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Encyclopedia > Forest
A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California
A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California

A forest is an area with a high density of trees. There are many definitions of a forest, based on various criteria.[1] These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface (or 30% of total land area) and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earth's biosphere. Historically, "forest" meant an uncultivated area legally set aside for hunting by feudal nobility, and these hunting forests were not necessarily wooded much if at all (see Royal Forest). However, as hunting forests did often include considerable areas of woodland, the word forest eventually came to mean wooded land more generally. Forest can refer to: A large area covered by trees, see forest and rain forest Historically, an area set aside for hunting, see Royal forest In graph theory, a disjoint union of tree graphs Several places: Forest, Belgium Forest, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, United States Forest, North Yorkshire, North... Conifer forest in Northern California (Sierra Nevada near Downieville) photographed Feb. ... Conifer forest in Northern California (Sierra Nevada near Downieville) photographed Feb. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... The water cycle—technically known as the hydrologic cycle—is the circulation of water within the earths hydrosphere, involving changes in the physical state of water between liquid, solid, and gas phases. ... For the musical use of modulation, see modulation (music). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... A royal forest has been a concept of land management England since the late eleventh century. ...

Contents

Distribution

Forests can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth, at altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency is too high, or where the environment has been impaired by natural processes or by human activities. As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms (broadleaf forests) are more species-rich than those dominated by gymnosperms (conifer, montane, or needleleaf forests), although exceptions exist. Forests sometimes contain many tree species within a small area (as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forests), or relatively few species over large areas (e.g., taiga and arid montane coniferous forests). Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities. Much of this biomass occurs below-ground in the root systems and as partially decomposed plant detritus. The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate. Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Gymnosperms are seed-bearing, vascular plants. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Peru Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Decomposition is the reduction of bodies and other formerly living organisms into simpler forms of matter; and most particularly to the fate of the body, after death. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...


Forests are differentiated from woodlands by the extent of canopy coverage: in a forest the branches and the foliage of separate trees often meet or interlock, although there can be gaps of varying sizes within an area referred to as forest. A woodland has a more continuously open canopy, with trees spaced further apart, which allows more sunlight to penetrate to the ground between them (see also savanna). Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is a treed area differentiated from a forest. ... The canopy is the habitat found at the uppermost level of a forest, especially rainforest. ... Savannah redirects here. ...


Among the major forested biomes are: A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ...

A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... ... Trinidad and Tobago dry forest on Chacachacare showing the dry-season deciduous nature of the vegetation The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ...

Classification

Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation.
Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation.

Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity. One such way is in terms of the "biome" in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species (whether they are evergreen or deciduous). Another distinction is whether the forests composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous (needle-leaved) trees, or mixed. Species See text The baobab (Adansonia), or monkey bread tree are a genus of eight species of trees, native to Madagascar (the centre of diversity, with six species), and mainland Africa and Australia (one species in each). ... Madagascar ocotillo (Alluaudia procera) is a decidous succulent plant species of the family Didiereaceae. ... This article is about plant types. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ...

  • Forests can also be classified more specifically based on the climate and the dominant tree species present, resulting in numerous different forest types (e.g., ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest).

A number of global forest classification systems have been proposed but none has gained universal acceptance.[2]UNEP-WCMC's forest category classification system is a simplification of other more complex systems (e.g. UNESCO's forest and woodland 'subformations'). This system divides the world's forest into 26 major types, which reflect climatic zones as well as the principal types of trees. These 26 major types can be reclassified into 6 broader categories: Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... A map showing the areas of temperate rain forest Temperate rain forest in the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, United States. ... Laurel forest is a subtropical or mild temperate forest, found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable and mild temperatures. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Trinidad and Tobago dry forest on Chacachacare showing the dry-season deciduous nature of the vegetation The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... Old growth forest, sometimes called late seral forest or ancient forest is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... The forest in Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada is generally considered to have second and third growth characteristics. ... Á á É é Í í Ó ó Ú ú À à È è ÃŒ ì Ã’ ò Ù ù  â Ê ê ÃŽ î Ô ô Û û Ä ä Ë ë Ï ï Ö ö Ãœ ü ß Ã ã Ñ ñ Õ õ Ç ç Ä¢ Ä£ Ķ Ä· Ä» ļ Å… ņ Å– Å— Åž ÅŸ Å¢ Å£ Ć ć Ĺ ĺ Ń Å„ Å” Å• Åš Å› Ý ý Ź ź Đ Ä‘ Å® ů ÄŒ č ÄŽ ď Ľ ľ Ň ň Ř Å™ Å  Å¡ Ť Å¥ Ž ž Ǎ ÇŽ Äš Ä› Ǐ ǐ Ç‘ Ç’ Ç“ Ç” Ä€ ā Ä’ Ä“ Ī Ä« ÅŒ ō Ū Å« Ç– ǘ Çš Çœ Ĉ ĉ Äœ ĝ Ĥ Ä¥ Ä´ ĵ Åœ ŝ Å´ ŵ Ŷ Å· Ä‚ ă Äž ÄŸ Ŭ Å­ ÄŠ Ä‹ Ä– Ä— Ä  Ä¡ Ä° ı Å» ż Ä„ Ä… Ę Ä™ Ä® į Ų ų Ł Å‚ Ő Å‘ Å° ű Ä¿ Å€ Ħ ħ Ð ð Þ þ Å’ Å“ Æ æ Ø ø Ã… Ã¥ Ə É™ – — … [] [[]] {{}} ~ | ° § → ≈ ± − × ¹ ² ³ ‘ “ ’ ” £ € Α α Î’ β Γ γ Δ δ Ε ε Ζ ζ Η η Θ θ Ι ι Κ κ Λ λ Îœ μ Ν ν Ξ ξ Ο ο Π Ï€ Ρ ρ Σ σ Ï‚ Τ Ï„ Î¥ Ï… Φ φ Χ χ Ψ ψ Ω ω ...

Temperate needleleaf forests mostly occupy the higher latitude regions of the northern hemisphere, as well as high altitude zones and some warm temperate areas, especially on nutrient-poor or otherwise unfavourable soils. These forests are composed entirely, or nearly so, of coniferous species (Coniferophyta). In the Northern Hemisphere pines Pinus, spruces Picea, larches Larix, silver firs Abies, Douglas firs Pseudotsuga and hemlocks Tsuga, make up the canopy, but other taxa are also important. In the southern hemisphere most coniferous trees, members of the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae, occur in mixtures with broadleaf species that are classed as broadleaf and mixed forests. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... This article deals with the tree; for the e-mail client see Pine email client Species About 115. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Species About 12; see text Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... Species Eastern Hemlock Carolina Hemlock Taiwan Hemlock Northern Japanese Hemlock Himalayan Hemlock Forrests Hemlock Western Hemlock Mountain Hemlock Southern Japanese Hemlock Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the family Pinaceae. ... Genera Agathis Araucaria Wollemia The Araucariaceae are a very ancient family of conifers. ... Genera Acmopyle Afrocarpus Dacrycarpus Dacrydium Falcatifolium Halocarpus Lagarostrobos Lepidothamnus Manoao Microcachrys Microstrobos Nageia Parasitaxus Phyllocladus Podocarpus Prumnopitys Retrophyllum Saxegothaea Sundacarpus A large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, with 18-19 genera and about 170-200 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. ...

  • Temperate broadleaf and mixed

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests include a substantial component of trees in the Anthophyta. They are generally characteristic of the warmer temperate latitudes, but extend to cool temperate ones, particularly in the southern hemisphere. They include such forest types as the mixed deciduous forests of the USA and their counterparts in China and Japan, the broadleaf evergreen rain forests of Japan, Chile and Tasmania, the sclerophyllous forests of Australia, the Mediterranean and California, and the southern beech Nothofagus forests of Chile and New Zealand. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Arid, largely treeless areas aside, most Australian bushland is sclerophyll forest. ... Species Nothofagus alpina - Rauli Beech Nothofagus antarctica - Antarctic Beech Nothofagus betuloides - Magellanes Beech Nothofagus cunninghamii - Myrtle Beech Nothofagus dombeyi - Coigüe Beech Nothofagus fusca - Red Beech Nothofagus gunnii - Tanglefoot Beech Nothofagus menziesii - Silver Beech Nothofagus moorei - Negrohead Beech Nothofagus obliqua - Roble Beech Nothofagus pumilio - Lenga Beech Nothofagus solanderi - Black Beech...

  • Tropical moist

Tropical moist forests include many different forest types. The best known and most extensive are the lowland evergreen broadleaf rainforests include, for example: the seasonally inundated varzea and igapó forests and the terra firme forests of the Amazon Basin; the peat forests and moist dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia; and the high forests of the Congo Basin. The forests of tropical mountains are also included in this broad category, generally divided into upper and lower montane formations on the basis of their physiognomy, which varies with altitude. The montane forests include cloud forest, those forests at middle to high altitude, which derive a significant part of their water budget from cloud, and support a rich abundance of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes. Mangrove forests also fall within this broad category, as do most of the tropical coniferous forests of Central America. Freshwater swamp forests or flooded forests are forests which are inundated with freshwater, either permanently or seasonally. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Genera Anisoptera Cotylelobium Dipterocarpus Dryobalanops Hopea Marquesia Monotes Neobalanocarpus Pakaraimaea Parashorea Shorea Stemonoporus Upuna Vateria Vateriopsis Vatica Dipterocarpaceae is a family of 17 genera and approximately 580-680 species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees with two-winged fruits. ... Mount McKinley in Alaska has one of the largest visible base-to-summit elevation differences anywhere A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... An example of an epiphyte assemblage of orchids and bromeliads in a garden setting The term epiphyte refers to any plant that grows upon or attached to another living plant. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...

  • Tropical dry

Tropical dry forests are characteristic of areas in the tropics affected by seasonal drought. The seasonality of rainfall is usually reflected in the deciduousness of the forest canopy, with most trees being leafless for several months of the year. However, under some conditions, e.g. less fertile soils or less predictable drought regimes, the proportion of evergreen species increases and the forests are characterised as "sclerophyllous". Thorn forest, a dense forest of low stature with a high frequency of thorny or spiny species, is found where drought is prolonged, and especially where grazing animals are plentiful. On very poor soils, and especially where fire is a recurrent phenomenon, woody savannas develop (see 'sparse trees and parkland'). Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Arid, largely treeless areas aside, most Australian bushland is sclerophyll forest. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... Savanna is a grassland dotted with trees, and occurs in several types of biomes. ...

  • Sparse trees and parkland

Sparse trees and parkland are forests with open canopies of 10-30% crown cover. They occur principally in areas of transition from forested to non-forested landscapes. The two major zones in which these ecosystems occur are in the boreal region and in the seasonally dry tropics. At high latitudes, north of the main zone of boreal forest or taiga, growing conditions are not adequate to maintain a continuous closed forest cover, so tree cover is both sparse and discontinuous. This vegetation is variously called open taiga, open lichen woodland, and forest tundra. It is species-poor, has high bryophyte cover, and is frequently affected by fire. Boreal may refer to these: Northern from the eponymous Boreas, god of the North Wind in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ...

  • Forest plantations

Forest plantations, generally intended for the production of timber and pulpwood increase the total area of forest worldwide. Commonly mono-specific and/or composed of introduced tree species, these ecosystems are not generally important as habitat for native biodiversity. However, they can be managed in ways that enhance their biodiversity protection functions and they are important providers of ecosystem services such as maintaining nutrient capital, protecting watersheds and soil structure as well as storing carbon. They may also play an important role in alleviating pressure on natural forests for timber and fuelwood production. Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Pulpwood refers to timber stocks that are cut in order to make wood pulp for paper production. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ...


26 forest categories are used to enable the translation of forest types from national and regional classification systems to a harmonised global one:


Temperate and boreal forest types

A temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, the Hasenholz, southeast of Kirchheim unter Teck, Swabia, Germany.
A temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, the Hasenholz, southeast of Kirchheim unter Teck, Swabia, Germany.

(1) Evergreen needleleaf forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is predominantly (> 75%) needleleaf and evergreen.
(2) Deciduous needleleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is predominantly (> 75%) needleleaf and deciduous.
(3) Mixed broadleaf/needleleaf forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is composed of a more or less even mixture of needleleaf and broadleaf crowns (between 50:50% and 25:75%).
(4) Broadleaf evergreen forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, the canopy being > 75% evergreen and broadleaf.
(5) Deciduous broadleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, in which > 75% of the canopy is deciduous and broadleaves predominate (> 75% of canopy cover).
(6) Freshwater swamp forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, composed of trees with any mixture of leaf type and seasonality, but in which the predominant environmental characteristic is a waterlogged soil.
(7) Sclerophyllous dry forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is mainly composed of sclerophyllous broadleaves and is > 75% evergreen.
(8) Disturbed natural forest - Any forest type above that has in its interior significant areas of disturbance by people, including clearing, felling for wood extraction, anthropogenic fires, road construction, etc.
(9) Sparse trees and parkland - Natural forests in which the tree canopy cover is between 10-30%, such as in the steppe regions of the world. Trees of any type (e.g., needleleaf, broadleaf, palms).
(10) Exotic species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species not naturally occurring in that country.
(11) Native species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species that occur naturally in that country.
(12)* Unspecified forest plantation - Forest plantations showing extent only with no further information about their type, This data currently only refers to the Ukraine.
(13)* Unclassified forest data - Forest data showing forest extent only with no further information about their type.
For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Kirchheim unter Teck is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the district of Esslingen. ... Germany, showing modern borders. ... Arid, largely treeless areas aside, most Australian bushland is sclerophyll forest. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ...


Tropical forest types

(14) Lowland evergreen broadleaf rain forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude that display little or no seasonality, the canopy being >75% evergreen broadleaf.
(15) Lower montane forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, between 1200-1800 m altitude, with any seasonality regime and leaf type mixture.
(16) Upper montane forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, above 1800 m altitude, with any seasonality regime and leaf type mixture.
(17) Freshwater swamp forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude, composed of trees with any mixture of leaf type and seasonality, but in which the predominant environmental characteristic is a waterlogged soil. (18) Semi-evergreen moist broadleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude in which between 50-75% of the canopy is evergreen, > 75% are broadleaves, and the trees display seasonality of flowering and fruiting.
(19) Mixed broadleaf/needleleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude, in which the canopy is composed of a more or less even mixture of needleleaf and broadleaf crowns (between 50:50% and 25:75%).
(20) Needleleaf forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude, in which the canopy is predominantly (> 75%) needleleaf.
(21) Mangroves - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, composed of species of mangrove tree, generally along coasts in or near brackish or salt water.
(22) Disturbed natural forest - Any forest type above that has in its interior significant areas of disturbance by people, including clearing, felling for wood extraction, anthropogenic fires, road construction, etc.
(23) Deciduous/semi-deciduous broadleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude in which between 50-100% of the canopy is deciduous and broadleaves predominate (> 75% of canopy cover).
(24) Sclerophyllous dry forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude, in which the canopy is mainly composed of sclerophyllous broadleaves and is > 75% evergreen.
(25) Thorn forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1200 m altitude, in which the canopy is mainly composed of deciduous trees with thorns and succulent phanerophytes with thorns may be frequent.
(26) Sparse trees and parkland - Natural forests in which the tree canopy cover is between 10-30%, such as in the savannah regions of the world. Trees of any type (e.g., needleleaf, broadleaf, palms).
(27) Exotic species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species not naturally occurring in that country.
(28) Native species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species that occur naturally in that country.
A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Fresh water redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water. ... Salt water may refer to: Saline water, water containing dissolved salts Brine, water saturated or nearly saturated with salt Brackish water, water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water Seawater, water from a sea or ocean Saline (medicine), a solution of sodium chloride in... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arid, largely treeless areas aside, most Australian bushland is sclerophyll forest. ...


12* and 13* have been created as a result of data holdings which do not specify the forest type, hence 26 categories are quoted, not 28 shown here.[3]


Forest management and forest loss

Redwood tree in northern California redwood forest, where many redwood trees are managed for preservation and longevity, rather than harvest for wood production.
Coastal Douglas fir woodland in northwest Oregon.
Coastal Douglas fir woodland in northwest Oregon.

The scientific study of forest species and their interaction with the environment is referred to as forest ecology, while the management of forests is often referred to as forestry. Forest management has changed considerably over the last few centuries, with rapid changes from the 1980s onwards culminating in a practice now referred to as sustainable forest management. Forest ecologists concentrate on forest patterns and processes, usually with the aim of elucidating cause and effect relationships. Foresters who practice sustainable forest management focus on the integration of ecological, social and economic values, often in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 609 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph by M. D. Vaden of Oregon - At Simpson Reed Discovery Trail in front of a redwood tree trunk: Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park of Northern... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 609 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph by M. D. Vaden of Oregon - At Simpson Reed Discovery Trail in front of a redwood tree trunk: Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park of Northern... Redwood generally refers to one of several species of tree with red or reddish colored wood: Family Cupressaceae (conifers) Sequoia sempervirens - Coast Redwood Sequoiadendron giganteum - Giant Sequoia or Sierra Redwood Metasequoia glyptostroboides - Dawn Redwood Cryptomeria japonica - Sugi Family Pinaceae (conifers) The wood of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) is sometimes called... Forest ecology is the scientific study of patterns and processes in forests. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... It has been suggested that American Tree Farm System be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that American Tree Farm System be merged into this article or section. ...


Anthropogenic factors that can affect forests include logging, human-caused forest fires, acid rain, and introduced species, among other things. There are also many natural factors that can also cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, weather, competition between species, etc. In 1997, the World Resources Institute recorded that only 20% of the world's original forests remained in large intact tracts of undisturbed forest [4]. More than 75% of these intact forests lie in three countries - the Boreal forests of Russia and Canada and the rainforest of Brazil. In 2006 this information on intact forests was updated using latest available satellite imagery. Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ...


Canada has about 4,020,000 km² of forest land. More than 90% of forest land is publicly owned and about 50% of the total forest area is allocated for harvesting. These allocated areas are managed using the principles of sustainable forest management, which includes extensive consultation with local stakeholders. About eight percent of Canada’s forest is legally protected from resource development (Global Forest Watch Canada)(Natural Resources Canada). Much more forest land — about 40 percent of the total forest land base — is subject to varying degrees of protection through processes such as integrated land-use planning or defined management areas such as certified forests (Natural Resources Canada). By December 2006, over 1,237,000 square kilometres of forest land in Canada (about half the global total) had been certified as being sustainably managed (Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition). Clearcutting is usually the harvest method of choice and companies are required by law to ensure that harvested areas are adequately regenerated. Most Canadian provinces have regulations limiting the size of clearcuts, although some older clearcuts can range upwards of 110 km² (20,000 acres) in size which were cut over several years. It has been suggested that American Tree Farm System be merged into this article or section. ...


In the United States, most forests have historically been affected by humans to some degree, though in recent years improved forestry practices has helped regulate or moderate large scale or severe impacts. However the United States Forest Service estimates that every year about 6,000 km² (1.5 million acres) of the nation’s 3,000,000 km² (750 million acres) of forest land is lost to urban sprawl and development. It is expected that the South alone will lose 80,000 to 100,000 km² (20 to 25 million acres) to development. However, in many areas of the United States, the area of forest is stable or increasing, particularly in many northern states. Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ...


Globally two broad types of forests can be identified: natural and anthropogenic[citation needed]. Natural is defined as of or relating to nature; this applies to both definitions of nature: essence (ones true nature) and the untouched world (force of nature). Natural is often used meaning good, healthy, or belonging to human nature. This use can be questioned, as many freely growing plants... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Natural forests contain mainly natural patterns of biodiversity in established seral patterns, and they contain mainly species native to the region and habitat. The natural formations and processes have not been affected by humans with a frequency or intensity to change the natural structure and components of the habitat.


Anthropogenic forests have been created by humans or sufficiently affected by humans to change or remove natural seral patterns. They often contain significant elements of species which were originally from other regions or habitats.


Notes

  1. ^ Lund, H. Gyde (coord.) 2006. 'Definitions of Forest, Deforestation, Afforestation, and Reforestation'. Gainesville, VA: Forest Information Services. Available from : http://home.comcast.net/~gyde/DEFpaper.htm
  2. ^ Jenkins Martin D. , Groombridge Brian, World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century , World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Environment Programme, retrieved 3/20/2007[1]
  3. ^ United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Background to Forest Mapping & Data Harmonisation, retrieved 3/20/2007[2]
  4. ^ World Resources Institute, 1997. The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge

References

A plants taproot is a straight tapering root that grows vertically down. ... This article is about precipitation. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... PeRColate is an open source set of extensions to Max/MSP, developed by Dan Trueman at Princeton University and R. Luke DuBois at the Computer Music Center, Columbia University. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...

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See also

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Lists

Ancient Woodland is a term used in the United Kingdom to refer specifically to woodland dating back to at least 1600 in England and Wales, (or 1750 in Scotland). ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Secondary succession: trees are colonizing uncultivated fields and meadows. ... A Forest School is a form of outdoor education that uses woods and forests in a deliberate way as a means to build independence and self-esteem in young children. ... This article is about Jungle, the terrain. ... Old growth forest, also called primary forest, ancient forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, frontier forest or (in the UK) Ancient Woodland, is an area of forest that has attained great age and so exhibits unique biological features. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... This article is about crop plantations. ... Primeval forest is a term often used interchangeably with old growth forest to refer to substantial wooded areas which have been untouched by the effect of humans. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... The major plume of radiation released by the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident was carried directly over what is now called the Red Forest. ... A royal forest has been a concept of land management England since the late eleventh century. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... A weald once meant a dense forest, especially the famous great wood once stretching far beyond the ancient counties of Sussex and Kent, England, where this country of smaller woods is still called the Weald. ... Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Thinning, a silvicultural technique used in forest management, is a stand manipulation operation designed to modify tree growth. ... Winter view from Mt Garfield of fir waves on North Twin Mountain, White Mountains, New Hampshire. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ... Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ... It has been suggested that American Tree Farm System be merged into this article or section. ... Hardwood (deciduous trees) timber production is the process of managing hardwood stands for the purpose of maximizing woody output. ... A list of Swedish forests: Kolmården Tiveden Tylöskog these are the forests of Sweden! Categories: Forests of Sweden ... Forests in the United Kingdom is a link page for any forest in the United Kingdom. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... This list includes many of the common large shrubs of Canada, as well as the trees. ... This is a list of links to state forests in the United States. ...

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