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Encyclopedia > Former Soviet Republics

The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991. Soviet redirects here. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Post-Soviet states are subject to various developments in geography, history, politics, economy, and culture in the post-Soviet era, the time after the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the period following Communist Party rule. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia. ...

Contents

States and geographical groupings

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Typical groupings of the post-Soviet states:
Red: Russia
Green: Central Asia
Yellow: Eastern Europe/Western CIS
Blue: Baltic states
Pink: Caucasus

Each of the regions has its own common set of traits, owing not only to geographic and cultural factors but also that region's history in relation to Russia. The post-Soviet states are typically divided into the following five groupings. The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ...

  • Russia because of its uniquely dominant role in the region is generally treated as a category unto itself.

The Eastern European states had their history intermingled with Russia from its earliest existence as a state, while Central Asia and the Transcaucasus were not conquered by Moscow until the 18th or 19th century. The Baltic states were historically independent (or ruled by Germany, Sweden or Poland) for significant periods in their history. Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Asia, and a former republic of the now extinct USSR. A portion of its territory west of the Ural River is located in eastern... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... National anthem Surudi milli Official language Tajiki-Persian Capital Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmonov Prime Minister Akil Akilov Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 92nd  143,100 km²  0. ... National anthem National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan Capital Tashkent President Islam Karimov Prime Minister Shavkat Mirziyayev Official language Uzbek Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 55th  447,400 km²  4. ... National anthem Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem Capital Ashgabat President and Prime Minister Saparmurat Niyazov Official language Turkmen Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 51st  488,100 km²  Negligible Population  – Total (2002)  – Density Ranked 113th  4,603,244  9. ... The Transcaucasus is a region covering the majority of Caucasus mountain range. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and...


Economies

While the peoples of the former Soviet Republics were anxious to accept the freedoms of capitalism, it quickly became apparent that weaning from five year plans was easier said than done. The gross domestic product in the former Soviet Republics (excluding the Baltic States) immediately went down, totaling only 86% of its 1991 volume. In 1994, inflation reached 400% in Ukraine, and 1258% in Kazakhstan, but was comparatively lower in the Baltic states (reaching only 45.1% in Lithuania.) 1995 was the absolute nadir of the economic plague in the Former Soviet Republics. Although most nations (the exceptions being Armenia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan) have yet to top their gross domestic products in 1991 as parts of the Soviet Union, conditions have (for the most part) been improving since 1995, although the Russian economic crisis of 2000 is notable. This is a list of names of ethnic groups. ... Five-Year Plans or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... Inflation rates of five core members of the G8 from 1950 to 1994. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Asia, and a former republic of the now extinct USSR. A portion of its territory west of the Ural River is located in eastern... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Asia, and a former republic of the now extinct USSR. A portion of its territory west of the Ural River is located in eastern... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The reasons for Capitalism's short-term apparent failure in the post-Soviet States has been a subject of debate. The most important factors are the the fact that due to a lack of properly done decommunization large parts of the economies have fallen into the hands of former Soviet apparatchiks, and the homo sovieticus mentality of the generations who have lived all their lives under communism. Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to implement that system. ...


Regional organizations

A number of international organizations and cooperating blocs have sprung up in the region since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ...


The three Baltic states have not sought membership to any of these post-Soviet organizations, seeking and achieving membership in the European Union and NATO instead. Turkmenistan, besides its membership in the CIS, has not sought closer integration in any of the Western or post-Soviet organizations. The other countries have a mixed record of participation. The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... National anthem Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem Capital Ashgabat President and Prime Minister Saparmurat Niyazov Official language Turkmen Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 51st  488,100 km²  Negligible Population  – Total (2002)  – Density Ranked 113th  4,603,244  9. ... The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...


In this section those organizations are mentioned which are mainly (or completely) composed of post-Soviet states. Organizations with much wider memberships are not discussed.

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Purple: CSTO bloc in the CIS
Green: GUUAM bloc in the CIS.
Pink: Other CIS state.

Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) consists of 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, with the exception of the Baltics. It's been said to have been created to "allow a civilised divorce" between the republics, but its members have since signed a number of documents promoting closer cooperation instead. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...


Since then, six member states (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Armenia) have enhanced their military cooperation, establishing the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO). Five other member states established the GUUAM group that was largely seen as intending to counter Russian dominance in the region. Turkmenistan is the only CIS state that sought membership in neither of these blocs. The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Asia, and a former republic of the now extinct USSR. A portion of its territory west of the Ural River is located in eastern... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... National anthem Surudi milli Official language Tajiki-Persian Capital Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmonov Prime Minister Akil Akilov Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 92nd  143,100 km²  0. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... GUUAM is a regional agreement between five CIS states, Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. ... National anthem Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem Capital Ashgabat President and Prime Minister Saparmurat Niyazov Official language Turkmen Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 51st  488,100 km²  Negligible Population  – Total (2002)  – Density Ranked 113th  4,603,244  9. ...



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Orange: Eurasec member states.
Yellow: Observer status.

Eurasian Economic Community

The Eurasian Economic Community (EURASEC) was established by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, having grown out of the CIS Customs Union. Ukraine and Moldova have observer status in the community, however Ukraine has declared its desire not to become a full member state. Because having common borders with the rest of the community is a prerequisite for full membership, this also prevents Moldova from seeking it.
Flag of EURASEC The Eurasian Economic Community (EURASEC) was put into motion on the 10th October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan signed the treaty. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Asia, and a former republic of the now extinct USSR. A portion of its territory west of the Ural River is located in eastern... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... National anthem Surudi milli Official language Tajiki-Persian Capital Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmonov Prime Minister Akil Akilov Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 92nd  143,100 km²  0. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. ...

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Union of Russia and Belarus

Union of Russia and Belarus

The Union of Russia and Belarus was originally formed on April 2, 1996 under the name "Community of Russia and Belarus", before being tightened further on April 3, 1997. It was initiated by the president of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko. The Union of Russia and Belarus (Союз России и Беларуси, also called the Belarusian-Russian Union State) is a supranational entity comprising Russia and Belarus that was initiated by the president of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko ( Russian: Алекса́ндр Григо́рьевич Лукаше́нко, Belarusian: Алякса́ндр Рыго́равіч Лукашэ́нка, Aliaksandr Ryhoravič Lukašenka) (born August 30, 1954) is the current President of Belarus. ...


On paper, the Union of Russia and Belarus intends further integration, beyond the scope of mere cooperation, including the introduction of the Russian ruble as a common currency.
1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ...

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Blue: SCO member states.
Green: Observer status.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), is composed of China and five post-Soviet states, namely Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The organization was founded in 2001, though its predecessor, the Shanghai Five grouping, has existed since 1996. Its aims revolve around security-related issues.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental organization which was founded on June 14, 2001 by leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Green: CACO member states.
Yellow: Observer status.

Central Asian Cooperation Organization

The Central Asian Cooperation Organization (CACO) was first initiated by all five Central Asian nations in 1991 as the Central Asian Commonwealth. Later Turkmenistan followed a policy of isolation, withdrawing from participation in all regional forums, while Russia joined the (now renamed) CACO in 2004. 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...




Governments

There are varying degrees of freedom among the Post-Soviet states. Freedom House's 2005 report listed the following: Freedom House, founded in the 1940s describes itself as a non-profit, nonpartisan organization that is a clear voice for democracy and freedom around the world. Freedom House says of itself that it has vigorously opposed dictatorships in Central America and Chile, apartheid in South Africa, the suppression of the...

Similarly, the Worldwide Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, recorded the following as regards press freedom: The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... National anthem National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan Capital Tashkent President Islam Karimov Prime Minister Shavkat Mirziyayev Official language Uzbek Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 55th  447,400 km²  4. ... National anthem Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem Capital Ashgabat President and Prime Minister Saparmurat Niyazov Official language Turkmen Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 51st  488,100 km²  Negligible Population  – Total (2002)  – Density Ranked 113th  4,603,244  9. ... National anthem Surudi milli Official language Tajiki-Persian Capital Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmonov Prime Minister Akil Akilov Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 92nd  143,100 km²  0. ... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Asia, and a former republic of the now extinct USSR. A portion of its territory west of the Ural River is located in eastern... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB ( French: Reporters sans frontières, or RSF) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to freedom of the press. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech often through a state constitution for its citizens, and associations of individuals extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...

It has been remarked that several post-Soviet states have not changed leadership since their independence. Such leaders have been Saparmurat Niyazov in Turkmenistan, Islam Karimov in Uzbekistan, and Nursultan Nazarbayev in Kazakhstan. All of these had originally more limited terms but through decrees or referenda prolonged their stay in office (a practice also followed by President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus). Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan had likewise served as President since its independence until he was forced to resign as a result of the Kyrgyz revolution of 2005. The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. ... National anthem Surudi milli Official language Tajiki-Persian Capital Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmonov Prime Minister Akil Akilov Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 92nd  143,100 km²  0. ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Asia, and a former republic of the now extinct USSR. A portion of its territory west of the Ural River is located in eastern... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... National anthem National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan Capital Tashkent President Islam Karimov Prime Minister Shavkat Mirziyayev Official language Uzbek Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 55th  447,400 km²  4. ... National anthem Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem Capital Ashgabat President and Prime Minister Saparmurat Niyazov Official language Turkmen Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 51st  488,100 km²  Negligible Population  – Total (2002)  – Density Ranked 113th  4,603,244  9. ... Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov Turkmenbashy [ssap-ar-moor-at ni-yaz-obv] (Turkmen Saparmyrat Nyýazow Türkmenbaşy) (born February 19, 1940) has been the most powerful figure in Turkmenistan since 1985. ... Islam Karimov Islam Abduganievich Karimov (also transliterated as Islom Karimov) (born January 30, 1938) is the President of Uzbekistan (since 1991). ... Nursultan Nazarbayev Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Нурсултан Назарбаев) (born July 6, 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakhstan) is the current leader of Kazakhstan. ... Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko ( Russian: Алекса́ндр Григо́рьевич Лукаше́нко, Belarusian: Алякса́ндр Рыго́равіч Лукашэ́нка, Aliaksandr Ryhoravič Lukašenka) (born August 30, 1954) is the current President of Belarus. ... Askar Akayevich Akayev (born 10 November 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kyrgyzstan) has been the President of Kyrgyzstan since it declared independence. ... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic. ... The Tulip Revolution refers to the overthrow of President Askar Akayev and his government in the Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan after the parliamentary elections of February 27 and of March 13, 2005. ...


The issue of dynastical succession has been another element affecting the politics of some post-Soviet States, with Ilham Aliyev following up on the presidency of his father (Heydar Aliyev) in Azerbaijan, and theories about the children of other leaders in Central Asia also being groomed for succession. [1]  (http://forumkz.addr.com/2004en/en_forum_09_08_04.htm) The participation of Akayev's son and daughter in the 2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary elections boosted fears of dynastic succession being used in Kyrgyzstan as well, and may have contributed to the anti-Akayev climate that led to his overthrow. Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev) (born December 24, 1961) is the president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party (since 2003). ... Heydar Aliyev Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heydar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son... The 2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary elections were held in February and March 2005. ...


Wars and conflicts

Separatist conflicts

Most military conflicts in the post-Soviet space have had to do with the separatist desires of territories with different ethnic or religious demographics than the majority of the state they're officially recognized as part of. Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ...


Such territories and resulting military conflicts have so far been:

Out of these regions, Ajaria has been fully reincorporated into Georgia and the conflict there has ended peacefully. Separatist leader Aslan Abashidze fled to Russia where he was granted asylum. Transnistria or Transdniester (Russian: Приднестровье (Pridnestrovye), Romanian Transnistria, referred to as Stânga Nistrului (Left Bank of the Nistru) by official Moldovan sources). ... The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. ... Abkhazia ( Abkhaz: /Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия) is a region of 8,600 km² in the Caucasus. ... The Republic of South Ossetia (in Russian Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya, Республика Южная Осетия; in Ossetian Respublikae Xussar Iryston, Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон) is a de facto independent republic within Georgia. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi Chairman of Interim Council Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... The Chechen Republic (Russian: Чеченская Республика; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика/Noxçiyn Respublika), also known as Chechnya (Russian: Чечня, Chechen: Нохчичьо/Noxçiyçö), Chechnia or Chechenia, is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... Aslan Abashidze (Georgian: ასლან აბაშიძე) (born July 20, 1938) was the leader of the Georgia from 1991 to May 5, Georgian (Ajarian) family. ...


After two bloody wars Chechnya is under the control of the central Russian government, but the conflict there has not yet ended.


Transnistria, Abkhazia and South Ossetia on the other hand, have achieved de facto independence which is however unrecognized by any other country in the world — a Russian military presence exists in all three of these territories. Nagorno-Karabakh has likewise achieved a de facto independence, with Armenian troops having control of all the territory and even of neighboring parts of Azerbaijan. Since 1994 these four regions have made an agreement of mutual assistance, and their leaders have in several occasions reiterated such pledges. [2]  (http://www.turkishweekly.net/comments.php?id=723)[3]  (http://jamestown.org/publications_details.php?article_id=2368327) [4] (http://www.messenger.com.ge/issues/0838_april_8_2005/press_scanner_0838_cis.htm) Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...


Other civil wars

Civil wars unrelated to separatist regions have occurred twice in the region:

The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1991-1992) and Abkhazia (1992-1993), as well as the overthrow of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1991-1993). ... Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia (Georgian: ზვიად გამსახურდია) (March 31, 1939 - December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ... Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze (Georgian: ედუარდ შევარდნაძე, Russian: Эдуа́рд Амвро́сьевич Шевардна́дзе; pronounced ed-oo-ard am-vro-see-ye-vitch she-va-rd-nad-zuh) (born 25 January 1928) is a Georgian politician. ... The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...

Color revolutions

Lastly, since 2003, a number of (largely) peaceful "color revolutions" has happened in three post-Soviet states after disputed elections, with popular protests bringing into power the former opposition. Color revolutions or Flower revolutions are the names given collectively to a series of related movements that have developed in post-communist societies in Eastern Europe and are possibly spreading elsewhere. ...

Mikhail Saakashvili and his supporters marched on the parliament carrying roses as a symbol of nonviolence Rose Revolution refers to a peaceful 2003 revolution in the country of Georgia that displaced president Eduard Shevardnadze. ... Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze (Georgian: ედუარდ შევარდნაძე, Russian: Эдуа́рд Амвро́сьевич Шевардна́дзе; pronounced ed-oo-ard am-vro-see-ye-vitch she-va-rd-nad-zuh) (born 25 January 1928) is a Georgian politician. ... Orange-clad supporters of Viktor Yushchenko gather in Independence Square in Kiev. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko ( Ukrainian: Віктор Андрійович Ющенко) (born 23 February 1954) is the president of Ukraine. ... The Kyrgyz revolution of 2005 refers to the overthrow of President Askar Akayev and his government in the Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan after the parliamentary elections of February 27 and of March 13, 2005. ... Askar Akayevich Akayev (born 10 November 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kyrgyzstan) has been the President of Kyrgyzstan since it declared independence. ...

See also


During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... This article is about the political term. ...

Regions of the World
Africa: Central Africa | Congo | East Africa | Great Lakes | Guinea | North Africa | Sahel | Southern Africa | Sudan | West Africa
Americas: Andean States | Caribbean | Central America | Great Lakes | Great Plains | Guianas | Southern Cone
Asia: Central Asia | East Asia | East Indies | Far East | Indian Subcontinent | North Asia | South Asia | Southeast Asia | Southwest Asia (Middle East, Levant, Anatolia, Arabia)
Europe: Balkans | Baltic region | Benelux | Central Europe | Eastern Europe | Northern Europe | Scandinavia | Southern Europe | Western Europe
Other: Eurasia: Caucasus | Post-Soviet states | Oceania: Australasia | Melanesia | Micronesia | Polynesia | Pacific Rim | Polar: Arctic | Antarctic

  Results from FactBites:
 
BIGpedia - Post-Soviet states - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (1428 words)
The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991.
While the peoples of the former Soviet Republics were anxious to accept the freedoms of capitalism, it quickly became apparent that weening from five year plans was easier said than done.
The most important factors are the the fact that due to a lack of properly done decommunization large parts of the economies have fallen into the hands of former Soviet apparatchiks, and the homo sovieticus mentality of the generations who have lived all their lives under communism.
Religion in Former Soviet Republics by James Billington (4080 words)
The martyrs of the Soviet era, the so-called "new martyrs," which the church abroad has always venerated and honored, were honored in April with a very moving liturgy in the Cathedral of the Assumption inside the Kremlin.
The rediscovery of the lost martyrs of the Soviet period can be summed up in the words of one of them when he entered the gulag and went off to his death.
The Soviet Union has not lived through a civil rights decade of the sixties, has not lived through the various kinds of laboratory experiences of learning to talk first "at" and then "to" and then "with" one another.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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