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Encyclopedia > Foreign relations of Pakistan
Pakistan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Pakistan
Image File history File links Emblem_Pakistan. ... In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ...


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Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (behind Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. Pakistan is also an important member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC). The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف) (born August 10, 1943) is the President of Pakistan, the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army and the fourth Pakistani General to govern the country in the wake of a coup. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ... Bold text Majlis-e-Shoora (Urdu: مجلس شوری) (Council of Advisors in Urdu, although referred to as Parliament) is the bicameral federal legislature of Pakistan that consists of the Senate (upper house) and the National Assembly (lower house). ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The current Chairman of the Senate is Muhammad Mian Soomro An Introduction Senate History & Introduction The 1970 Assembly framed the 1973 Constitution which was passed on 12th April and promulgated on 14th August 1973. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... These are the names of Speakers and Presidents of the National Assembly of Pakistan. ... These are the names of deputy speakers of the National Assembly of Pakistan. ... The Supreme Judicial Council of Pakistan is a body of judges empowered under Article 209 of the constitution of Pakistan to hear cases of misconduct against judges. ... The Supreme Court (Urdu: عدالت اعظمیٰ ) is the apex court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. ... The Chief Justice of Pakistan heads the Supreme Court of Pakistan. ... The Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan consists of 8 muslim judges including the Chief Justice. ... The Chief Justice heads the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... General elections will be held in Pakistan in late 2007. ... Political parties in Pakistan lists political parties in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (Q), or PML-Q, is a centrist political party in Pakistan, dervied from the original Pakistan Muslim League which had laid foundation of the state of Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی ) is a mainstream centre-left political party in Pakistan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... MQMs Political Flag Muttahida Qaumi Movement (Urdu: متحدہ قومی موومنٹ) generally known as MQM or simply Muttahida, is one of the largest political parties in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (N) is a political party in Pakistan. ... Political parties in Pakistan lists political parties in Pakistan. ... Currently, Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, two territories, and also portions of Kashmir that are administered by the Pakistani government. ... The Provincial Governors is the head of the province in Pakistan. ... Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. ... The Government of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) is in Peshawar, the provincial capital of the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. ... ... Government of Sindh is based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... For the capital of Pakistan, see Islamabad. ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). // The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article details only the area administered by Pakistan. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... News Sites DAWN English Daily The News International The Daily Times Business Recorder - Leading financial daily Pakistan News Services Urdu Daily News for Pakistan Following is a list of the major cities in Pakistan organized by subnational entities: // Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad Plandri Rawlakot Main listing: List of cities... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... There are currently five states considered to be nuclear weapons states, an internationally recognized status conferred by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ...


Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations. Historically, its foreign policy has encompassed difficult relations with India, a desire for a stable Afghanistan, long-standing close relations with China, extensive security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Wary of Soviet expansion, Pakistan had strong relations with both the United States of America and the People's Republic of China during much of the Cold War. It was a member of the CENTO and SEATO military alliances. Its alliance with the United States was especially close after the Soviets invaded the neighboring country of Afghanistan. In 1964, Pakistan signed the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) Pact with Turkey and Iran, when all three countries were closely allied with the U.S., and as neighbors of the Soviet Union, wary of perceived Soviet expansionism. To this day, Pakistan has a close relationship with Turkey. RCD became defunct after the Iranian Revolution, and a Pakistani-Turkish initiative led to the founding of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) in 1985. Pakistan's relations with India have improved recently and this has opened up Pakistan's foreign policy to issues beyond security. This development might completely change the complexion of Pakistan's foreign relations. Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... External links kamouflage. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) was a multi governmental organization which was originally established in 1962 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey to allow socio-economic development of the member states. ... The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) involves ten Asian nations. ...

Contents

Bilateral and regional relations

China

Main article: Sino-Pakistan relations

In 1950, Pakistan was among the first countries to break relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and recognize the People's Republic of China. Following the Sino-Indian hostilities of 1962, Pakistan's relations with the PRC became stronger; since then, the two countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements. The PRC has provided economic, military, and technical assistance to Pakistan. The alliance remains strong. Chinese Special Forces training alongside Pakistani SSG Special Forces during the 2006 Friendship Exercise. ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


Favorable relations with China have been a pillar of Pakistan's foreign policy. China strongly supported Pakistan's opposition to Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and was perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to India and the USSR. The PRC and Pakistan also share a close military relation, with China supplying a range of modern armaments to the Pakistani defence forces. Lately, military cooperation has deepened with joint projects producing armaments ranging from fighter jets to guided missile frigates. Chinese cooperation with Pakistan has reached high economic points with substantial investment from China in Pakistani infrastructural expansion, including the noted project in the Pakistani port in Gwadar.


Republic of India

Main article: Indo-Pakistani relations

Since independence, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. Although many issues divide the two countries, the most sensitive one since independence has been the status of Kashmir. Plagued by years of suspicion and hatred, relations between Pakistan and India are slowly starting to improve Indo-Pakistani relations are grounded in the geographic, demographic and economic links between the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, two of the largest countries in South Asia. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


At the time of partition, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu Maharajah, had an overwhelmingly Muslim population. When the Maharajah hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, some of his Muslim subjects, aided by tribesmen from Pakistan, revolted in favor of joining Pakistan. India has long alleged that regular troops from Pakistan had participated in the partial occupation of Kashmir from the Western front. In exchange for military assistance in containing the revolt, the Kashmiri ruler offered his allegiance to India. Indian troops occupied the central & eastern portion of Kashmir, including its capital, Srinagar, while the west-north western part came under Pakistani control. (See First Kashmir War) A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... 1. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Srinagar   (Urdu: سرینگر, Kashmiri: سِرېنَگَر सिरीनगर) , is the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India, and is situated in the valley of Kashmir. ... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949. ...


India addressed this dispute in the United Nations on January 1, 1948. One year later, the UN arranged a cease-fire along a line dividing Kashmir, but leaving the northern end of the line undemarcated and the vale of Kashmir (with the majority of the population) under Indian control. India and Pakistan agreed with Indian resolutions which called for a UN-supervised plebiscite to determine the state's future. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Full-scale hostilities erupted in September 1965, when insurgents who were trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India-controlled Kashmir. (See Operation Gibraltar) Hostilities ceased three weeks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, U.S.S.R., and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences. (See Indo-Pakistani War of 1965) Operation Gibraltar was the name given to the Military Plan by Pakistan to Liberate Jammu and Kashmir, Indian Occupied and bring the Dispute to a logical end. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) Indo-Pakistani wars and...


Following Pakistan's defeat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Pakistan President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla, India, in July 1972 for the Shimla Accord. They agreed to a line of control in Kashmir resulting from the December 17, 1971 cease-fire, and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. In 1974, Pakistan and India agreed to resume postal and telecommunications linkages, and to enact measures to facilitate travel. Trade and diplomatic relations were restored in 1976 after a hiatus of five years. Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (January 5, 1928 - April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as President, from 1971 to 1973, and as Prime Minister, from 1973 to 1977, of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) was an Indian politician who served as Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. ... , Shimla   (Hindi: िशमला, Urdu: شملہ), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shimla Accord (named after Shimla) is a treaty signed between India (Prime Minister Indira Gandhi) and Pakistan (Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) after their 1971 war. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Postal can refer to: the postal service the band The Postal Service the US slang phrase going postal, a form of mass murder or killing spree Postal, a series of controversial computer games (based on the previous expression) developed by Running With Scissors This is a disambiguation page — a... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left undemarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949. The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... Pakistan started focusing on nuclear development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... THE KARACHI AGREEMENT Text of the agreement signed between Pakistan and Azad Kashmir Governments in March 1949. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. (A formal "no attack" agreement was signed in January 1991.) In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade. Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Gen. ... Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a campaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Babri Mosque by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorist bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock. Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... , Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu: جموں و کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir or J & K, is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan and lies mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... A view of the Babri Mosque, pre-1992. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialog with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and prime ministerial level took place, with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. Unfortunately, in spring 1999 infiltrators from Pakistan occupied positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control in the remote, mountainous area of Kashmir near Kargil, threatening the ability of India to supply its forces on Siachen Glacier. By early summer, serious fighting flared in the Kargil sector. The fighting lasted about a month and Indian forces were able to push back the infiltrators (India accused that it was Pakistan's military which had occupied Indian posts in the region. Indian Army left their posts in winter). The Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif fearing that Indian Army might enter into Pakistan chasing the infiltrators, held a meeting with the US president Bill Clinton in July and offered the withdrawal of Pakistan's army from remaining posts with India, which India later on accepted. The Kargil war was a severe blow to the image of Pakistan because of the its army involvement in the war. Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/Kashmiri: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) was a Pakistani politician. ... Vajpayee is a surname equivalent to Awasthi and Shukla especially prominent among North Indian Brahmins. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second most densely populated city in Pakistan. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... The Indian Army is one of the armed forces of India and has responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/Kashmiri: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) was a Pakistani politician. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Relations between India and Pakistan have since been particularly strained, especially since the October 12, 1999 Pakistani coup d'état in Islamabad. India has time and again alleged that Pakistan provides monetary and material support to Kashmiri terrorists, a charge which Pakistan has always denied. The last few years have been particularly cantankerous in this regard, with India accusing Pakistan of abetting cross-border terrorism from its territory. Pakistan claims to provide only moral support to the fighters and maintains that the conflict is indigenous in nature. However, many of the terrorist outfits like Lashkar-e-Taiba and others operating in Jammu and Kashmir have their offices in Pakistan. The terrorist Maulana Masood Azhar, released from the Indian prison in 1999 in exhange of Indian nationals, who were on board in an Indian Airlines Aeroplane, which was going to New Delhi from Kathmandu, Nepal. It was hijacked by four Militants (all Pakistani nationals, though Pakistan denied this) and was taken to Kandhar in Afghanistan. After release from the Indian prison, Maulana Masood Azhar made a public appearance in Pakistan and formed another terrorist outfit named Jaish-e-Mohammed. Hopes of peaceful resolution of issues through dialogue have met a stalemate a number of times over the issue. On June 20, 2004, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. [1] In October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf, Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan army launched a coup to topple Nawaz Sharif, then Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Lashkar-e-Taiba (LT), or in English Army of the Righteous, is a terrorist organization supported by Markaz-ud- Dawa-wal-Irshad (MDI), a pro-Sunni, anti-U.S. religous group founded in 1989. ... Maulana Masood Azhar is a former clergyman from Bahawalpur, Pakistan. ... Jaish-e-Mohammed (Arabic:جيش محمد, literally The Army of Muhammad, transliterated as Jaish-e-Muhammed, Jaish-e-Mohammad or Jaish-e-Muhammad, often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic militant organization in South Asia. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... In telecommunication, a hotline (also called an automatic signaling service or off-hook service) is a point-to-point communications link in which a call is automatically directed to the preselected destination without any additional action by the user when the end instrument goes off-hook. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ...


Afghanistan

Frontier with Afghanistan before the Durand agreement of 1893.
Frontier with Afghanistan before the Durand agreement of 1893.

Pakistan shares a long and porous border with Afghanistan (also called the Durand Line). The border is poorly marked. The problem is exacerbated by close relations between the fiercely-independent Pashtun peoples who live on both sides of the border. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Durand Line is the term for the poorly marked 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... The Durand Line is the term for the poorly marked 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, the Pakistani Government played a vital role in supporting the Afghan resistance movement and assisting Afghan refugees. After the Soviet withdrawal in February 1989, Pakistan, with cooperation from the world community, continued to provide extensive support for displaced Afghans. In 1999, the United States provided approximately $70 million in humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan and Afghan refugees in Pakistan, mainly through multilateral organizations and NGOs. A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a private institution that is independent of the government although many NGOs, particular in the global South, are funded by Northern governments. ...


The overthrow of the Taliban Regime in November 2001 has seen somewhat strained relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The present administration in Kabul feels that the remnants of the former Taliban government are being supported by certain factions within Pakistan. The Taliban (Pashto: ) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


A large share of Afghanistan's foreign trade is either with, or passes through, Pakistan.


Bangladesh

Pakistan enjoys warm relations with Bangladesh (ertswhile East Pakistan), despite the strained early days of their relationship. Landmarks in their reconciliation are: East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...

  • An August 1973 agreement between Bangladesh and Pakistan on the repatriation of numerous individuals, including 90,000 Pakistani prisoners of war stranded in Bangladesh as a result of the 1971 conflict;
  • A February 1974 accord by Bangladesh and Pakistan on mutual diplomatic recognition, followed more than 2 years later by establishment of formal diplomatic relations on January 18th 1976;
  • The organization by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) of an airlift that moved almost 250,000 Bengalis from Pakistan to Bangladesh, and non-Bengalis from Bangladesh to Pakistan; and
  • Exchanges of high-level visits, including a visit by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to Bangladesh in 1989 and visits by Prime Minister khalida Zia to Pakistan in 1992 and in 1995.

Still to be resolved are the division of assets from the pre-1971 period and the status of more than 250,000 non-Bengalis who are ethnically Biharis also known as Stranded Pakistanis remaining in Bangladesh but seeking resettlement in Pakistan. Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Biharis also refers to the natives or citizens of Bihar state of independent India (including non-Mulsims). ... Biharis also refers to the natives or citizens of Bihar state of independent India (including non-Mulsims). ...


Soviet Union/Russian Federation

Under military leader Ayub Khan, Pakistan sought to improve relations with the Soviet Union; trade and cultural exchanges between the two countries increased between 1966 and 1971. However, Soviet criticism of Pakistan's position in the 1971 war with India weakened bilateral relations, and many Pakistanis believed that the August 1971 Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Peace and Cooperation encouraged Indian belligerency. Subsequent Soviet arms sales to India, amounting to billions of dollars on concessional terms, reinforced this argument. This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ...


During the 1980s, tensions increased between the Soviet Union and Pakistan because of the latter's key role in helping to organize political and material support for the Afghan rebel forces. The withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan and the collapse of the former Soviet Union resulted in significantly improved bilateral relations, but Pakistan's support for and recognition of the Taliban regime in neighboring Afghanistan remained an ongoing source of tension. Later on, government of Pakistan changed its policy towards Taliban when it joined US forces in helping to overthrow them following attacks in the US on the 11th of September 2001. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Islamic Emirate Afghanistan (1997-2001). ...


In 2007, the relations between Pakistan and the Russian Federation were reactivated after the 3-day official visit of Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov. He is the first Russian prime minister to visit Pakistan in the post Soviet Union era in 38 years. He had "in-depth discussions" with President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. The major focus of the visit was to improve bilateral relations with particular emphasis on ways and means to enhance economic cooperation between the two countries. During the visit, two Memorandum of understanding were signed, under an MOU, the Russian Federation will cooperate with Pakistan Railways for construction of new railway tracks, supply of sleepers and signaling system, up-gradation of a railway workshops and setting up of Metro Railways in major cities of Pakistan. Under another MOU, the two countries will work for promoting cultural, educational and scientific changes. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (Russian: ) (born September 1, 1950) is a Russian politician, and the current Prime Minister of Russia. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف) (born August 10, 1943) is the President of Pakistan, the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army and the fourth Pakistani General to govern the country in the wake of a coup. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ... A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a legal document describing a bilateral agreement between parties. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... Pakistan Railways is the state-owned railway company of Pakistan. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ...


Iran

Main article: Iran-Pakistan relations

Historically, Iran was the first nation to recognize Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan has had close geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran. However, strains in the relationship appeared in the 1990s, when Pakistan and Iran supported opposing factions in the Afghan conflict. Also, some Pakistanis suspect Iranian support for the sectarian violence which has plagued Pakistan. Nevertheless, Pakistan pursues an active diplomatic relationship with Iran, including recent overtures to seek a negotiated settlement between Afghanistan's warring factions. Pakistan also supports Iran's use of Nuclear Technology for peaceful purposes. On January 27th 2006, Pakistan, Iran, and India agreed to start work on IPI gasline which Pakistan needs to shrink the gap of Demand and supply of energy in Pakistan to maintain economic growth. An Iranian stamp commemorating Mohammad Ali Jennahs 100th birth anniversary, printed in 1976. ...


North Korea

Main article: Pakistan-North Korea relations

It is still not exactly clear when Pakistan opened diplomatic ties to North Korea.It is said to be somewhere in the 1970s. Recent developments indicate that their relations were kept secretive to avoid suspicion from the west and the risk of economic sanctions. Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world to have diplomatic and trade relations with the communist state of North Korea, a long time enemy and archrival of the west, particularly the United States of America. ...


United Kingdom & Commonwealth

Pakistan has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations since independence in 1947. It was not a member of the British Commonwealth from 1972 until 1989, because of the Commonwealth's recognition of Bangladesh. It was readmitted to full membership of the Commonwealth in October 1989. It was suspended with the overthrow of the democratically elected government in 1999. Its full membership has been reinstated with the backing of the United Kingdom and Australia for Pakistan's support in the War on Terrorism. Pakistan maintains diplomatic relations with all Commonwealth countries even though it does not have its own High Commission in each capital. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ...


Persian Gulf and Arab states

Despite popular support by many people in Pakistan for Saddam Hussein in the 1991 Gulf War, the Pakistani government supported the coalition against Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and sent 11,600 troops. Pakistan enjoys close ties with the governments of the Persian Gulf particularly Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Jordan. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded in action, 30 taken prisoner Est. ...


United States of America

Main article: US-Pakistan relations
President George W. Bush with President Musharraf at the Aiwan-e-Sadar, Islamabad during March 2006
President George W. Bush with President Musharraf at the Aiwan-e-Sadar, Islamabad during March 2006

Historically, no ally of the United States has faced as many sanctions from the US as Pakistan. The United States established diplomatic relations with Pakistan in 1949; reluctantly, at first. Since the Eisenhower administration, however, Pakistan and the US began developing more cosy relations. The American agreement to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan and the latter's partnership in the Baghdad Pact, CENTO and SEATO strengthened relations between the two nations. At the time, its relationship with the U.S. was so close and friendly that it was called the United States's "most-allied ally" in Asia [1]. Pakistanis felt betrayed and ill-compensated for the risks incurred in supporting the U.S. - after the U-2 Crisis of 1960, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had threatened the nuclear annihilation of Pakistani cities. The U.S. suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally. Even though the United States suspended military assistance to both countries involved in the conflict, the suspension of aid affected Pakistan much more severely. Gradually, relations improved and arms sales were renewed in 1975. Then, in April 1979, the United States cut off economic assistance to Pakistan, except food assistance, as required under the Symington Amendment to the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, due to concerns about Pakistan's nuclear program. Pakistan has long been seen as an ally of the United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Musharaff_and_Bush_in_Islamabad. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Musharaff_and_Bush_in_Islamabad. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... External links kamouflage. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan and the United States in peace and stability in South Asia. In 1981, the United States and Pakistan agreed on a $3.2-billion military and economic assistance program aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightened threat to security in the region and its economic development needs. With U.S. assistance - in the largest covert operation in history - Pakistan armed and supplied anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan, eventually defeating the Soviets, who withdrew in 1988. A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ...


Recognizing national security concerns and accepting Pakistan's assurances that it did not intend to construct a nuclear weapon, Congress waived restrictions (Symington Amendment) on military assistance to Pakistan. In March 1986, the two countries agreed on a second multi-year (FY 1988-93) $4-billion economic development and security assistance program. On October 1, 1990, however, the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment, which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device."


India's decision to conduct nuclear tests in May 1998 and Pakistan's matching response set back U.S. relations in the region, which had seen renewed U.S. Government interest during the second Clinton Administration. A presidential visit scheduled for the first quarter of 1998 was postponed and, under the Glenn Amendment, sanctions restricted the provision of credits, military sales, economic assistance, and loans to the government. An intensive dialogue on nuclear nonproliferation and security issues between Deputy Secretary Talbott and Foreign Secretary Shamshad Ahmad was initiated, with discussions focusing on CTBT signature and ratification, FMCT negotiations, export controls, and a nuclear restraint regime. The October 1999 overthrow of the democratically elected Sharif government triggered an additional layer of sanctions under Section 508 of the Foreign Appropriations Act which include restrictions on foreign military financing and economic assistance. U.S. Government assistance to Pakistan was limited mainly to refugee and counter-narcotics assistance. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Pakistan moved decisively to ally itself with the United States in its war against Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. It provided the U.S. a number of military airports and bases, for its attack on Afghanistan. It has arrested over five hundred Al-Qaeda members and handed them over to the United States; senior U.S. officers have been lavish in their praise of Pakistani efforts. Since this strategic re-alignment towards U.S. policy, economic and military assistance has been flowing from the U.S. to Pakistan and sanctions have been lifted. In the three years before the attacks of September 11, Pakistan received approximately $9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to $4.2 billion[2]. Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


In June 2004, President Bush designated Pakistan as a major non-NATO ally, making it eligible, among other things, to purchase advanced American military technology. In May, 2006, The Bush administration announced a major sale of missiles to Pakistan, valued at $370 Million USD. [2] Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have strong strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ...


International disputes

  • Durand line issue with Afghanistan.
  • Status of Kashmir with the Indian Republic.
  • Boundary issues in the Rann of Kutch and the Ferozepur and Pathankot issues of the Radcliffe Line with the Republic of India.
  • Please note: northern boundaries have been in dispute more or less since the end of the colonial era in 1947. Maps representing a Pakistani perspective indicate the nation's boundaries (and the status of Kashmir) quite differently from maps representing the perspective of the Government of India. The matter both reflects and generates conflicts.
  • Water-sharing problems with India over the Indus River (Wular Barrage)
  • Illicit drugs
    • Pakistan is also a producer of illicit opium and hashish for the international drug trade (poppy cultivation in 1999 - 15.7 km2, a 48% drop from 1998 because of eradication and alternative development); key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western markets; narcotics still move from Afghanistan into Balochistan, Pakistan. (See also: Golden Crescent and Opium production in Afghanistan)

The Durand Line is the term for the poorly marked 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For historical and other uses of India, see India (disambiguation). ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... Firozpur (or Ferozepur, Ferozepore) is city and district in Punjab, India. ... , Pathankot (Punjabi: ਪਠਾਨਕੋਟ, Hindi: पठानकोट, Pashto: پٹھان ڪوٽ) a city and a municipal committee in Gurdaspur district in the Indian state of Punjab. ... The Radcliffe Line became the border between India and Pakistan in 1947. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Confiscated hashish. ... The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) of Pakistan contains roughly the part of Balochistan that falls within the borders of present-day Pakistan. ... The Golden Crescent is the name given to Asia’s principal area of illicit opium production, located at the crossroads of Central, South, and Western Asia. ... Opium production in Afghanistan has been a significant problem for the country since the downfall of the Taliban in 2001. ...

See also

Pakistan is the third fastest growing major economy after China and India in Asia. ... The Foreign Minister of Pakistan heads the Foreign Office of Pakistan. ... Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... Pakistani Embassy in Washington DC Pakistani High Commission in Ottawa Pakistan has an extensive diplomatic network. ...

References

  1. ^ Pakistan: The Most Allied Ally in Asia
  2. ^ "Pakistan's $4.2 Billion 'Blank Check' for U.S. Military Aid, After 9/11, funding to country soars with little oversight", Center for Public Integrity, March 27, 2007. (English) 

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