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Encyclopedia > Form of government

A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a Community politics.[1] Synonyms include "regime type" and "system of government". This definition holds valid even if the government is unsuccessful in exerting its power. Regardless of its qualities, a failed government is still a form of government. Churches, corporations, clubs, and other sub-national entities also have "government" forms, but in this article only the organization of states is discussed. Anarchist redirects here. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Corporatocracy (sometimes corporocracy) is a neologism coined by proponents of the Global Justice Movement to describe a government bowing to pressure from corporate entities. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ... Kritarchy is a form of government ruled by judges and is based on natural rights. ... A Krytocracy is a government ruled by judges. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Classical republic. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... A Capitalist Republic is the name for a Federal Republic with a Capitalist or Private Capital economic system that has a major outcome on elections or selections of major political leaders. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cybernetic revolt. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... This article pertains to technocracy as a bureaucratic structure. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Theodemocracy is a political system theorized by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in their society, peers and the ruling class. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... http://www. ... An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Community politics is a movement in British politics to re-engage people with political action on a local level. ...


Nineteen states in the world do not explicitly name their government forms in their official names (the official name of Jamaica, for instance, is simply "Jamaica"), but most have an official name which identifies their form of government, or at least the form of government toward which they are striving:

The invocation of democracy is common in the official names of republics - North Korea is a Democratic People's Republic, four states are simply Democratic Republics, and Sri Lanka is a Democratic [[]]. States which wish to emphasize that their provinces have a fair amount of autonomy from the central government may specifically state this: Germany and Nigeria are each a Federal Republic, Ethiopia is a Federal Democratic Republic, the Comoros is a Federal Islamic republic, and Brazil is a Federative Republic. The sometimes utilized name Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia emphasizes this nation's separateness from the neighboring Greek region of the same name. Government ideology is also a common signifier appended to "republic". Besides the Comoros, four other nations specifically dictate that they are Islamic Republics. Asian nations influenced by Maoism may emphasize their belief system by specifying the People as a whole in their official names: Laos is a People's Democratic Republic, and Bangladesh and China are People's Republics. Vietnam is a Socialist Republic. Finally, Tanzania emphasizes the cohesion of its state as a United Republic. [--168. ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Saint Kitts and Nevis is an island nation in the Caribbean. ... This article is about federal states. ... Jamahiriya (Arabic جماهيرية) is an Arabic term generally translated as state of the masses. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Co-op redirects here. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The term Democratic Republic has formed part of several states official names. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... Look up United in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A color-coded legend of forms of government. Click on map for descriptions below.

Contents

For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize, to... Constituent State: Term given to a state that is part of a larger political entity. ... Map of Somalia including the self-proclaimed boundary of Somaliland Northern Somali sultanates In the late Nineteenth Century, two sultanates emerged and ruled Northern Somalia, an area stretching as far west to Burco from Las Khorey. ... Union generally refers to two or more things joined into one, such as an organization of multiple people or organizations, multiple objects combined into one, and so on. ...

Attributes of government

Beyond official typologies it is important to think about regime types by looking at the general attributes of the forms of government [2]:

  1. Traditional (clan or kinship) or modern (bureaucracies)
  2. Personalistic (North Korea) or impersonal (Germany)
  3. Totalitarian (Communist Russia), Authoritarian (Zimbabwe) or Democratic (Belgium)
  4. Elections (US) or heredity (Brunei)
  5. Direct (Mexico) or indirect elections (Electoral College in the US)
  6. Secular (European Union) or non-secular (Iran)
  7. Division of powers, such as executive, judicial, and legislative boxes (India) or absence of division of powers (Peru under Fujimori).
  8. Parliamentarian (Greece), Presidential (USA) or Monarchical (UK).
  9. Number of people in the Executive power (Switzerland has 7, France 2, US 1).
  10. Composition of the legislative power (autocratic, unicameral, bicameral...)
  11. Number of coalitions or party-appointed legislators in Assemblies
  12. Federal (Argentina) or Unitary (Ukraine)
  13. Rules of the electoral system:
    1. plurality (most votes wins) - known as "First past the post" (U.K)
    2. majoritarian (50% + 1 vote), including run-off elections (Argentina, France)
    3. supermajoritarian (usually from 55% to 75% - there is a 60% cloture rule in the U.S. Senate, and there was a 55% independence vote for Montenegro)
    4. unanimity - (100% votes wins) (such as for the board of directors of a company)
  14. Type of economic system
  15. Prevalent ideologies and cultures
  16. Strong institutional capacity (US) or weak capacity (Iraq)
  17. Legitimate (South Africa) or illegitimate (former communist Romania)
  18. De facto (effective control) or De jure (nominal control) of government
  19. Sovereign (US), semi-sovereign (Puerto Rico), or not sovereign (Chechnya)
  20. Racial segregation (Rhodesia) or desegregation

For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... This article is about the political process. ... A federation (from the Latin fÅ“dus, covenant) is a state comprised of a number of self-governing regions (often themselves referred to as states) united by a central (federal) government. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori (Japanese name: Kenya Fujimori )) (born in Lima, Peru on July 28, 1938) is a Peruvian and Japanese[1] politician who served as President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ... An electoral system is the system used to administer an election. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity...

Other empirical and conceptual problems

On the surface, identifying a form of government appears to be easy. Most would say that the United States is a democratic republic while the former Soviet Union was a totalitarian state. However, as Kopstein and Lichbach (2005:4) argue, defining regimes is tricky. Defining a form of government is especially problematic when trying to identify those elements that are essential to that form. There appears to be a disparity between being able to identify a form of government and identifying the necessary characteristics of that form. For example, in trying to identify the essential characteristics of a democracy, one might say "elections." However, both citizens of the former Soviet Union and citizens of the United States voted for candidates to public office in their respective states. The problem with such a comparison is that most people are not likely to accept it because it does not comport with their sense of reality. Since most people are not going to accept an evaluation that makes the former Soviet Union as democratic as the United States, the usefulness of the concept is undermined. In political science, it has long been a goal to create a typology or taxonomy of polities, as typologies of political systems are not obvious [3]. It is especially important in the political science fields of comparative politics and international relations. One important example of a book which attempts to do so is Robert Dahl's Polyarchy (Yale University Press (1971)). The term Democratic Republic has formed part of several states official names. ... A totalitarian state is a modern regime which regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Polity (Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) is a general term that refers to political organization of a group. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Comparative politics is a subfield of political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Robert A. Dahl (b. ... In modern political science, the term Polyarchy (Greek: poly many, arkhe rule)[1] was introduced by Robert A. Dahl, now emeritus professor at Yale University, to describe a form of government that was first implemented in the United States and gradually adopted by many other countries. ...


One approach is to further elaborate on the nature of the characteristics found within each regime. In the example of the US and the Soviet Union, both did conduct elections, and yet one important difference between these two regimes is that the USSR had a single-party system, with all other parties being outlawed. In contrast, the United States effectively has a bipartisan system with political parties being regulated, but not forbidden. A system generally seen as a representative democracy (for instance Canada, India and the United States) may also include measures providing for: a degree of direct democracy in the form of referendums and for deliberative democracy in the form of the extensive processes required for constitutional amendment. United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... In a two-party system (such as in the United States), bipartisan refers to any bill, act, resolution, or any other action of a political body in which both of the major political parties are in agreement. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ...


Another complication is that a number of political systems originate as socio-economic movements and are then carried into governments by specific parties naming themselves after those movements. Experience with those movements in power, and the strong ties they may have to particular forms of government, can cause them to be considered as forms of government in themselves. Some examples are as follows: A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...

  • Perhaps the most widely cited example of such a phenomenon is the communist movement. This is an example of where the resulting political systems may diverge from the original socio-economic ideologies from which they developed. This may mean that adherents of the ideologies are actually opposed to the political systems commonly associated with them. For example, activists describing themselves as Trotskyists or communists are often opposed to the communist states of the 20th century.
  • Islamism is also often included on a list of movements that have deep implications for the form of government. Indeed, many nations in the Islamic world use the term Islamic in the name of the state. However, these governments in practice exploit a range of different mechanisms of power (for example debt and appeals to nationalism). This means that there is no single form of government that could be described as “Islamic” government. Islam as a political movement is therefore better seen as a loose grouping of related political practices rather than a single, coherent political movement.
  • The basic principles of many other popular movements have deep implications for the form of government those movements support and would introduce if they came to power. For example, bioregional democracy is a pillar of green politics.

This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... A government is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Bioregional democracy (or the Bioregional State) is a set of electoral reforms designed to force the political process in a democracy to better represent concerns about the economy, the body, and environmental concerns (e. ... Green politics or Green ideologies is a political ideology which places a high importance on ecological and environmentalist goals, and on achieving these goals through broad-based, grassroots, participatory democracy and a consensus decision-making. ...

See also

States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Civics is the study of citizenship and government with particular attention given to the role of citizens in the operation and oversight of government. ... Comparative government or comparative politics is a method in political science for obtaining evidence of causal effects by comparing the varying forms of government in the world, and the states they govern, although governments across different periods of history may also be the units of comparison. ... This is a list of countries categorized by system of government currently in use. ... This article lists forms of government and political systems, according to a series of different ways of categorising them. ...

References

  1. ^ http://assets.cambridge.org/052184/3162/excerpt/0521843162_excerpt.pdf Kopstein and Lichbach, 2005
  2. ^ Regime Types
  3. ^ Lewellen, Ted C. Political Anthropology: An Introduction Third Edition. Praeger Publishers; 3rd edition (November 30, 2003)

Further reading

  • Boix, Carles (2003). Democracy and Redistribution. New York: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Bunce, Valerie. 2003. “Rethinking Recent Democratization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience.” World Politics 55(2):167-192.
  • Colomer, Josep M. (2003). Political Institutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  • Dahl, Robert Polyarchy Yale University Press (1971
  • Heritage, Andrew, Editor-in-Chief. 2000. World Desk Reference
  • Lijphart, Arend (1977). Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press. 
  • Linz, Juan. 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Linz, Juan, and Stepan, Alfred. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southernn Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
  • Lichbach, Mark and Alan Zukerman, eds. 1997. Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Luebbert, Gregory M. 1987. “Social Foundations of Political Order in Interwar Europe,” World Politics 39, 4.
  • Moore, Barrington, Jr. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge: Beacon Press, ch. 7-9.
  • Comparative politics : interests, identities, and institutions in a changing global order/edited by Jeffrey Kopstein, Mark Lichbach, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • O’Donnell, Guillermo. 1970. Modernization and Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism. Berkeley: University of California.
  • O’Donnell, Guillermo, Schmitter, Philippe C., and Whitehead, Laurence, eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: comparative Perspectives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Przeworski, Adam. 1992. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Przeworski, Adam, Alvarez, Michael, Cheibub, Jose, and Limongi, Fernando. 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well Being in the World, 1950-1990. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shugart, Mathhew and John M. Carey, Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics, New York, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.
  • Taagepera, Rein and Matthew Shugart. 1989. Seats and votes: The effects and determinants of electoral systems, Yale Univ. Press.jimmy

Robert A. Dahl (b. ... In modern political science, the term Polyarchy (Greek: poly many, arkhe rule)[1] was introduced by Robert A. Dahl, now emeritus professor at Yale University, to describe a form of government that was first implemented in the United States and gradually adopted by many other countries. ... Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian-American political scientist and politician. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Form of Government - City Of Gainesville, Florida (517 words)
This form parallels the organization of the business corporation: voters (stockholders) elect the council (board of directors), including the mayor (chairman of the board), which, in turn, appoints the manager (chief administrative officer).
Unlike the council-mayor forms, where the emphasis is on political leadership, the prevailing norms in the council-manager form are administrative competence and efficiency.
Under the council-manager form, the manager is the chief administrative office of the city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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