Italy... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... The Principality of Pindus (also Pindo or Pindos) (in Aromanian: Principatu di la Pind) and Duchy of Macedonia was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian and Bulgarian control in northwest Greece and southern Yugoslavia during the Second World War and Greek Civil War. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized...

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Former countries in Europe after 1815 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7256 words)
In 1922 the country was formally annexed by Poland.
After the occupation by the USSR in 1940, it is renamed Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in the USSR.
After the occupation by the USSR in 1940, it is renamed Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in the USSR.
Causes of World War I (1241 words)
At the settlement of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the principle of nationalism was ignored in favor of preserving the peace.
However, after Bismarck was fired by Kaiser William II in 1890, the traditional dislike of Slavs kept Bismarck's successors from renewing the understanding with Russia.
Europe had reached its breaking point when on June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serbian nationalist belonging to an organization known as the Black Hand (Narodna Obrana).
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