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Encyclopedia > Forensic anthropology
Forensic science
Physiological sciences
Forensic pathology · Forensic dentistry
Forensic anthropology · Forensic entomology
Social sciences
Forensic psychology · Forensic psychiatry
Other specializations
Fingerprint analysis · Forensic Accounting
Ballistics  · Bloodstain pattern analysis
DNA analysis · Forensic toxicology
Forensic footwear evidence
Questioned document examination
Explosion analysis
Cybertechnology in forensics
Information forensics · Computer forensics
Related disciplines
Forensic engineering
Fire investigation
Vehicular accident reconstruction
People in Forensics
Edmond Locard
Bill Bass
Related articles
Crime scene · CSI Effect
Trace evidence
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Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology and human osteology (the study of the human skeleton) in a legal setting, most often in criminal cases where the victim's remains are more or less skeletonized. A forensic anthropologist can also assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable. The adjective "forensic" refers to the application of this subfield of science to a court of law. Download high resolution version (1760x1164, 1116 KB)Public domain. ... Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division investigate a crime scene Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology, the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. ... Forensic entomology is the science and study of insects and other arthropods related to legal investigations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Forensic psychiatry is a subspeciality of psychiatry. ... A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges. ... Forensic accounting is the specialty practice area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation. ... Ballistics (gr. ... Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is one of several specialties in the field of forensic science. ... Forensic genetics refers to the application of genetic science to legal matters. ... Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology to aid medicolegal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. ... Forensic footwear evidence can be used in legal proceedings to help prove the identities of persons at the crime scene. ... Questioned document examination (QDE) is known by many names including forensic document examination, document examination, diplomatics, handwriting examination, and sometimes handwriting analysis, although the latter name is not often used as it may be confused with graphology. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Information Forensics is the science of investigation into systemic processes that produce information. ... The simple definition of computer forensics - Chris L.T. Brown, Computer Evidence Collection and Preservation, 2006 Thus, it is more than the technological, systematic inspection of the computer system and its contents for evidence or supportive evidence of a civil wrong or a criminal act. ... Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate/function as intended, causing personal injury for example. ... Fire investigation, sometimes referred to as origin and cause investigation, is the analysis of fire-related incidents. ... Vehicular accident reconstructions are often conducted by specialized units in law enforcement agencies, to answer questions about automobile accidents, such as who was driving, where were the victims seated, were they using seat belts? Through accident reconstruction, rigorous analysis is done, with expert witnesses that can present results in trial. ... Dr. Edmond Locard (1877-1966) was a pioneer in forensic science who became known as the Sherlock Holmes of France. ... Dr. William M. Bass is a U.S. forensic anthropologist, renowned for his research on human osteology and human decomposition. ... A crime scene is a location where an illegal act took place such as molestation, rape or illegal turnip smoking, and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by [[forensics|forensic scientists] for example the reknowned criminal investigator and skilled forensic scientist, who is unfortunately... The CSI Effect (sometimes referred to as the CSI syndrome) is a reference to the phenomenon of popular television shows such as the CSI franchise, the Law & Order Franchise and Crossing Jordan raising crime victims and jury members real-world expectations of forensic science, especially crime scene investigation and DNA... Trace evidence is evidence that is found at a crime scene in small but measurable amounts. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Osteology is the scientific study of bones. ... A human skeleton back view of a skeleton The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Forensics are not always human skeletal remains you still need the evidence to change and overview the victim and suspects Forensic Scientists work either with the FBI(Federal bureau of investigations)or we work with the police of a certain area.

Contents

Overview

Forensic anthropologists can help identify skeletonized human remains, such as these found lying in scrub in Western Australia, circa 1900-1910.
Forensic anthropologists can help identify skeletonized human remains, such as these found lying in scrub in Western Australia, circa 1900-1910.

Forensic anthropology borrows methods developed from the academic discipline of physical anthropology and applies them to cases of forensic importance. These techniques can be used to assess age, sex, stature, ancestry, and analyze trauma and disease. Forensic anthropologists frequently work in conjunction with forensic pathologists, odontologists, and homicide investigators to identify a decedent, discover evidence of trauma, and determine the postmortem interval. Though they typically lack the legal authority to declare the official cause of death, their opinions may be taken into consideration by the medical examiner. They may also testify in court as expert witness, though data from some of the techniques commonly used in the field—such as forensic facial reconstruction—are inadmissible as forensic evidence. Image File history File links Human_remains. ... Image File history File links Human_remains. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stature is a fictional character, a superheroine in the Marvel Comics universe. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Forensic odontology (also called Forensic Dentistry) deals with the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. ... Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... A detective is an officer of the police who performs criminal or administrative investigations, in some police departments, the lowest rank among such investigators (above the lowest rank of officers and below sergeants), a civilian licensed to investigate information not readily available in public records (a private investigator, also called... This page deals with the cessation of life. ... For the thrash metal band, see Coroner (band). ... An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, or profession, or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely his opinion. ... Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an unidentified individual from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, forensic science, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy. ... The Daubert Standard is a legal precedent set in 1993 by the Supreme Court of the United States regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses testimony during legal proceedings. ...


A forensic anthropologist may be called in when human remains are found during archaeological excavation, or when badly decomposed, burned, or skeletonized remains are found by law enforcement or members of the public. The identification of skeletal, badly decomposed, or otherwise unidentified human remains is important for both legal and humanitarian reasons. The anthropologist can assess metric and nonmetric characteristics of the bones to determine the minimum number of individuals, sex, stature, age at death, time since death, ancestry and race, health, and unique identifying characteristics such as healed breaks or surgical scars. Sometimes the forensic anthropologist must determine whether the remains found are actually human. Occasionally, positive identification can be established from such remains, but often only an exclusionary identity can be drawn. However, the primary responsibility of a forensic anthropologist is to provide law enforcement with a biological profile of the deceased (age, sex, ancestry, stature, and individualizing characteristics) to help narrow down the possible identity of the decedent. Human remains refer to portions of a human body that are left after a person dies. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... “Spoilage” redirects here. ... Various meters Measurement is an observation that reduces an uncertainty expressed as a quantity. ...


In skeletal trauma analysis, some forensic anthropologists can accurately determine whether sharp force, blunt force, or ballistic injury occurred before death (antemortem), near the time of death (perimortem), or after death (postmortem). By examining the marks left on bone, particularly skilled forensic anthropologists may be able to determine general class characteristics of the weapon used. Even cremated remains can provide a surprising amount of information about the deceased individual. The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


One vital tool in the assessment of metric skeletal characteristics is the Fordisc program. FORdisc is an interactive discriminant functions program created by Stephen Ousley and Richard Jantz. ...


In the United States

Physical anthropology is one of the divisions of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. The American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) is a professional society for people in all areas of forensics. ...


Two of the most important research collections of human skeletal remains in the U.S. are the Hamann-Todd Collection, now housed in the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and the Terry Collection, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution. These collections are an important historic basis for the statistical analysis necessary to make estimates and predictions from found remains. More modern collections include the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cleveland Museum of Natural History. ... The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located approximately 5 miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio in University Circle, a 500 acre (2 km²) concentration of educational, cultural and medical institutions. ... Terry collection ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... The University of Tennessee (UT), sometimes called the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT Knoxville or UTK), is the primary institution of the statewide land-grant University of Tennessee system, Tennessees flagship public university. ...


Practitioners

There are few people who identify themselves as forensic anthropologists, and in the United States and Canada, there are less than 100 Anthropologists certified as Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. Furthermore, there are only about 50 who are currently active in the field.[1] Most diplomates work in the academic field and consult on casework as it arises.


Notable forensic anthropologists

  • Thomas Dwight (1843 - 1919)
  • Ales Hrdlicka (1869 - 1943)
  • Earnest Hooton (1887 - 1954)
  • Mildred Trotter (1899 - 1991)
  • T. Dale Stewart (1901 - 1997)
  • Wilton M. Krogman (1903 - 1987)
  • Ellis R. Kerley (1924 - 1998)
  • J. Lawrence Angel (1932 - 1988)
  • William R. Maples (1937 - 1997)
  • William M. Bass (University of Tennessee, Emeritus) DABFA
  • Sue Black (University of Dundee, UK)
  • Sheilagh T. Brooks (University of Las Vegas, Emeritus) DABFA
  • Jane E. Buikstra (Arizona State University) DABFA
  • Karen Ramey Burns (University of Georgia)
  • Emily Craig (author, State Forensic Anthropologist for Kentucky) DABFA
  • Dennis C. Dirkmaat (Mercyhurst College) DABFA
  • Scott Fairgrieve (Laurentian University, Canada)
  • Michael Finnegan (Kansas State University) DABFA
  • William Haglund (Physicians for Human Rights)
  • Lee Meadows Jantz (University of Tennessee)
  • Richard L. Jantz (University of Tennessee, Fordisc)
  • Clea Koff (author)
  • Jerry Melbye (Texas State University, San Marcos) DABFA
  • Turhon A. Murad (California State University, Chico) DABFA
  • Stephen Ousley (Mercyhurst College, Fordisc)
  • Douglas Owsley (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution)
  • Kathy Reichs (author, University of North Carolina) DABFA
  • William C. Rodriguez (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) DABFA
  • Clyde Snow (Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team) DABFA
  • Marcella Sorg (University of Maine) DABFA
  • Judy M. Suchey (Los Angeles Coroner's Office) DABFA
  • Steven Symes (Mercyhurst College) DABFA
  • Douglas H. Ubelaker (Smithsonian Institution, George Washington University) DABFA
  • Surinder Nath (University of Delhi, India)

Anatomist and teacher, born Boston, Massachusetts, 1843; died Nahant, Massachusetts, 1911. ... . Aleš Hrdlička (March 30, 1869, Humpolec, today Czech Republic - 1943) was Czech anthropologist living in the USA. His family emigrated in the USA in 1881. ... Earnest Albert Hooton (November 20, 1887, Clemansville, Wisconsin – May 3, 1954, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a U.S. physical anthropologist known for his work on racial classification and his popular writings such as the book Up From The Ape. ... Mildred Trotter (February 3, 1899 - August 23, 1991), is an important 20th century forensic anthropologist. ... Thomas Dale Stewart (physicist), American physicist (1890-1958). ... Wilton Krogman Wilton M. Krogman (1903–1987) was an American anthropologist. ... Ellis R. Kerley (September 1, 1924 – September 3, 1998) was an American anthropologist, and pioneer in the field of Forensic anthropology, which is a field of expertise particularly useful to criminal investigators and for the identification of human remains for humanitarian purposes. ... William Ross Maples, Ph. ... Overview Dr. William M. Bass is a forensic anthropologist renowned for his research on human osteology and human decomposition. ... Professor Sue Black (b. ... // Jane Ellen Buikstra 1945 - Jane Ellen Buikstra obtained a Bachelors degree in Anthropology from DePauw University, Indiana in 1967 and her Masters and Doctorate degrees, also in Anthropology from the University of Chicago. ... Karen Ramey Burns is a forensic anthropologist known for work in international human rights. ... Michael Finnegan is a national political correspondent for The Los Angeles Times. ... FORdisc is an interactive discriminant functions program created by Stephen Ousley and Richard Jantz. ... Bestseller written by Clea Koff about her years working for the United Nations. ... FORdisc is an interactive discriminant functions program created by Stephen Ousley and Richard Jantz. ... Kathleen Joan Kathy Reichs is native of Chicago and works as a forensic anthropologist, an academic, and bestselling writer of mystery novels. ... Clyde Snow (b. ...

See also

Typical Caucasoid skull Typical Mongoloid skull Typical Negroid skull Craniofacial anthropometry is a technique used in physical anthropology comprising precise and systematic measurement of the bones of the human skull. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... The term bioarchaeology was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology, or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites. ... Forensic archaeology is the application of archaeological techniques and methods to the Medico-legal field, normally the enforcement of criminal law. ... FORdisc is an interactive discriminant functions program created by Stephen Ousley and Richard Jantz. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Forensic odontology (also called Forensic Dentistry) deals with the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. ... The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ... Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an unidentified individual from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, forensic science, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy. ...

References

  1. ^ American Board of Forensic Anthropology. American Board of Forensic Anthropology, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Forensic Sciences (1012 words)
By definition, the word forensic comes from the Latin word "forensic," meaning "to the forum." The forum was the basis of Roman law and was a place of public discussion and debate pertinent to the law.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology to the legal process.
Forensic anthropologists apply standard scientific techniques developed in physical anthropology to identify human remains, and to assist in the detection of crime.
Forensic Science - MSN Encarta (1032 words)
Forensic science is used in monitoring the compliance of various countries with such international agreements as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Chemical Weapons Convention and to learn whether a country is developing a secret nuclear weapons program.
Within the broad area of forensic science, there are many subspecialties, including pathology (the examination of body tissues and fluids), toxicology (the study of poisons, including drugs), odontology (the study of teeth), psychiatry, anthropology (the study of human beings), biology, chemistry, and physics.
Forensic scientists may choose to be certified by the American Board of Criminalistics, a professional organization that has developed examinations to certify individual forensic scientists in their particular area of expertise.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Josh
7th October 2010
I love forensics. It is just so interesting to see all of these small parts come together to create a story of what exactly went on when a crime was committed www.gekandassociates.com

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