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Encyclopedia > Forestry
A decidous beech forest in Slovenia.
A decidous beech forest in Slovenia.

Forestry is the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources. Silviculture, a related science, involves the growing and tending of trees and forests. Modern forestry generally concerns itself with assisting forests to provide timber as raw material for wood products; wildlife habitat; natural water quality regulation; recreation; landscape and community protection; employment; aesthetically appealing landscapes; and a 'sink' for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ... Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... Impact of a drop of water Water is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. ... People participating in summer luge as a form of recreation, in the Vosges. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A carbon dioxide (CO2) sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it into biomass. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[2] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... A forester is a person who is engaged in forestry by creating and managing forests. ...


Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as one of the most important components of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital field of science, applied art, and technology. A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ...

Contents

Activities

Replanting native eucalypts where willows once grew. On the banks of Tambo River, Australia
Replanting native eucalypts where willows once grew. On the banks of Tambo River, Australia

Foresters may be employed by industry, government agencies, conservation groups, urban parks boards, citizens' associations, or private landowners. Industrial foresters are predominantly involved in planning the timber harvests and forest regeneration. Other foresters have the specific jobs which include a broad array of responsibilities. For example, urban foresters work within city environments to enhance urban trees with their unique needs. Some foresters work in tree nurseries growing seedlings for regeneration projects. Others are involved with tree genetics or developing new building systems as forest engineers. The profession has expanded to include a wide diversity of jobs, typically requiring a college bachelor's degree up to the PhD level for highly specialized areas of work. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1067x1600, 380 KB) Replanting trees File links The following pages link to this file: Forestry ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1067x1600, 380 KB) Replanting trees File links The following pages link to this file: Forestry ...


Traditionally, professional foresters develop and implement "forest management plans". These plans rely on tree inventories showing an area's topographical features as well as its distribution of trees (by species) and other plant cover. They also include roads, culverts, proximity to human habitation, hydrological conditions, and soil reports ecological sensitive areas. Finally, forest management plans include the projected use of the land and a timetable for that use. It has been suggested that Geomorphometry be merged into this article or section. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ...


Plans for harvest and subsequent site treatment are influenced by the objectives of the land's owner or leaseholder (for instance, a timber company that holds cutting rights to a given tract of land, or the government in the case of state-owned forests). There is an increasing trend to consider the needs of other stakeholders (e.g., nearby communities or neighborhoods, or rural residents living within or adjacent to the forest tract). Plans are developed with the prevailing forest harvest laws and regulations in mind. They ultimately result in a prescription for the harvest of trees, and indicate whether road building or other forest engineering operations are required. Crops have been harvested by hand throughout most of human history. ...


Traditional forest management plans are chiefly aimed at providing logs as raw material for timber, veneer, plywood, paper, wood fuel or other industries. Hence, considerations of product quality and quantity, employment, and profit have been of central, though not always exclusive, importance. Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... A veneer is a thin covering over something. ... Toy constructed from plywood. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Wood burning is the largest current use of biomass derived energy. ...


Foresters also frequently develop post-harvest site plans. These may call for reforestation (tree planting by species), weed control, fertilization, or the spacing of young trees (thinning of trees that are crowding one another). Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ... Categories: Biology stubs ...


While other duties of foresters may include preventing and combatting insect infestation, disease, forest and grassland fires, there is an increasing movement towards allowing these natural aspects of forest ecosystems to run their course, where possible, usually excepting epidemics or risk of life or property. Foresters are specialists in measuring and modelling the growth of forests (forest mensuration). Increasingly, foresters may be involved in wildlife conservation planning and watershed protection. In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Conservationists are those people who tend to more highly rank the wise use of the Earths resources and ecosystems. ...


History can be fun!

The use and management of forest resources has a long history in China, dating from the Han Dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. In the Western world, formal forestry practices developed during the Middle Ages, when land was largely under the control of kings and barons. Control of the land included hunting rights, and though peasants in many places were permitted to gather firewood and building timber and to graze animals, hunting rights were retained by the members of the nobility. Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber is said to have begun in about in the 16th century in both the German states and Japan [1] Typically, a forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; the harvest of timber was planned with an eye to regeneration. Later Han redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ...


The enactment and evolution of forestry laws and binding regulations occurred in most Western nations in the 20th century in response to growing conservation concerns and the increasing technological capacity of logging companies. Loggers on break, c. ...


Tropical forestry is a separate branch of forestry which deals mainly with equatorial forests that yield woods such as teak and mahogany. Sir Dietrich Brandis is considered the father of tropical forestry. Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), also called jati, is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... Mahogany The name mahogany is used for numerous varieties of dark-colored wood. ... Sir Dietrich Brandis (1824-1907) is considered the father of tropical forestry. ...


Today

A modern sawmill
A modern sawmill

Today a strong body of research exists regarding the management of forest ecosystems, selection of species and varieties, and tree breeding. Forestry also includes the development of better methods for the planting, protecting, thinning, controlled burning, felling, extracting, and processing of timber. One of the applications of modern forestry is reforestation, in which trees are planted and tended in a given area. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 388 KB) The Swifts Creek woodmill in Victoria, Australia uses a precision computer controlled, laser guided system designed in France File links The following pages link to this file: Forestry Lumber Sawmill ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 388 KB) The Swifts Creek woodmill in Victoria, Australia uses a precision computer controlled, laser guided system designed in France File links The following pages link to this file: Forestry Lumber Sawmill ... A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... The application of genetic principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees. ... Igniting a controlled burn. ... Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ...


In many regions the forest industry is of major ecological, economic, and social importance. Third-party certification systems that provide independent verification of sound forest stewardship and sustainable forestry have become commonplace in many areas since the 1990s. These certification systems were developed as a response to criticism of some forestry practices, particularly deforestation in less developed regions along with concerns over resource management in the developed world. Some certification systems are criticised for primarily acting as marketing tools and lacking in their claimed independence. Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area or wasteland. ...


In topographically severe forested terrain, proper forestry is important for the prevention or minimization of serious soil erosion or even landsliding. In areas with a high potential for landsliding, good forestry can act to prevent property damage or loss, human injury, or loss of life. Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as understood by materials science, see Erosion (materials science) For erosion as an English analogy, see Erosion (figurative) For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil... Rockslide redirects here. ...


Public perception of forest management has become controversial, with growing public concern over perceived mismanagement of the forest and increasing demands that forest land be managed for uses other than pure timber production, for example, indigenous rights, recreation, watershed protection and preservation of wilderness and wildlife habitat. Sharp disagreements over the role of forest fires, logging, motorized recreation and others drives debate while the public demand for wood products continues to increase.


Education

The first dedicated forestry school was established by Georg Hartig at Dillenburg in Germany in 1787, though forestry had been taught much earlier in central Europe. The first in North America was established near Asheville, North Carolina, by George Vanderbilt after he saw the devastation logging had caused in the area. The grounds of his Biltmore Estate are almost entirely managed forest, which has grown from bare ground to mature trees since 1895. Early North American foresters went to Germany from the nineteenth century to study forestry. Some early German foresters also emigrated to North America. Georg Ludwig Hartig was a German agriculturist and was one of the first people to write about forestry He was born at Gladenbach, near Marburg, on the September 2, 1764 and died at Berlin on the February 2, 1887. ... Dillenburg (population ca 25,000) is a city and a castle in the German district of Lahn-Dill, in the federal state of Hessen. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Downtown Asheville bustles with activity at midday while smog silently obscures the Smoky Mountains to the west. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... George Washington Vanderbilt (1839-1864) was an American soldier and member of the prominent Vanderbilt family. ... Loggers on break, c. ... Biltmore house Biltmore House is a French Renaissance-inspired chateau near Asheville, North Carolina, built by George Washington Vanderbilt II between 1888 and 1895. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In South America the first two forestry schools were stablished in Brazil, specifically in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, and in Curitiba, Paraná. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Viçosa is the name of five cities in Brazil: Nova Viçosa, Bahia Viçosa, Alagoas Viçosa, Minas Gerais Viçosa, Rio Grande do Norte Viçosa do Ceará, Ceará This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... Location of Curitiba Country Brazil Region Sul State Paraná Founded 29 March 1693 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) Area  - City 430. ... Flag of Paraná See other Brazilian States Capital Curitiba Largest City Curitiba Area 199,544 km² Population   - Total   - Density 9,150,000 48 inh. ...


Today, an acceptably trained forester must be educated in general biology, botany, genetics, soil science, climatology, hydrology, economics and forest management. Education in the basics of sociology and political science is often considered an advantage. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Forest management includes a range of human interventions that affect forest ecosystems. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ...


An interesting scope of work opens up for foresters interested in international politics. Organizations such as the Forest Policy Education Network (FPEN) are dedicated to facilitate the way into forest politics and to exchange information on the subject.


Organizations

Commonwealth Forestry Association (CFA)
an international forestry organization established in 1921, which supports the professional development of those working with trees and forests.
Forest Resources Association (FRA)
represents diverse segments of the wood fiber supply chain, promoting forest products industry members' ability to compete successfully in the global marketplace.
Forest Guild
the professional body for North American foresters and other natural resource professionals interested in practicing and promoting ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable forestry.
Institute of Chartered Foresters
the professional body for foresters in the United Kingdom. The qualifications that it awards are recognised throughout the European Union.
International Forestry Students' Association
an association of forestry students worldwide. Their primary goal is to enrich forestry students´ formal education, especially in terms of a wider, more global perspective through extracurricular activities and the exchange of information and experience.
National Association of Professional Forestry Schools and Colleges (NAPFSC)
founded in 1981 and is composed of 67 organizations and represents university faculty, scientists and forestry specialists working to enhance and protect American forests.
NSW Private Native Forests Group
an association made up of timber mill owners, forest workers and farmers who harvest timber from private land. The Group is supported by the NSW Forest Products Association, Timber Communities Australia and Australian Forest Grower’s. Around a third of all native forests in NSW (or 8.5 million hectares) are on private land.
Rainforest Alliance
a non-profit 501c3 organization that promotes sustainable forestry by certifying forest management operations to the standards of the Forest Stewardship Council. The organization also aims to build markets for products derived from responsibly managed forests and to train foresters in sustainable forestry practices. The certification arm of the Rainforest Alliance is known as SmartWood.
Society of American Foresters (SAF)
the national scientific and educational organization representing the forestry profession in the United States. Founded in 1900 by Gifford Pinchot, the SAF mission is to advance the science and practice of forestry, enhance the competency of its members and use the knowledge of the profession to help ensure forest ecosystems and resources benefit society.

The Institute of Chartered Foresters is the professional body for foresters and arborists in the United Kingdom. ...

References

  1. ^ Japanese Forestry.
  • Charles H. Stoddard Essentials of Forestry. New York: Ronald Press, 1978.
  • G. Tyler Miller. Resource Conservation and Management. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, 1990.
  • Chris Maser. Sustainable Forestry: Philosophy, Science, and Economics. DelRay Beach: St. Lucie Press, 1994.
  • Hammish Kimmins. Balancing Act: Environmental Issues in Forestry. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1992.
  • Hart, C. 1994. Practical Forestry for the Agent and Surveyor. Stroud. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-86299-962-6
  • Herb Hammond. Seeing the Forest Among the Trees. Winlaw/Vancouver: Polestar Press, 1991.
  • Hibberd, B.G. (Ed). 1991. Forestry Practice. Forestry Commission Handbook 6. London. HMSO. ISBN 0-11-710281-4
  • "Forestry" in the Encyclopaedia Brtitannica 16th edition. New York: E.B., 1990.

External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Forestry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1290 words)
Forestry is the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources.
The enactment and evolution of forestry laws and binding regulations occurred in most Western nations in the 20th century in response to growing conservation concerns and the increasing technological capacity of logging companies.
Tropical forestry is a separate branch of forestry which deals mainly with equatorial forests that yield woods such as teak and mahogany.
forestry - HighBeam Encyclopedia (1060 words)
FORESTRY [forestry] the management of forest lands for wood, water, wildlife, forage, and recreation.
It is the chief goal of forestry to devise methods for felling trees that provide for the growth of a new forest crop and to ensure that adequate seed of desirable species is shed onto the ground and that conditions are optimal for seed germination and the survival of saplings.
Sustainability of commercial forestry in a changing socioeconomic and legal environment: a case study of South Africa: the changing socioeconomic and legal environment in South Africa has demanded a redefinition of commercial forestry, forcing several institutional and policy-related changes in the industry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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