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Encyclopedia > Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
IUPAC name Methanal
Other names formol, methyl aldehyde, methylene oxide
Identifiers
CAS number [50-00-0]
RTECS number LP8925000
SMILES C=O
Properties
Molecular formula CH2O
Molar mass 30.03 g·mol−1
Appearance colorless gas
Density 1 kg·m−3, gas
Melting point

-117 °C (156 K) Image File history File links Formaldehyde-2D.svg‎ Formaldehyde, CH2O File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Formaldehyde ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,084 × 1,100 pixels, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1066x1188, 98 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Formaldehyde ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...

Boiling point

-19.3 °C (253.9 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water > 100 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Structure
Molecular shape trigonal planar
Dipole moment 2.33168(1) D
Hazards
Main hazards toxic, flammable
NFPA 704
2
3
2
 
R-phrases R23/24/25, R34, R40, R43
S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S36/37, S39, S45, S51
Flash point -53 °C
Related compounds
Related aldehydes acetaldehyde
benzaldehyde
Related compounds ketones
carboxylic acids
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Formaldehyde is the chemical compound with the formula H2CO. It is the simplest aldehyde-- an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group: it consists of exactly one carbonyl. It was first synthesized by the Russian chemist Aleksandr Butlerov (1828-1886), but was conclusively identified by August Wilhelm von Hofmann.[1] Formaldehyde exists in several forms aside from H2CO: the cyclic trimer trioxane and the polymer paraformaldehyde. It exists in water as the hydrate H2C(OH)2. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Four sp3 orbitals. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is a chemical compound consisting of a benzene ring with an aldehyde substituent. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... An aldehyde. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov (Александр Михайлович Бутлеров) (September 15, 1828 – August 17, 1886, Russian chemist, the creator of the theory of chemical structure (1861), and the discoverer of formaldehyde. ... August Wilhelm von Hofmann (April 8, 1818 _ May 5, 1892) was a German chemist. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... It has been suggested that Delrin be merged into this article or section. ...


Formaldehyde is an intermediate in the oxidation (or combustion) of methane as well as other carbon compounds, e.g., forest fires, in automobile exhaust, and in tobacco smoke. It is produced in atmosphere by the action of sunlight and oxygen on atmospheric methane and other hydrocarbons; thus, it becomes part of smog. Small amounts of formaldehyde are produced as a metabolic byproduct in most organisms, including humans. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Car redirects here. ... Tobacco smoking is the act of smoking tobacco products, especially cigarettes and cigars. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...

Contents

Production

Formaldehyde is produced industrially by the catalytic oxidation of methanol. The most common catalysts are silver metal or a mixture of an iron oxide with molybdenum and vanadium. In the more commonly used FORMOX process methanol and oxygen react at ca 250-400 °C in presence of iron oxide in combination with molybdenum and/or vanadium to produce formaldehyde according to the chemical equation Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. ...

2 CH3OH + O2 → 2 H2CO + 2 H2O

The silver-based catalyst is usually operated at a higher temperature, about 650 °C. Two chemical reactions on it simultaneously produce formaldehyde: that shown above and the dehydrogenation reaction Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction in which unsaturated bonds between carbon atoms are reduced by attachment of a hydrogen atom to each carbon. ...

CH3OH → H2CO + H2

Formaldehyde is readily oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to form formic acid. Formic acid is found in ppm levels in commercial formaldehyde. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ...


Formalin can be produced on a smaller scale using a whole range of other methods including conversion from ethanol instead of the normally-fed methanol feedstock. Such methods are of less commercial importance.


Organic chemistry

Formaldehyde is a central building block in the synthesis of many other compounds. It exhibits most of the chemical properties of other aldehydes but is more reactive. Formaldehyde is a good electrophile, participating in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions with aromatic compounds, and can undergo electrophilic addition reactions with alkenes. Formaldehyde undergoes a Cannizzaro reaction in the presence of basic catalysts to produce formic acid and methanol. In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... Electrophilic aromatic substitution or EAS is an organic reaction in which an atom, usually hydrogen, appended to an aromatic system is replaced by an electrophile. ... The term aromatic compound may also refer to: any organic compound possessing a strong olfactory aroma aromatic hydrocarbons (originally named as a subset of the above; however, aromatic hydrocarbons do not necessarily possess any smell whatsoever) ... In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where in chemical compound a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The Cannizzaro reaction named after Stanislao Cannizzaro is a chemical reaction that involves the base-induced disproportionation of an aldehyde lacking a hydrogen atom in the alpha position. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ...


Condensation with acetaldehyde affords pentaerythritol.[2] Condensation with phenols gives phenol-formaldehyde resins. With 4-substituted phenols one obtains calixarenes.[3] Pentaerythritol is a polyol used in the fabrication of PETN and varnishes. ...


When combined with hydrogen sulfide it forms trithiane.[4] S-phrases , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references 1,3,5-Trithiane is the chemical compound with the formula (CH2S)3. ...

3 CH2O + 3 H2S → (CH2S)3 + 3 H2O

Biology

Formaldehyde (and its oligomers and hydrates) are rarely encountered in living organisms, but are often used in biology when fixing tissues. Methanogenesis, which can start from many C1 sources, proceeds via the equivalent of formaldehyde, but this one-carbon species is masked as a methylene group carried by methanopterin. The formaldehyde is the primary cause of the methanol's toxicity, since methanol is metabolised into toxic formaldehyde by the Cytochrome P450 enzyme. In chemistry, an oligomer consists of a finite number of monomer units (oligo is Greek for a few), in contrast to a polymer which, at least in principle, consists of an infinite number of monomers. ... Methanogenesis is the formation of methane by microbes. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... Tetrahydromethanopterin, abbreviated H4MPT, is a cofactor in methanogenesis. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ...


Applications

As a disinfectant and biocide

An aqueous solution of formaldehyde can be useful as a disinfectant as it kills most bacteria and fungi (including their spores). It is also used as a preservative in vaccinations. Formaldehyde solutions are applied topically in medicine to dry the skin, such as in the treatment of warts. Many aquarists use formaldehyde as a treatment for the parasite ichthyophthirius. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... Ichthyopthirius multifiliis is a species of ciliate protozoa which parasitizes freshwater fish. ...


Formaldehyde preserves or fixes tissue or cells by irreversibly cross-linking primary amino groups in proteins with other nearby nitrogen atoms in protein or DNA through a -CH2- linkage. In the fields of histology, pathology, and cell biology, fixation is a chemical process by which biological tissues are preserved from decay. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Formaldehyde is also used as a detergent in RNA gel electrophoresis, preventing RNA from forming secondary structures. For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... For specific types of electrophoresis (for example, the process of administering medicine, iontophoresis), see electrophoresis (disambiguation). ...


Formaldehyde is converted to formic acid in the body, leading to a rise in blood acidity (acidosis). Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. ...


Industry

Formaldehyde is a common building block for the synthesis of more complex compounds and materials.


Most formaldehyde is used in the production of polymers and other chemicals. When reacted with phenol, urea, or melamine formaldehyde produces, respectively, hard thermoset phenol formaldehyde resin, urea formaldehyde resin, and melamine resin. These resins are commonly used in permanent adhesives such as those used in plywood or carpeting. It is used as the wet-strength resin added to sanitary paper products such as (listed in increasing concentrations injected into the paper machine headstock chest) facial tissue, table napkins, and roll towels. They are also foamed to make insulation, or cast into moulded products. Production of formaldehyde resins accounts for more than half of formaldehyde consumption. A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... This article is about the chemical substance called melamine. ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) refer to a range of polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... The earliest commercial synthetic resin is based on a Phenol formaldehyde resin with the commercial name Bakelite, and is formed from an elimination reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. ... Melamin resin or melamine formaldehyde (also incorrectly, melamine) is a plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ...


Many of these are polyfunctional alcohols such as pentaerythritol, which is used to make paints and explosives. Other formaldehyde derivatives include methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, an important component in polyurethane paints and foams, and hexamine, which is used in phenol-formaldehyde resins as well as the explosive RDX. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pentaerythritol is a polyol used in the fabrication of PETN and varnishes. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, most often abbreviated as MDI, is an aromatic diisocyanate. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Hexamethylenetetramine cage Hexamine ((CH2)6N4) is a chemical created by the reaction of 6 moles of formaldehyde and 4 moles of ammonia. ... RDX redirects here. ...


Formaldehyde is still used in low concentrations for process C-41 (color negative film) stabilizer in the final wash step, as well as in the process E-6 pre-bleach step, to obviate the need for it in the final wash. C-41 is the name given to the process for developing a specific type of color film used in photography and often to the type of film itself. ... The E-6 process (sometimes abbreviated to just E-6) is a process for developing color reversal (transparency) photographic film. ...


Formaldehyde is used to produce glues used in the manufacture of particleboard, plywood, veneers, and other wood products, as well as spray-on insulating foams.[citation needed] Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... A veneer is a thin covering over something. ...


Formaldehyde, along with 18 M (concentrated) sulfuric acid (the entire solution often called the Marquis reagent)[5], is used as an MDMA "testing kit" by such groups as Dancesafe as well as MDMA consumers. The solution alone cannot verify the presence of MDMA but reacts with many other chemicals that the MDMA tablet itself may be adulterated with. The reaction itself produces colors that correlate with these components. For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The Marquis reagent is used as a simple spot-test to presumptively identify alkaloids as well as other compounds. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... DanceSafe is a nonprofit, harm reduction organization, with 28 local chapters in the US and Canada. ...


The textile industry uses formaldehyde-based resins as finishers to make fabrics crease-resistant.[citation needed] The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles . ...


Embalming

Formaldehyde-based solutions are used in embalming to disinfect and temporarily preserve human remains. It is the ability of formaldehyde to fix the tissue that produces the tell-tale firmness of flesh in an embalmed body. Whereas other heavier aldehydes produce a similar firming action none approaches the completeness of formaldehyde. Several European countries restrict the use of formaldehyde, including the import of formaldehyde-treated products and embalming, and the European Union is considering a complete ban on formaldehyde usage (including embalming), subject to a review of List 4B of the Technical Annex to the Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the Evaluation of the Active Substances of Plant Protection Products by the European Commission Services. Countries with a strong tradition of embalming corpses, such as Ireland and other colder-weather countries, have raised concerns. The European Union decided on September 22, 2007 to ban Formaldehyde use throughout Europe due to its carcinogenic properties.[6] Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ...


Safety

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde by inhalation is mainly from three types of sources: thermal or chemical decomposition of formaldehyde-based resins, formaldehyde emission from aqueous solutions (for example, embalming fluids), and the production of formaldehyde resulting from the combustion of a variety of organic compounds (for example, exhaust gases). Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic, and carcinogenic.[7] Because formaldehyde resins are used in many construction materials it is one of the more common indoor air pollutants.[8] At concentrations above 0.1 ppm in air formaldehyde can irritate the eyes and mucous membranes, resulting in watery eyes. Formaldehyde inhaled at this concentration may cause headaches, a burning sensation in the throat, and difficulty breathing, as well as triggering or aggravating asthma symptoms.[9] Thermal decomposition is a chemical reaction where a chemical substance breaks up into at least two chemical substances when heated. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ...


Formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is "sufficient evidence" that occupational exposure to formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans. [10] The United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA allows no more than 0.016 ppm formaldehyde in the air in new buildings constructed for that agency.[11] “EPA” redirects here. ...


Formaldehyde can cause allergies and is part of the standard patch test series. People with formaldehyde allergy are advised to avoid formaldehyde releasers as well (e.g., Quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea, and diazolidinyl urea).[12] Formaldehyde has been banned in cosmetics in both Sweden and Japan.[citation needed] Quaternium-15 Quaternium-15 is a preservative found in many cosmetics and industrial substances that releases formaldehyde. ... Diazolidinyl urea (C8H14N4O7) is a preservative. ...


FEMA Trailer Formaldehyde Exposures

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided travel trailers and mobile homes starting in 2006 for habitation by Gulf Coast residents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. Some of the people who moved into the trailers complained of breathing difficulties, nosebleeds, and persistent headaches. Formaldehyde exposure can cause burning eyes and nose, coughing, difficulty breathing, headaches, and has been shown to be carcinogenic, causing nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer and possibly leukemia.[13] Formaldehyde-catalyzed resins are used in the manufacture of engineered wood products such as particle board, medium-density fibreboard (MDF), plywood, and oriented strand board (OSB), all of which have applications in site-built homes, mobile homes, and travel trailers. FEMA redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Lowest pressure 895 mbar (hPa)[1] Damages $10 billion (2005 USD)[1] Fatalities 7 direct, 113 indirect Areas affected Bahamas, Florida, Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane Rita is the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into solid masses in the air. ... Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... Medium-density fiberboard output in 2005 Medium-density fiberboard (MDF or MDFB) is an engineered wood product formed by breaking down softwood into wood fibers, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and resin, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... OSB-production before the press Oriented strand board, or OSB, is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. ...


The United States Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed indoor air quality testing for formaldehyde [14] in some of the units. On Thursday, February 14, 2008 the CDC announced that potentially hazardous levels of formaldehyde were found in many of the travel trailers and mobile homes provided by the agency.[15][16] The CDC's preliminary evaluation of a scientifically established random sample of 519 travel trailers and mobile homes tested between Dec. 21, 2007 and Jan. 23, 2008 (2+ years after manufacture) showed average levels of formaldehyde in all units of about 77 parts per billion (ppb). Long-term exposure to levels in this range can be linked to an increased risk of cancer and, at levels above this range, there can also be a risk of respiratory illness. These levels are higher than expected in indoor air, where levels are commonly in the range of 10-20 ppb, and are higher than the Agency for Toxic Substance Disease Registry (ATSDR, division of the CDC) Minimal Risk Level (MRL) of 8 ppb [17]. Levels measured ranged from 3 ppb to 590 ppb.[18] CDC is an abbreviation which can mean any of the following: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Communicable Disease Control Community of Democratic Choice, a group of nine Eastern-European states Change data capture, in data warehousing Clock Domain Crossing, or simply clock-crossing in computing Cedar City Regional Airport...


The Federal Emergency Management Agency, which requested the testing by the CDC, said it would work aggressively to relocate all residents of the temporary housing as soon as possible. Lawsuits are being filed against FEMA as a result of the exposures.[19]


References

  1. ^ J Read, Text-Book of Organic Chemistry, G Bell & Sons, London, 1935
  2. ^ H. B. J. Schurink (1941). "Pentaerythritol". Org. Synth. 1: 425; Coll. Vol. 1. 
  3. ^ Gutsche, C. D.; Iqbal, M. (1993). "p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 8: 75. 
  4. ^ Bost, R. W.; Constable, E. W. (1943). "sym-Trithiane". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 2: 610. 
  5. ^ DanceSafe: testing kit info
  6. ^ Formaldehyde Ban set for 22 Sept 2007
  7. ^ IARC Press Release June 2004, http://www.iarc.fr/ENG/Press_Releases/archives/pr153a.html
  8. ^ Indoor Air Pollution in California, Final Report, California Air Resources Board (2005) http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/indoor/ab1173/finalreport.htm, at pages 65 – 70.
  9. ^ Symptoms of Low-Level Formaldehyde Exposures, Health Canada, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/iyh-vsv/environ/formaldehyde_e.html
  10. ^ http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol88/volume88.pdf "Formaldehyde".
  11. ^ Testing for Indoor Air Quality, Baseline IAQ, and Materials, http://www.epa.gov/rtp/new-bldg/environmental/s_01445.htm
  12. ^ Formaldehyde allergy: What is formaldehyde and where is it found?. DermNet NZ.
  13. ^ Formaldehyde and Cancer: Questions and Answers. National Cancer Institute (2004-07-30).
  14. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/pdfs/2016.pdf
  15. ^ Formaldehyde Levels in FEMA-Supplied Trailers
  16. ^ Mike Brunker. "Are FEMA trailers ‘toxic tin cans’?", MSNBC, 2006-07-25. 
  17. ^ ATSDR - Minimal Risk Levels for Hazardous Substances (MRLs)
  18. ^ FEMA: CDC Releases Results Of Formaldehyde Level Tests
  19. ^ Suit Filed Over FEMA Trailer Toxins - washingtonpost.com

Organic Syntheses is a scientific journal that Since 1921 has provided the chemistry community with annual collections of detailed and checked procedures for the organic synthesis of organic compounds. ... Organic Syntheses is a scientific journal that Since 1921 has provided the chemistry community with annual collections of detailed and checked procedures for the organic synthesis of organic compounds. ... Organic Syntheses is a scientific journal that Since 1921 has provided the chemistry community with annual collections of detailed and checked procedures for the organic synthesis of organic compounds. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

IARC could mean: International Agency for Research on Cancer is part of the World Health Organization. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The purpose of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, is to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by understanding each of these elements and how they interrelate. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Formaldehyde and Cancer: Questions and Answers - National Cancer Institute (1418 words)
Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling gas that is used to manufacture building materials and produce many household products (see Question 1).
Formaldehyde has been classified as a human carcinogen (cancer-causing substance) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (see Question 4).
In addition, formaldehyde is commonly used as an industrial fungicide, germicide, and disinfectant, and as a preservative in mortuaries and medical laboratories.
formaldehyde - definition of formaldehyde in Encyclopedia (763 words)
Although formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature, it is readily soluble in water, and it is most commonly sold as a 37% solution in water called by trade names such as formalin or formol.
Formaldehyde kills most bacteria, and so a solution of formaldehyde in water is commonly used as a disinfectant or to preserve biological specimens.
Formaldehyde is converted to formic acid in the body, leading to a rise in blood acidity, rapid, shallow breathing, hypothermia, and coma or death.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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