FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
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Encyclopedia > Formatted text

Formatted text, styled text or rich text, as opposed to plain text, has styling information beyond the minimum of semantic elements: colours, styles (boldface, italic), sizes and special features (such as hyperlinks). Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... A hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference in a hypertext document to another document or other resource. ...

Contents

Terminology

Formatted text cannot rightly be identified with binary files or be distinct from ASCII text. This is because formatted text is not necessarily binary, it may be text-only, such as HTML or RTF files, and it may be ASCII-only. Conversely, a plain text file may be non-ASCII (in an encoding such as Unicode UTF-8). Text-only formatted text is achieved by markup which too is textual, while some editors of formatted text like Microsoft Word save in a binary format. In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ... RTF (usually referred to as such) stands for Rich Text Format, a document file format developed by Microsoft at least as early as 1987 for cross-platform document interchange that most text processing programs are able to read and write. ... Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... UTF-8 (8-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a lossless, variable-length character encoding for Unicode created by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. ... There is more than one usage of the word markup. ... Microsoft Word 2003 features a number of improvements over earlier Word packages. ...


Beginning of Formatted Text

Formatted text has its genesis in the first interactive systems, where users made up for the lack of formatting in ASCII by using certain symbols as substitutes. Emphasis, for example, could be achieved in ASCII in a number of ways:

  • Capitalisation: I am NOT making this up.
  • Surrounding with underscores: I am _not_ making this up.
  • Surrounding with asterisks: I am *not* making this up.
  • Spacing: I am n o t making this up.

Surrounding by underscores was also used for book titles: Look it up in _The_C_Programming_Language_.


Markup Languages

Formatting can be marked by tags distinguished from the body text by special characters, such as angle brackets in HTML. For example, this text: In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ...


The dog is classified as Canis lupus familiaris in taxonomy.


is marked up in HTML thus: In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ...


<p>The dog is classified as <i>Canis lupus familiaris</i> in taxonomy.</p>


The italicised text is enclosed by an opening and a closing italics tag. In TeX, the text would be marked up like this: The TeX mascot, by Duane Bibby TEX, written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ...


The dog is classified as textit{Canis lupus familiaris} in taxonomy.


Markup languages can be implemented with any text editor, needing no special software. Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


Formatted Document Files

Since the invention of MacWrite, the first WYSIWYG word processor, in which the typist codes the formatting visually rather than by inserting textual markup, word processors have tended to save to binary files. Opening such files with a text editor reveals the text embellished with various binary characters, either around the formatted areas (eg in WordPerfect) or separately, at the beginning or end of the file (eg in Microsoft Word). MacWrite was a word processor application released along with the first Apple Macintosh systems in 1984. ... WYSIWYG (pronounced wizzy-wig or wuzzy-wig) is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get, and is used in computing to describe a seamlessness between the appearance of edited content and final product. ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... WordPerfect is a word processing program; at the height of its popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was the de facto standard word processor, but has since been eclipsed in sales by Microsoft Word. ... Microsoft Word 2003 features a number of improvements over earlier Word packages. ...


Formatted text documents in binary files have, however, the disadvantages of formatting scope and secrecy. Whereas the extent of formatting is accurately marked in markup languages, WYSIWYG formatting is based on memory, that is, keeping for example your pressing of the boldface button until cancelled. This can lead to formatting mistakes and maintenance troubles. As for secrecy, formatted text document file formats tend to be proprietary and undocumented, leading to difficulty in coding compatibility by third parties, and also to unnecessary upgrades because of version changes. WYSIWYG (pronounced wizzy-wig or wuzzy-wig) is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get, and is used in computing to describe a seamlessness between the appearance of edited content and final product. ...


OpenOffice.org Writer saves files in an XML format. However, the resultant file is a binary since it is compressed (a tarball equivalent). OpenOffice. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages (it is a metaformat). ... In computing, the tar file format is a type of archive file format: the Tape ARchive format. ...


PDF is another formatted text file format that is usually binary (using compression for the text, and storing graphics and fonts in binary). It is generally an end-user format, written from an application such as Microsoft Word or OpenOffice.org Writer, and not editable by the user once done. Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe Systems for representing documents in a manner that is independent of the original application software, hardware, and operating system used to create those documents. ... Microsoft Word 2003 features a number of improvements over earlier Word packages. ... OpenOffice. ...


External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
SimpleDateFormat (Java 2 Platform SE v1.4.2) (1527 words)
Text: For formatting, if the number of pattern letters is 4 or more, the full form is used; otherwise a short or abbreviated form is used if available.
Number: For formatting, the number of pattern letters is the minimum number of digits, and shorter numbers are zero-padded to this amount.
Year: For formatting, if the number of pattern letters is 2, the year is truncated to 2 digits; otherwise it is interpreted as a number.
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