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Encyclopedia > Forgiveness

Forgiveness is the mental, and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment, indignation or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution[1]. This definition, however, is subject to much philosophical critique. Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person who forgives, in terms of the person forgiven and/or in terms of the relationship between the forgiver and the person forgiven. In some contexts, it may be granted without any expectation of compensation, and without any response on the part of the offender (for example, one may forgive a person who is dead). In practical terms, it may be necessary for the offender to offer some form of acknowledgement, apology, and/or restitution, or even just ask for forgiveness, in order for the wronged person to believe they are able to forgive.[1] Look up forgive, forgiveness, forgive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... Indignation Defnition: An anger that is aroused by unfairness, a sense that what has occurred is unrighteous. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... Look up apology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Most world religions include teachings on the nature of forgiveness, and many of these teachings provide an underlying basis for many varying modern day traditions and practices of forgiveness. However, throughout the ages, philosophers have studied forgiveness apart from religion. In addition, as in other areas of human inquiry, science is beginning to question religious concepts of forgiveness. Psychology, sociology and medicine are among the scientific disciplines researching foregiveness or aspects of foregiveness. Instances of teachings on forgiveness such as the parable of the Prodigal Son[2] and Mahatma Gandhi's forgiveness of his assassin as he lay dying, are well known instances of such teachings and practices of forgiveness. Some religious doctrines or philosophies place greater emphasis on the need for humans to find some sort of divine forgiveness for their own shortcomings, others place greater emphasis on the need for humans to practice forgiveness between one another, yet others make little or no distinction between human and/or divine forgiveness. Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The Return of the Prodigal Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni The Prodigal Son, also known as The Lost Son is one of the best known parables of Jesus. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ...

Rembrandt - "The Return of the Prodigal Son"
Rembrandt - "The Return of the Prodigal Son"

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x1060, 213 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Forgiveness Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Indigenous peoples of North America ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (787x1060, 213 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Forgiveness Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Indigenous peoples of North America ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. ... The Return of the Prodigal Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni The Prodigal Son, also known as The Lost Son is one of the best known parables of Jesus. ...

Religious and spiritual views on forgiveness

Buddhism

In Buddhism, forgiveness is seen as a practice to prevent harmful thoughts from causing havoc on one’s mental well-being.[3] Buddhism recognizes that feelings of hatred and ill-will leave a lasting effect on our mind karma and instead encourages the cultivation of thoughts which leave a wholesome effect. "In contemplating the law of karma, we realize that it is not a matter of seeking revenge but of practicing metta and forgiveness, for the victimizer is, truly, the most unfortunate of all.[4] When resentments have already arisen, the Buddhist view is to calmly proceed to release them by going back to their roots. Buddhism centers on release from delusion and suffering through meditation and receiving insight into the nature of reality. Buddhism questions the reality of the passions that make forgiveness necessary as well as the reality of the objects of those passions.[5] "If we haven’t forgiven, we keep creating an identity around our pain, and that is what is reborn. That is what suffers."[6] A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Buddhism places much emphasis on the concepts of Mettā (loving kindness), karuna (compassion), mudita (sympathetic joy), and upekkhā (equanimity), as a means to avoiding resentments in the first place. These reflections are used to understand the context of suffering in the world, both our own and the suffering of others. In response to 9/11, Ajahn Jayasaro, a buddhist monk, reminded his students, "When we give serious consideration to our companionship in birth, old age, sickness, and death with all other beings in the world, it gives us a fresh perspective..." Mettā (मेत्ता in Devanagari) is a Pāli word meaning unconditional loving-kindness. ... For the army colonel see Colonel Karuna. ... Mudita is a Buddhist (Pali) word meaning happiness in others good fortune. ... ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Ajahn Jayasaro (b. ...

Quotes (more quotes here)
‘He abused me, he struck me, he overcame me, he robbed me’
— in those who harbor such thoughts hatred will never cease.
‘He abused me, he struck me, he overcame me, he robbed me’
— In those who do not harbor such thoughts hatred will cease.
(Dhammapada 1.3-4; trans. Radhakrishnan)

The Dhammapada (Pali, translates as Path of the Dharma. ... Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ...

Christianity

According to traditional Christian teachings, the forgiveness of others is amongst the spiritual duties of the Christian believer. God is generally considered to be the original source of all forgiveness, which is made possible through the suffering and sacrifice of Jesus, and is freely available to the repentant believer. As a response to God's forgiveness, the Christian believer is in turn expected to learn how to forgive others; some would teach that the forgiveness of others is a necessary part of receiving forgiveness ourselves, and vice versa. In fact, at the end of the Lord's Prayer, Jesus says that unless we forgive we won't be forgiven. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The person who is forgiven is not necessarily released from any societial or legal obligation to make material or financial amends or legal punishments. The power in forgiveness is to replace what has been lost or stolen and remove the fear of being injured again, to liberate from the slavery of resentment, bitterness, hatred, malice, fear, and a consumed life of distrust. (Galatians 5:1, 13-17)


Unlike other Christian denominations, the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian churches teach that God's forgiveness of the believer is mediated by the Church, generally through traditional ritual acts involving an ordained priest. In these churches, and in some Anglican churches, it is customary to make formal confession of sins individually in the presence of a priest, and to obtain absolution as a formal expression by the church of God's forgiveness. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ...


Most Protestant denominations teach that a believer receives forgiveness more directly through a sincere expression of repentance to God, and that the believer completes this in the act of forgiving others. Then confession and prayer by the forgiven is about healing(James 5:16). Protestant denominations generally place more emphasis on the need for private or informal repentance, and less emphasis on the need for formal or public repentance. This is supported by the direction to Confess to the our Father in Heaven, since he is the only one who can forgive sins. However, even Catholics and Orthodox Christians cite scriptural support for a mediated confession through Jesus conferring upon the apostles: "whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained." Hence, the distinction that only God can forgive sins is cited by Catholics and Protestants alike. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


It is taught by most denominations that the substitutionary sacrifice of Jesus via the crucifixion is the vehicle through which God forgives the believer of his or her sins. The sacrament of communion is regarded as central to the reception of divine forgiveness in some Christian denominations. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Narrative Christian Theology understands forgiveness, not as a rule or spiritual duty, but as a form by which the people of God embody their mission to live as a people who are reconcilled to God. Since the Church's very existence is formed by God's forgiveness it operates as a people of forgiveness, forgiven and forgiving, inextricably tied to peacemaking and justice. Philip D. Kenneson, associate professor of theology and philosophy at Milligan College, writes in his book Life On The Vine, "God's intent was not that this one divine act of forgiveness [in Jesus Christ] would itself magically transform the creation into God's intended paradise. Rather, this supreme act of forgiveness in Christ is the very large rock dropped into the middle of a pond. ... [I]f I refuse such forgiveness [for others] in the name of justice, is it possible that my view of justice falls short of God's view, where justice, shalom, wholeness and salvation are not opposing goals, but different names for God's singular desire?" Narrative theology was a 20th-century theological development which supported the idea that the Churchs use of the Bible should focus on a narrative presentation of the faith, rather than on the exclusive development of a systematic theology. ...


When Chrisitan forgiveness is discussed it is primarily within the context of God forgiving man. In his book Balancing the Scales of Justice with Forgiveness and Repentance, ex-lay prison minister Randall J. Cecrle makes the point that both forgiveness and repentance focus on the satisfication of justice, each one side of the two-sided scales that addresses the human need to have justice satisfied. He writes that the means for humans to forgive other humans is the same means as God’s forgiveness of mankind, the substituionary death of Jesus. When God through the Apostle Paul said “Forgive as the Lord forgave you.” (Colossian 3:13), he was giving clear instructions on how to forgive. The author goes on to say “Forgive as God forgave you. Forgive in the same way, using the same means and power that God used to forgive you and me. And God forgave you and me how? He forgave by accepting the blood of Jesus (death at the hands of the executioner) as the substitutionary satisfaction of His justice. To forgive those who have caused us harm, have injured us, caused us loss, we are likewise to: Accept Jesus’ Death as the Satisfaction of Justice!”

Quotes (more quotes here)

Key Biblical texts on the subject of forgiveness include (here quoted from the New International Version): The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ...

  • The Lord's Prayer - "Forgive us our [debts], as we forgive our [debtors]" (some versions have sin instead of debts, the Anglican Book of Common Prayer uses trespasses instead of debts)
  • "Peter came to Jesus and asked, 'Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me? Up to seven times?' Jesus answered, 'I tell you, not seven times, but seventy-seven times (or seventy times seven).'" (Matthew 18:21-22)
This introduces the most relevant parable, that of the Unmerciful Servant, which concludes: "In anger his master turned him over to the jailers to be tortured, until he should pay back all he owed. This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother from your heart." (Matthew 18:34-35)
  • "And when you stand praying, if you hold anything against anyone, forgive him, so that your Father in heaven may forgive you your sins." (Mark 11:25)
This can be taken to imply that the exercise of forgiveness is part of that repentance through which the believer has access to the forgiveness of God.
  • "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do." Luke 23:34. Uttered by Jesus Christ as he was put to death.
  • "Be kind and compassionate to one another, forgiving each other, just as in Christ God forgave you." (Ephesians 4:32)

For some of the principal Christian teachings regarding the forgiveness of sins by God, see Atonement. The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ...


Hinduism

The concept of performing atonement from one's wrongdoing (PrayaschittaSanskrit: Penance), and asking for forgiveness is very much a part of the practice of Hinduism. Prayashitta is related to the law of Karma. Karma is a sum of all that an individual has done, is currently doing and will do. The effects of those deeds and these deeds actively create present and future experiences, thus making one responsible for one's own life, and the pain in others. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...

Forgiveness is a great power

Addressing Dhritarashtra, Vidura said: "There is one only defect in forgiving persons, and not another; that defect is that people take a forgiving person to be weak. That defect, however, should not be taken into consideration, for forgiveness is a great power. Forgiveness is a virtue of the weak, and an ornament of the strong. Forgiveness subdues (all) in this world; what is there that forgiveness cannot achieve? What can a wicked person do unto him who carries the sabre of forgiveness in his hand? Fire falling on the grassless ground is extinguished of itself. And unforgiving individual defiles himself with many enormities. Righteousness is the one highest good; and forgiveness is the one supreme peace; knowledge is one supreme contentment; and benevolence, one sole happiness." (From the Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva Section XXXIII, Translated by Sri Kisari Mohan Ganguli).[7] In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidūra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


An even more authoritative statement about forgiveness is espoused by Krishna, who is considered to be an incarnation (avatar) of Vishnu by Hindus. Krishna said in the Gita that forgiveness is one of the characteristics of one born for a divine state. It is noteworthy that he distinguishes those good traits from those he considered to be demoniac, such as pride, self-conceit and anger (Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 16, verse 3). This article is about the Hindu deity. ... The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


Huston Smith in his book The World's Religions[8] says Huston Cummings Smith (born May 31, 1919) is among the preeminent religious studies scholars in the United States. ...


"Enter Hinduism’s myths, her magnificent symbols, her several hundred images of God, her rituals that keep turning night and day like never ending prayer wheels. It is obtuse to confuse Hinduism’s images with idolatry, and their multiplicity with polytheism. They are 'runways' from which the sense-laden human spirit can rise for its "flight of the alone to the Alone".


Even village priest will frequently open their temple ceremonies with the following beloved invocation:

O Lord, forgive three sins that are due to my human limitations:
Thou art everywhere, but I worship you here;
Thou art without form, but I worship you in these forms;
Thou needest no praise, yet I offer you these prayers and salutations,
Lord, forgive three sins that are due to my human limitations.

Islam

Clearly forgiveness is a prerequisite for any true or genuine peace. Islam teaches that God (Allah in Arabic) is 'the most forgiving', and is the original source of all forgiveness. Forgiveness often requires the repentance of those being forgiven. Depending on the type of wrong committed, forgiveness can come either directly from Allah, or from one's fellow man. In the case of divine forgiveness, the asking for divine forgiveness via repentance is important. In the case of human forgiveness, it is important to both forgive, and to be forgiven.[9] Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The central and most sacred book of Islam: the Qur'an, teaches that there is only one error that Allah cannot forgive, the error of ascribing partners (or equals) to Allah. Islam ranks this error as a denial of monotheism, and therefore of the supreme nature of Allah himself. (shirk). The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

God does not forgive idol worship (if maintained until death), and He forgives lesser offenses for whomever He wills. Anyone who idolizes any idol beside God has strayed far astray. (Qur'an 4:116)

But if he returns to God and pleads sincerely for forgiveness and abandons worshiping other than the one and only God, He will be forgiven.


The Qur'an does on occasion make allowances for violent behavior on the part of Muslim believers,[10] and such allowances have been construed by some observers as condoning unforgiving behavior. Still such allowances are only made within the Qur'an in the case of defending one's faith, one's life or one's property. Outside of this, the Qu'ran makes no allowances for violent behavior. From time to time certain Muslims have interpreted such Qur'anic allowances for "defensive violence" to include what other Muslims have viewed more as unwarranted and overly aggressive violence. This interpretative debate about when to forgive and when to aggressively attack or defend continues to this day within the Muslim community.


Whenever possible, the Qur'an makes it clear that it is better to forgive another than to attack another. The Qur'an describes the believers (Muslims) as those who, They avoid gross sins and vice, and when angered they forgive. (Qur'an 42:37) and says that Although the just requital for an injustice is an equivalent retribution, those who pardon and maintain righteousness are rewarded by GOD. He does not love the unjust. (Qur'an 42:40). There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


To receive forgiveness from God there are three requirements:

  1. Recognizing the offense itself and its admission before God.
  2. Making a commitment not to repeat the offense.
  3. Asking for forgiveness from God.

If the offense was committed against another human being, or against society, a fourth condition is added:

  1. Recognizing the offense before those against whom offense was committed and before God.
  2. Committing oneself not to repeat the offense.
  3. Doing whatever needs to be done to rectify the offense (within reason) and asking pardon of the offended party.
  4. Asking God for forgiveness.

There are no particular words to say for asking forgiveness. However, Muslims are taught many phrases and words to keep repeating daily asking God's forgiveness. For example:

  • Astaghfiru-Allah, "I ask forgiveness from Allah"
  • Subhanaka-Allah humma wa bi hamdika wa ash-hadu al la Ilaha illa Anta astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk, "Glory be to You, Allah, and with You Praise (thanks) and I bear witness that there is no deity but You, I ask Your forgiveness and I return to You (in obedience)".

Islamic teaching presents the prophet Muhammad as an example of someone who would forgive others for their ignorance, even those who might have once considered themselves to be his enemies. One example of Muhammad's practice of forgiveness can be found in the Hadith, the body of early Islamic literature about the life of Muhammad. This account is as follows:
The Prophet (may peace be upon him) was the most forgiving person. He was ever ready to forgive his enemies. When he went to Ta’if to preach the message of Allah, its people mistreated him, abused him and hit him with stones. He left the city humiliated and wounded. When he took shelter under a tree, the angel of Allah visited him and told him that Allah sent him to destroy the people of Ta’if because of their sin of maltreating their Prophet. Muhammad (may peace be upon him) prayed to Allah to save the people of Ta'if, because what they did was out of their ignorance.[11] Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Quotes (more quotes here)
  • "Keep to forgiveness, and enjoin kindness." Qur'an 7:199-200
  • "But if you endure patiently (and do not punish), indeed it is better for the patient. Endure you patiently." Qur'an 16:126-127
  • "But withal, if one is patient in adversity and forgives — this, behold, is indeed something to set one's heart upon." Qur'an 42:43
  • "Let them (the worthy) forgive and show indulgence. Yearn ye not that Allah may forgive you? Allah is Forgiving, Merciful." Qur'an 24:22
  • "There is no compulsion in religion." Qur'an 2:256 (And thus, it can be reasoned, no need to hold grievances or unforgiveness, believing these to be amongst one's religious obligations.)

Judaism

In Judaism, if a person harms one, but then sincerely and honestly apologizes to the wronged individual and tries to rectify the wrong, the wronged individual is religiously required to grant forgiveness: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • "It is forbidden to be obdurate and not allow yourself to be appeased. On the contrary, one should be easily pacified and find it difficult to become angry. When asked by an offender for forgiveness, one should forgive with a sincere mind and a willing spirit. . . forgiveness is natural to the seed of Israel." (Mishneh Torah, Teshuvah 2:10)

But if the wrongdoer does not apologize, there is no religious obligation to grant forgiveness.[12] This is because Judaism is focused on the personal responsibility of the wrongdoer. It is the wrongdoer's responsibility to recognize their wrongdoing and to seek forgiveness from those who have been harmed. The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... Repentance in Judaism known as Teshuva (literally means Returning in Hebrew), is the way of atoning for sin in Judaism. ...


Additionally, in Judaism, a person must apologize to those she has harmed in order to be entitled to forgiveness.[13] This means that, unlike in Christianity, in Judaism a person cannot obtain forgiveness from God for wrongs the person has done to other people. A person can only obtain forgiveness from God for wrongs done to God. For instance, should person A assault person B, person A would have to obtain forgiveness from both person B (for the assault) and God (for breaking God's law against assault). This is similar to how the criminal justice system in many countries works; in America, for example, an assault is considered both an offense against the government (leading to criminal prosecution) and an offense against the individual (leading to possible tort damages claims). Sir Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth summed this concept up as follows: "it is not that God forgives, while human beings do not. To the contrary, we believe that just as only God can forgive sins against God, so only human beings can forgive sins against human beings."[14] Sir Jonathan Henry Sacks (born 1948, London) is the Chief Rabbi of the United Synagogue, the United Kingdoms main body of Orthodox synagogues. ...


A Jew may, however, forgive if they choose even if the offender has not apologized:

  • If one who has been wronged by another does not wish to rebuke or speak to the offender — because the offender is simple or confused — then if he sincerely forgives him, neither bearing him ill-will nor administering a reprimand, he acts according to the standard of the pious. (Deot 6:9)

Jews observe a Day of Atonement Yom Kippur on the day before God makes decisions regarding what will happen during the coming year.[13] Just prior to Yom Kippur, Jews will ask forgiveness of those they have wronged during the prior year (if they have not already done so).[13] During Yom Kippur itself, Jews fast and pray for God's forgiveness for the transgressions they have made against God in the prior year.[13] Sincere repentance is required, and once again, God can only forgive one for the sins one has committed against God; this is why it is necessary for Jews also to seek the forgiveness of those people who they have wronged.[13] Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ...


Heinrich Heine, a famous Jewish writer, used to say: "Dieu me pardonnera; c'est son metier." (God will forgive me; that's his job.) This is of course connected with the famous saying: "Tout comprendre, c'est tout pardonner." (To understand everything is to forgive everything.) God understands everyone and everything. Therefore, he forgives everything and everyone. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (born Chaim Harry Heine, December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ...


Jainism

Jainism is about total equivalency. You do not hate or love in this religion. So there were times far back when the great Thirthankars were in deep meditation, and others would harm them, they would be so deep in meditation that they would not be hurt. So when the thirthanker opened his eyes, he noticed the wounds and forgave them all. Therefore, all Jains are supposed to be able to forgive anyone, no matter what happened. [citation needed] Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...


Popular recognition of forgiveness

The need to forgive is widely recognized by the public, but they are often at a loss for ways to accomplish it. For example, in a large representative sampling of American people on various religious topics in 1988, the Gallup Organization found that 94% said it was important to forgive, but 85% said they needed some outside help to be able to forgive. However, not even regular prayer was found to be effective. The Gallup poll revealed that the only thing that was effective was "meditative prayer".[15] The Gallup Organization provides a variety of management consulting, human resources and statistical research services. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...


Forgiveness as a foundation for authoritarian control

Yoga teachers Joel Kramer and Diana Alstead analyse the use of unconditional love and the associated concept of foregiveness as a foundation for authoritarian control.[16] They survey religions worldwide to make their assertion that religious imperatives of forgiveness are often used to perpetrate cycles of ongoing abuse. They state that "to forgive without requiring the other to change is not only self-destructive, but ensures a dysfunctional relationship will remain so by continually rewarding mistreatment." For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Joel Bruce Kramer (born November 11, 1955, in San Diego, California) is a retired American professional basketball player. ... This article is about concept of unconditional love. ...


For instance, one Christian sect, the Anabaptists, take Christian imperatives to forgive particularly seriously, interpret them literally and apply them rigorously inside their closed churches. As such, they are a case where one can assess the effects of applying religious-based forgiveness in all situations, 'no matter what'. Not surprisingly, they have a well-deserved reputation for being gentle people but, inside their communities, rigorously obeying (Christian) religious imperatives to forgive, 'no matter what', has been reported to cause effects similar to what Kramer and Alstead theorize in their abstract analysis.[1], [2]. Kramer and Alstead also point out similar dynamics operating in Eastern 'Oneness' religions in their wide-ranging analysis of the religious roots of authoritarian control. Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ...


Kramer and Alstead assert that of faith-based ideals of forgiveness, while appearing selfless, contain implicit selfish aspects. They state that "when forgiving contains a moral component, there is moral superiority in the act itself that can allow one to feel virtuous". They ask: "As long as one is judging the other lacking, how much letting go can there be?" They note that "Where the virtue in 'moralistic foregiving' lies is also complicated by the fact that it is often unclear who benefits more from it, the one doing the forgiving or the one being forgiven." Not surprisingly, they note "that for many people, forgiving is an area of confusion intellectually."


Summary of differing views on forgiveness

The differing views on forgiveness can be delineated on the basis of wether one believes forgiveness must be earned as opposed to regarding it as a gift. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, forgiveness to be earned would be considered only properly exercised if forgiveness is requested or earned through means such as atonement, amends, restitution or sincere apology. Such forgiveness often requires some sort of promise that the offending act or behavior will not be repeated. Forgiveness under these circumstances would remain conditioned upon the actions or words of the perceived wrongdoer. Certain religious views of forgiveness would fall under this category, especially when considering receiving forgiveness from one’s God. An example of this would be penance practiced by Catholics and certain other Christian denominations and similar practices by other religions. Such religious concepts may have a spillover effect towards one’s views on what is necessary for interpersonal forgiveness, even though most religions encourage interpersonal forgiveness without a requirement of it being earned as the religious sections above illustrate. Viewing forgiveness as a gift would hold that forgiveness begins with a decision the resentment held in the forgiver's mind of a perceived wrong or difference, either actual or imagined. As the choice of forgiveness is made in the mind of the forgiver, it can be made about any resentment, whether toward another, oneself, a group, a situation or even one's God. Under this view, forgiveness of another can be granted with or without the other asking for forgiveness. When forgiveness is viewed as a gift the forgiver gives to oneself and/or the perceived wrongdoer to free their respective minds of resentment and guilt. Such forgiveness does not require repentance, contrition or any other form of "payment" from the forgiven. The act of forgiveness has merit in and of itself and can stand alone without condition and therefore outside control of the perceived wrongdoer’s behavior. As a gift to oneself forgiveness allows the person granting forgiveness the opportunity to overcome some hurt or emotional turmoil by offering closure and the ability to move on from the perceived situation or circumstance that merited an act of forgiveness. As a gift to the forgiven it does provide a clearing for the forgiven to overcome the guilt, shame, stigma or other negative effects of their action or inaction that merited forgiveness. Advocates of this view generally maintain that forgiveness does not entail condoning the wrong or difference that occasioned the resentment. Forgiveness of this nature is sometimes referred to as a selective remembering, whereby one focuses only upon love or loving thoughts and lets go of negative thoughts. Others hold that the act of forgiveness is less of a recognition of, or letting go of error, than it is an act of the recognition of the overriding good in another, thereby enabling both the one who would forgive and the one who would be forgiven, to actualize their greatest good. Forgiveness is often associated with religious or spiritual teachings. However, religious or spiritual motivation or beliefs is not necessary for forgiveness. Forgiveness can be motivated by love, philosophy, appreciation for the forgiveness of others, empathy, personal temperament or pragmatism, including fear, obligation, appearances, harmony, or release.


C.I. e D.E.


Psychological theories about forgiveness

Only in the last few decades has forgiveness received attention from psychologists and social psychologists. Psychological papers and books on the subject did not begin to appear until the 1980’s. Prior to that time it was a practice primarily left to matters of faith. Although there is presently no consensual psychological definition of forgiveness in the research literature, a consensus has emerged that forgiveness is a process and a number of models describing the process of forgiveness have been published. A psychologist is a researcher and/or a practitioner of psychology. ... Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior. ...


Dr. Robert Enright from the University of Wisconsin-Madison is regarded to have placed forgiveness on the map. He founded the International Forgiveness Institute and is considered the initiator of forgiveness studies.[17] Dr. Enright developed a 20-Step Process Model of Forgiveness.[18] “University of Wisconsin” redirects here. ...


Dr. Everett Worthington, a known lecturer and author on the subject of forgiveness has developed the Pyramid Model of Forgiveness.[19] This model involves: recall the hurt; empathize; altruistic gift of forgiveness; commit to forgive; holding onto forgiveness.[20]


Dr. Guy Pettitt of New Zealand, provides a comprehensive set of materials on both the need and benefits of forgiveness as well as the process to accomplish forgiveness. These materials are available as a free download.[21]


Health aspects of forgiveness

Studies show that people who forgive are happier and healthier than those who hold resentments.[22] One study has shown that the positive benefit of forgiveness is similar whether it was based upon religious or secular counseling as opposed to a control group that received no forgiveness counseling.[23] For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Second hardbound edition of A Course in Miracles, as published by Foundation for Inner Peace. ... Look up apology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Roman mythology, Clementia was the goddess of forgiveness and mercy. ... Pierre Montallier: The Works of Mercy, c. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... It has been suggested that Idiot compassion be merged into this article or section. ... Saint Peter Repentant 1823-25 , Goya Contrition (from the Latin contritus ground to pieces, i. ... Doug Schmidt (born December 16, 1961) is an American author and editor. ... Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behavior. ... This article is about modern humans. ... The Thinker by Auguste Rodin: An artists impression of Homo sapiens Human self-reflection is the basis of philosophy and is present from the earliest historical records. ... Janice Ann Winblad (1935-1996) circa 1960 Road to Forgiveness by Bill and Cindy Griffiths Janice Ann Nicolich (August 9, 1935 - June 28, 1996) was killed in car accident by a drunk driver. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The late Servite Father Lawrence Martin Jenco, a native of Joliet, Illinois, was taken hostage in Beirut by five armed men in January 1985, while serving as director of Catholic Relief Services there. ... The Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops (Polish: ; German: ) was a letter sent on 18 November 1965 by Polish bishops of the Roman Catholic Church to their German counterparts. ... Pierre Montallier: The Works of Mercy, c. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... This article is about concept of unconditional love. ...

References

  1. ^ a b American Psychological Association. Forgiveness: A Sampling of Research Results. September, 2006
  2. ^ The Parable of the Prodigal Son in Christianity and Buddhism (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  3. ^ Psychjourney – Introduction to Buddhism Series (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  4. ^ Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery - Universal Loving Kindness (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  5. ^ Spirit of Vatican II: Buddhism – Buddhism and Forgiveness (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  6. ^ Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery - Preparing for Death (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  7. ^ Forgiveness versus Might - Anger (Hunduism.com.za) (2006). Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  8. ^ Huston Smith, The World's Religions, Harper SanFrancisco, first ed 1958, p. 34 ISBN 0-06-250811-3
  9. ^ Islam online. Forgiveness: Islamic Perspective (2006). Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  10. ^ Qur'an 9:12- "Fight ye the chiefs of the unbelievers."
  11. ^ Pakistanlink. Forgiveness in Islam (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-15.
  12. ^ halachic opinion rendered by Rabbi Naftali Silberberg (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
  13. ^ a b c d e JewFAQ discussion of forgiveness on Yom Kippur (2006). Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
  14. ^ Covenant and Conversation (2006). Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  15. ^ Gorsuch, R. L. & Hao, J. Y. "Forgiveness: An exploratory factor analysis and its relationship to religious variables", June 1993 Review of Religious Research 34 (4) 351-363.
  16. ^ Kramer, Joel and Alstead, Diana, The Guru Papers: Masks of Authoritarian Power, ISBN 1-883319-00-5
  17. ^ Forgiveness and Health – History and Philosophy (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  18. ^ Dr. Robert Enright, Forgiveness is a Choice, American Psychological Association , 2001 ISBN 1-55798-757-2
  19. ^ Dr. Everett Worthington, Dimensions of Forgiveness, Templeton Foundation Press, 1998 ISBN 1-890151-22-X
  20. ^ Forgiveness and Health – Frequently Asked Questions (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  21. ^ The Heart of Healing (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  22. ^ Forgiving (Campaign for Forgiveness Research) (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  23. ^ Gregg Easterbrook: Forgiveness is Good for Your Health (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-19.

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Bibliography

  • Balancing the Scales of Justices with Forgiveness and Repentance, Randall J. Cecrle, 2007, ISBN 1-6026-6041-7
  • Radical Forgiveness: Making Room for the Miracle, Colin Tipping, 1997, ISBN 0-9704814-1-1
  • Forgiving and Not Forgiving: Why Sometimes It's Better Not to Forgive, Jeanne Safer, 2000, ISBN 0-380-79471-3
  • Hein, David. "Regrets Only: A Theology of Remorse." The Anglican 33, no. 4 (October 2004): 5-6.
  • Hein, David. "Austin Farrer on Justification and Sanctification." The Anglican Digest 49.1 (2007): 51–54.
  • Kramer, J. and Alstead D., The Guru Papers: Masks of Authoritarian Power, 1993, ISBN 1-883319-00-5
  • Lampert, K.(2005); Traditions of Compassion: From Religious Duty to Social Activism. Palgrave-Macmillan; ISBN 1-4039-8527-8
  • Schmidt D. (2003); The Prayer of Revenge: Forgiveness in the Face of Injustice; ISBN 0-7814-3942-6
  • Toxic Parents: Overcoming Their Hurtful Legacy and Reclaiming Your Life, Susan Forward, 1990.
  • The Railway Man: A POW's Searing Account of War, Brutality, and Foregiveness, Eric Lomax,

External links

  • Insitute for Radical Forgiveness
  • The Campaign for Forgiveness Research, doing research and providing education on the dynamics of forgiveness
  • The Fetzer Institute, doing research and providing education on the dynamics of forgiveness
  • Forgiveness web
  • theforgivenessproject.com
  • "Bitterness & Vengeance vs. Gratitude & Forgiveness" from Project Worldview
  • A new spiritual symbol based on the hold trinity and the seven pillars of the Cross of Forgiveness
  • Greater Good magazine Peace Center at berkeley.edu
  • Learning To Forgive Website for Director of the Stanford Forgiveness Program and leading books on forgiveness

  Results from FactBites:
 
Forgiveness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4130 words)
Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the feelings of the person who forgives, or in terms of the relationship between the forgiver and the person forgiven.
Krishna said in the Gita that forgiveness is one of the characteristics of one born for a divine state.
Clementia was the goddess of forgiveness and mercy in Roman mythology.
What Presbyterians Believe, March 1998: Forgiveness (2054 words)
Forgiveness means resisting a defensive response when we are hurt or paradoxically when we hurt others--a response that would mean cutting another off, or cutting ourselves off from community with others so that we would not be further hurt or be able to inflict hurt again.
Forgiveness is a commitment to face life with a posture that risks rather than protects, while also struggling with the fact that there are times when protection is the wise choice.
Forgiveness as remembering means that history is not forgotten, but the context of the whole of history-- including also all those moments when grace has abounded--is remembered by a covenant community that gathers at a table to cry with those who suffer, to make room for the enemy, to remember its hope.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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