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Encyclopedia > Foreign relations of Israel
Israel

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Israel
Image File history File links COA_of_Israel. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The State of Israel joined the United Nations on May 11, 1949. Today, Israel has diplomatic relations with 158 states. The number is comparatively low, as a significant portion of the Muslim world does not recognize Israel as a legitimate state.[1] It is notable as a probable nuclear power. As a non-signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Israel has declined to either confirm or deny the existence of a nuclear weapons arsenal. The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... The Law of Return (Hebrew: חוק השבות, hok ha-shvut) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and spouses of the aforementioned, to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ... The President of the State of Israel (‎, Nesi HaMedina, lit. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... The Cabinet of Israel is a formal body comprised of government officials chosen and led by a Prime Minister. ... The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California in the United States. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... List of Speakers of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament: Joseph Shprinzak (Mapai) 1949-59 Nahum Nir (Ahdut Haavodah) 1959 Kadish Luz (Mapai, Alignment)1959-69 Reuven Barkat (Alignment) 1969-72 Yisrael Yeshayahu-Sharabi (Alignment) 1972-77 Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) 1977-80 Yitzhak Berman (Likud) 1980-81 Menachem... Dalia Itzik (Hebrew: ‎; born October 20, 1952) is the current speaker of the Israeli Knesset and Acting President of Israel. ... // (Blue = coalition parties, red = opposition parties) 1This title, called in Hebrew ממלא מקום ראש הממשלה (Memale Mekom Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... Elections for the 16th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 January 2003. ... The Elections for the 17th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 March 2006. ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties. ... Knesset Elections Law is crucial legal document governing the process of elections in the Israeli federal parliament or the Knesset. ... The Israeli Central Elections Committee is the body charged under the Knesset Elections Law of 1969 to carry out the elections for the upcoming Knesset. ... It has been suggested that Law of Israel be merged into this article or section. ... The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... The Attorney General of Israel (Hebrew: , HaYoetz HaMishpati LaMemshala, lit. ... Menachem Mazuz (Hebrew: מנחם מזוז) (born 1955) is an Israeli jurist, who currently serves as Israels Attorney General. ... Map of the districts of Israel Population density by geographic region, sub-district and district (thicker border indicates higher tier). ... The system of Local government in Israel, also known as local authority (‎), is the set of bodies charged with providing services such as urban planning, zoning, and the provision of drinking water and emergency services, as well as education and culture, as per guidelines of the Interior Ministry. ... A City council (‎) is the official designation of a city within Israels system of local government. ... In Israel, a local council is a locality similar to a city in structure and way of life, that has not yet achieved a status of a city, which requires a minimum number of residents, among other things. ... The Israeli Ministry of Interior recognizes three types of local government in Israel: cities, regional councils, and local councils. ... Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people, the proposed State of Palestine and the region of the Levant (called the Middle East at the UN) occupy a large amount of debate, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. ... The accession of Israel to the European Union refers to a possible future development in the EU-Israel relations. ... // Current ambassadors from Israel to international organizations Current consuls general from Israel: Other senior diplomatic representatives from Israel Well-known past ambassadors from Israel ^ The ambassador to Angola also serves as Israels non-resident Ambassador to Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Nations that are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons are sometimes referred to as the nuclear club. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


High priorities in the foreign policy of Israel include seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought six wars from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising...

Contents

Diplomatic relations

Ever since the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jewish state has faced problems in its foreign policy. In 1948, Israel was in diplomatic isolation resulting from being boycotted by its Middle Eastern neighbours (see Arab League boycott). As an alternative, the government of Israel began developing ties with distant countries. The Israeli government sought to establish good relations especially with the United States government and the newly independent states in Africa and Asia. David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Boycotts of Israel are a series of economic and political campaigns against the State of Israel in the course of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Before 1967, the State of Israel had established diplomatic relations with a majority of the world's nations, except for the Arab states and some other Muslim countries. Following the Madrid Conference of 1991, and as a direct result of the peace process, Israel established or renewed diplomatic relations with 68 countries. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ...


The following 34 countries do not have formal diplomatic relations with Israel (as of 19 November 2006): 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

NOTE: Morocco, Tunisia and the Sultanate of Oman closed the Israeli offices in these countries in October 2000 and suspended relations with Israel. The Republic of China (or Taiwan[3]) does recognize Israel, but does not officially conduct relations with it (though there are "unofficial relations") due to Israel's recognition of the PRC. All Lusophone countries, including the African ones of Guinea Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, Mozambique and Cape Verde, maintain diplomatic relations with Israel. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... A Lusophone is someone who speaks the Portuguese language natively or by adoption. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Motto Unidade, Luta, Progresso(Portuguese) Unity, Struggle, Progress Anthem Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada(Portuguese) Capital (and largest city) Bissau1 Official languages Portuguese Government Republic  -  President João Bernardo Vieira  -  Prime Minister Martinho Ndafa Kabi Independence from Portugal   -  Declared September 24, 1973   -  Recognised September 10, 1974  Area  -  Total...

Foreign relations with Israel around the world

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) based on world map from Wikipedia I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) based on world map from Wikipedia I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

United States

Main article: Israel-United States relations

The relations between Israel and the United States have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish state in 1948 (It was the first country to recognize the establishment of the State) to an unusual partnership that links Israel with the United States trying to balance competing interests in the Middle East region. The United States has been considered Israel's most powerful and supportive ally for almost 40 years and hosts the annual Salute to Israel Parade in New York City. Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1947 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel with the United States, with the U.S. superpower trying to balance competing... Parade Flags Flying The Salute to Israel Parade is, according to organizers, the single largest gathering in the world in support of Israel, and has been held annually in New York City since 1964. ... This article is about the state. ...


The United States is Israel's largest trading partner, accounting for 22.4% of Israel's $43.19 billion in imports, and 42.1% of Israel's $40.14 billion in exports annually (2005).[5] The U.S. also provides Israel with $2.4 billion in miltary assistance annually, which is equivalent to 24.5% of Israel's military expenditures. (2005).[5]


Israel is the ninth-greatest recipient of American foreign aid.[6]


New Zealand

Main article: Israel-New Zealand relations

Israel-New Zealand relations, which soured in 2004 amid allegations of clandestine Israeli spying in New Zealand, recovered in 2005 after the Israeli Foreign Minister apologized to the New Zealand government for the actions of two Israeli citizens who were suspected of working for Mossad. New Zealand has a consulate in Tel Aviv and Israel has an embassy in Canberra, Australia which also serves New Zealand. The Israeli embassy in Wellington was closed in October 2002 for financial reasons, but the Israeli government has said that it will reopen. However, New Zealanders are warned against all travel to Israel because of terrorism-related risks. Israel-New Zealand relations, which soured in 2004 amid allegations of clandestine Israeli spying in New Zealand, recovered in 2005 after the Israeli Foreign Minister apologized to the New Zealand government for the actions of several Israeli citizens who were suspected of working for Mossad. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte after his coup detat in France had conducted the manners of French governmant under dictatorship and in a consulate. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... For other meanings see Canberra (disambiguation). ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... October 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December // Events October 31, 2002 The Russian Health Minister Yuri Shevchenko has now stated that the incapacitating agent used in the storming of the Moscow theatre siege was a fentanyl derivative. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Turkey

Main article: Turkey-Israel relations

Alongside the United States, Turkey is one of Israel's two closest allies in the world. Turkey was the first Muslim-majority nation to formally recognize the State of Israel, only one year after the Declaration of the Jewish State (March 28, 1949). Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. Military, strategic, and diplomatic cooperation between Turkey and Israel is accorded high priority by the governments of both countries, which share concerns with respect to the regional instabilities in the Middle East. The reason for Israel and Turkey's unusually close relationship is due to the many similarities the two countries share. Both are Western-style, pluralist democracies in a region (Middle-East) where both countries are ethnically and linguistically isolated. Although diplomatic relations have soured over the past few years, the two countries have patched-up their minor differences, marking a return to good ties that were severely strained in February 2006 when Turkey hosted a delegation from the Palestinian group Hamas. // Turkey was the first Muslim-majority nation to formally recognize the State of Israel [1].Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Islamic militant organization and political party. ...


On a formal visit to Turkey in 2006, Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni stated that "Bilateral relations [between Turkey and Israel] are excellent. Not only on a leader-to-leader level but also on a people-to-people level". U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney meets with Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tzipi Livni, at the White House. ...


A Turkish diplomat, Selahattin Ulkumen, is honoured as one of the Righteous Among The Nations for his work in rescuing Jews from Nazi officials on the island of Cyprus, by issuing them Turkish visas and later arranging for their transport to Turkish territory. Another diplomat, Necdet Kent, also rescued Jews from Nazi authorities, for which he was awarded a special medal by the government of the State of Israel. Selahattin Ulkumen Selahattin Ulkumen (1914–2003) was a Turkish diplomat on the island of Rhodes who assisted local Jews escape the Holocaust. ... Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חסידי אומות העולם, Hasidei Umot HaOlam), in contemporary usage, is a term often used to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Necdet Kent (1911-2002) was a Turkish diplomat who risked his life to save Jews during World War II. He was posted as Consul General to Marseilles, France between 1941 and 1944 , gave Turkish citizenship to dozens of Turkish Jews living in France who did not have proper identity papers...


Arab states

Main articles: Arab-Israeli conflict, Arab League and the Arab-Israeli conflict, and Projects working for peace among Israelis and Arabs
See also: Israel-Lebanon conflict

Israel has full diplomatic relations with Egypt (the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty was signed in 1979), Jordan (the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace was signed in 1994) and Mauritania and trade relations with Qatar. If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Israel, barring a diplomatic passport, they are forbidden entry to the Sultanate of Oman, among other Arab and Muslim states.[7] (See also Israeli passport) Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... Combatants Lebanon, Hezbollah, PLO Israel, SLA Israel-Lebanon conflict describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon, and various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... Cover of Israeli passport Israeli passport personal-information page An Israeli entry stamp in a passport Israeli passports are issued to citizens and nationals of the State of Israel for the purpose of international travel[1] and entitle the bearer to the protection of Israels consular officials overseas. ...


On October 1, 1994, the Gulf States publicly announced their support for a review of the Arab boycott, in effect abolishing the secondary and tertiary boycotts against Israel. Israel has diplomatic relations with 9 non-Arab Muslim states and with 39 of the 43 Sub-Saharan African states that are not members of the Arab League. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Boycotts of Israel are a series of economic and political campaigns against the State of Israel in the course of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...


Following the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, diplomats have been discussing the possibility of improved relations between Israel and Iraq. However, then-Iraqi PM Iyad Allawi said in 2004 that Iraq would not establish ties with Israel.[8] For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... Allawi at a ceremony for the transfer of governmental authority to the Iraqi Interim Government. ...


In 2005, Saudi Arabia announced the end of its ban on Israeli goods and services, mostly due to its application to the World Trade Organization, where one member country cannot have a total ban on another. However, as of summer 2006 Saudi boycott was not cancelled.[9][10][11] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “WTO” redirects here. ...


Tensions between Syria and Israel rose following Israel's execution of Operation Orchard on September 6, 2007. Israel bombed a northern Syrian complex near Dayr az-Zawr which was suspected of holding nuclear materials from North Korea.[12] Combatants Israeli Air Force Syria Strength F-15I fighters F-16 fighters 1 ELINT aircraft Total: As many as 8 aircraft Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery of the Syrian Air Defence Forces Casualties None Reported Operation Orchard[1][2] was an Israeli airstrike on a target in... Suspended Bridge of Deir ez Zor over the Euphrates River Dayr az-Zawr, also spelled Deir ez Zor , Deir al-Zur and other variants (دير الزور in Arabic), in Armenian Ter Zor, means in English Brushwood Abbey is a city in eastern Syria on the Euphrates River and capital of Dayr az...


China

On January 9, 1950, the Israeli government extended recognition to the People's Republic of China, but diplomatic relations were not established until January 1992. is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Politics of Israel comprises of several interwoven components: Laws Israels governmental system is based on several basic laws enacted by its unicameral parliament, the Knesset. ... This article is about negotiations. ...


Agriculture

Israel has provided China with technological assistance in the areas of advanced agriculture and irrigation. Bilateral R&D projects, supported by the China-Israel Agricultural Research Fund, are focused on the development of new varieties of fruit and vegetables, agricultural biotechnology and applying modern technologies for processing fresh produce. Israel has built three major demonstration farms in China and several training centers which are supported by both Chinese and Israeli ministries of agriculture. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of research and technological development. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...


Military

Israel has also provided China with military assistance, expertise and technology. According to a report from the US-China Security Review Commission, "Israel ranks second only to Russia as a weapons system provider to China and as a conduit for sophisticated military technology, followed by France and Germany." Israel was ready to sell China the Phalcon, an Israeli airborne early-warning radar system (AWACS), until the United States forced it to cancel the deal.[13][14] A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... US Air Force E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft is prepared for flight in November 1997 Cockpit of RAF E-3 Sentry undergoing upgrades Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) is a radar-based electronic system designed to carry out airborne surveillance, and C3 (command, control and communications) functions for both...


Culture

Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, cultural exchange has been a major component of the bilateral relations, as both sides recognise the importance of creating a strong foundation based on their ancient and rich histories. In 2007, China launched a countrywide "Festival of Culture" in Israel to mark 15 years of relations.[15]


Germany

Main article: Germany-Israel relations

Israel and Germany maintain a "special relationship" based on shared beliefs, Western values and a combination of historical perspectives.[16] Among the most important factors in their relations is Nazi Germany's role in the genocide of European Jews during the Holocaust.[17] Israel and Germany maintain a special relationship based on shared beliefs, Western values and a combination of historical perspectives. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


India

Main article: India-Israel relations

India established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992 and has since become one of Israel's strongest allies in Asia.[18][19] The two countries cooperate in anti-terrorist activities in the Middle East and Southern Asia.[citation needed] Israel is India's second-largest arms provider and India is Israel's principal arms market, and the trade volume between the two countries has increased significantly in the past few years.[citation needed] Co-operation has taken place in the space sector as well with India launching Israeli satellites. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ...


Iran (Persia)

Main article: Iran-Israel relations

Relations between Israel and Iran (Persia) have alternated from close political alliances between the two states during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty to hostility following the rise to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Currently, the countries do not have diplomatic relations with each other, due to Iran's refusal to recognise Israel as a sovereign country. Relations between Iran and Israel have alternated from close political alliances between the two states during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty to hostility following the rise to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Grand Ayatullah Sayid Ruhullah Musawi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ« (September 21, 1900 [1]– June 3, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi...


Recently comments made by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[20] were perceived by Israel as threat of destruction..[21][22][23][24]  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


A larger population of Iranian Jews reside in Israel with the former President of Israel Moshe Katsav, the former Chief of Staff / Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz, former Chief of staff Dan Halutz, being the most famous of this group. Moshe Katsav (Hebrew: , originally Mussa Ghassäb Persian: ; born December 5, 1945) is the eighth and current President of Israel (since 2000). ... Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ...   (Hebrew: ) (born August 7, 1948 in Tel Aviv, Israel) is an Israeli Air Force Lt. ...


Ireland

Full diplomatic relations between Ireland and Israel were established in 1975.[25] As of 2006, the Israeli ambassador to Ireland was Zion Evrony,[26] and the Irish ambassador to Israel was Michael Forbes.[27] 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Irish government followed a similar line to other EU governments during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, with the Irish Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, condemning the actions of Israel as "reckless and disproportionate" and calling for an immediate ceasefire on both sides, while also condemning the actions of Hezbollah.[28] During the conflict, a shipment of bombs that attempted to land in the Republic of Ireland from USA to Tel Aviv were denied use of Irish airspace and airfields by the Irish Government. The weapons were part of a series of agreed arms shipments between the United States Government and Israel. The shipments were diverted via Scotland, where they also caused controversy.[29] Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Bartholomew Bertie Ahern (Irish: ;[1] born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who, since 26 June 1997, has served as the tenth Taoiseach of Ireland. ...


Japan

Main article: Israel-Japan relations

On May 15, 1952, diplomatic relations were established with the government of Japan at a Legation level. However, the Japanese government refrained from appointing a Minister Plenipotentiary to Israel until 1955. Relations between the two states were distant at first, but after 1958, as demand in Japan for Israeli commodities was rising, relations between the governments improved. On November 22, 1973, the Japanese government stated it was reconsidering its relations with the Israeli government due to Israel's retention of lands occupied in 1967, but no break occurred. This had been at the same time the Arab world had imposed an oil embargo against several countries, including Japan. Israel-Japan relations began on May 15, 1952 when Japan recognized Israel and an Israeli legation opened in Tokyo. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A legation was the term used in diplomacy to denote a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. ... ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum...


Luxembourg

In November 1947, Luxembourg voted in favor of the partition plan to create a Jewish state. Israel and Luxembourg established full diplomatic relations in 1949. Due to Luxembourg's small size, the Israeli embassy is located in Brussels and Luxembourg is represented politically by the Dutch embassy and economically by the Belgian embassy.


Singapore

Singapore and Israel have strong bilateral ties and have enjoyed close relations from the outset. This is in part due to both countries' perceptions of themselves as regional economic powerhouses surrounded by much larger Islamic countries with which they have, at best, an uneasy relationship. During Singapore's sudden independence (as a consequence of being expelled from Malaysia), Singapore appealed to the international community for technical assistance and military aid. Israel responded in the affirmative (India and Egypt declined), sending over a mission to jump-start Singapore's economy and to create, from scratch, Singapore's armed forces and its Ministry of Defence (Mindef), the former modeled after the IDF in both doctrine and order of battle. The Singapore Armed Forces (abbreviation: SAF, Malay: Angkatan Bersenjata Singapura, Simplified Chinese: ) comprises three branches: the Singapore Army, the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) and the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). ... MINDEF is an abreviation of Singapores Ministry of Defence Singapore Ministry of Defence link title ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ...


Today both countries have extensive economic ties and engage in a high volume of trade, with an emphasis on technology and research and development in the spheres of bio-technology and defence.


Israel's national airline El Al does not fly to Singapore as Singapore is located in the region of Indonesia and Malaysia both of which are hostile to Israel, and do not allow Israeli aircraft into their airspace.


Israel has had diplomatic representation in Singapore since its earliest days, with representation formalised in 1968. Singapore is a regional hub for Israeli businesses, while a growing number of members of both business communities seek opportunities for joint ventures in biotechnology, IT and the software industries.


Several bilateral agreements provide a solid framework for cooperation in areas such as healthcare, defence, and technological research & development. Most recently, in 1997, a bi-national fund for financing new technological products was set up, an indicator of deepening bilateral relations between both states.


Cultural exchanges have been accentuated by encouraging the participation of Israeli artists in international events in Singapore, cultivating a broad interest in Israeli performing arts. The yearly Film Festival has grown to become a cornerstone in the structured framework of activities.[30]


Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc

Main articles: Soviet Union and the Arab-Israeli conflict and Russia and the Arab-Israeli conflict

The Soviet Union voted in favor of the 1947 UN Partition Plan (Resolution 181) which paved the way for the creation of the State of Israel. Within 11 minutes of Israel's declaration of independence, it was recognized by the United States. The Soviet Union followed soon after, along with most of the other Western powers. [31] The Soviet Union and (after 1991) the Russian Federation had a mixed influence on the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... As one of the members of the Quartet on the Middle East, Russia plays an important role with respect to the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...


The Soviet Union and the other communist states of Eastern Europe (with the exception of Romania) cut diplomatic ties with Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. Relations were restored in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, despite the fact that hostile Arab countries such as Syria also maintain close ties with Russia. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...


South Africa

Main article: Israel-South Africa relations

Relations between Israel and the Union of South Africa were established as early as 1948, the Nationalist Prime Minister Daniel François Malan paying a visit to Israel and "forgetting" about the clearly antisemitic profile his own party's earned during the 1930s and by its opposition to joining in the Anti-Hitlerite coalition in World War II. After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960, Israel became one of the loudest critics of South African apartheid regime, which, along with Israel's intensive cooperation with the newly independent Sub-Saharan states, brought about a break in relations with Pretoria. After 1967, however, and particularly in the 1970s, Israel became Pretoria's strategic partner. Israel joined the West only in the late 1980s in boycotting South Africa before the collapse of apartheid. Relations between modern-day Israel and South Africa are increasingly warm, although South Africa has been an outspoken critic of Israel's treatment of the Palestinians. Israel and South Africa developed a strong relationship throughout the 1970s and 1980s, although Israel joined the West in the late 1980s in boycotting South Africa before the collapse of apartheid. ... Daniel François Malan Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959) was a Prime Minister of South Africa. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ...


Spain

Israel and Spain have maintained diplomatic ties since 1986. Relations have been tense since August 2006, after Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero attended a protest rally against the war in Lebanon wearing a keffiyeh around his neck. Nevertheless, Israeli exports to Spain are on the rise, totalling $870 million in 2006, and Israeli firms doing business with Spain include the Dead Sea Works, Haifa Chemicals, Amdocs, Comverse and Teva Pharmaceuticals.[32] An Iraqi man wearing a predominantly red keffiyeh in a Charraweyya (جراوية) style. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Amdocs NYSE: DOX, headquarters in St. ... Comverse Technology, Inc. ... Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. ...


Venezuela

Main article: Israel-Venezuela relations

Relations have historically been strong, but the bilateral ties have soured under the Presidency of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela.[33] The Jewish population in Venezuela, which peaked at 45,000,[34] is now below 15,000 "as a result of severe instability in the country", according to the Israeli Stephen Roth Institute.[35] The Miami Herald, Jewish Times, and Jewish organizations have reported large-scale emigration of Jewish people from Venezuela during the Chávez administration.[36][37] As a result of the June/July 2006 battles in the Gaza Strip, Venezuela withdrew its ambassador to Israel. The embassy itself remains open and operational [1][verification needed] Israel-Venezuela relations have historically been strong. ... The President of Venezuela (Spanish: Presidente de Venezuela) is both the head of state and head of government of Venezuela. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company. ... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly...


International organizations

The first international organization which the Israeli government joined was the International Wheat Council, established as part of Point Four Program in early 1949. Since May 11, 1949, the State of Israel is a member the United Nations. (See also Israel, Palestine and the United Nations) For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... The International Wheat Council (IWC) is an international organization established on March 23, 1949 at the initiative of the US government for the purpose of egalitarian distribution of wheat to countries in a state of emergency. ... A program for economic aid to poor countries announced by US President Harry S. Truman at his inauguration speech on January 20, 1949. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people, the proposed State of Palestine and the region of the Levant (called the Middle East at the UN) occupy a large amount of debate, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. ...


Israel is a member of many agencies within the UN, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Israel also participates in other international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO).[38] UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... FAO redirects here. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Within the UNESCO, Israel is a member of the scientific council of the Informatics program, an active member in the International Hydrologic Plan (IHP) and an active member of the Man and Biosphere programme (MAB).[39]


Israel has joined the European Union Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development[40] and is a member of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN),[41] the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF),[42] the European Laboratory and Organization for Molecular Biology (EMBP/EMBL/EMBC),[43] the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) since 1994,[44] the International Network for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.[45] and the Bank for International Settlement in 2003.[46] The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP, are funding programmes created by the European Union in order to support and encourage European research. ... CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research, the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated on the border between France and Switzerland, just west of Geneva. ... The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is a joint facility supported by 18 European countries situated in Grenoble, France. ... BIS Headquarters in Basel The Bank for International Settlements (or BIS) is an international organization of central banks which exists to foster cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability. It carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts, and through its...


Israel is, as of may 2007, a trial member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).[47] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Israel is a member of the Mediterranean Dialogue with NATO. The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994 is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean with the aim of contributing to regional security and stability by achieving mutual understanding and dispelling misconceptions about NATO among Dialogue countries. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


References

  1. ^ Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad (Israeli MFA)
  2. ^ a b non-Muslim country, enduring alliance with the Palestine Liberation Organization.
  3. ^ a b non-Muslim country.; Israel formally recognize the People's Republic of China. The People's Republic of China refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the Republic of China; see political status of Taiwan. Due to this reason, Israel may not establish diplomatic relations with Republic of China.
  4. ^   non-Muslim country.; Bhutan only has diplomatic relations with 22 countries; see Foreign relations of Bhutan.
  5. ^ a b U.S. Department of State (February 2007). http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3581.htm "Background Note: Israel"]. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
  6. ^ Schoff's Almanac 2007, Ben Schott, "Top Ten Recipients of US Aid", Published by Bloomsbury USA, New York (2007), p. 63.
  7. ^ Oman (lonelyplanet.com)
  8. ^ Iraq not to establish diplomatic ties with Israel: Allawi (People's Daily) July 27, 2004
  9. ^ Saudi Arabia Continues Boycott of Israel By David Krusch. Jewish Virtual Library. August 2, 2006
  10. ^ Saudi Ambassador Says Trade Boycott of Israel Will Not End By ELI LAKE. New York Sun June 21, 2006
  11. ^ Arab League Boycott of IsraelPDF (42.1 KiB) CRS Report for Congress by Martin A. Weiss. Order Code RS22424. April 19, 2006
  12. ^ "Israelis ‘Israelis seized nuclear material in Syrian raid’", The Sunday Times, 2007-09-23. 
  13. ^ David Isenberg. "Israel's role in China's new warplane", Asia Times, Dec 4, 2002. 
  14. ^ "China's hi-tech military disaster", The Times (UK), June 11, 2006. 
  15. ^ Helen Kaye. "China celebrates", The Jerusalem Post, May 21, 2007. 
  16. ^ Israel's foreign relations. The Israel-German special relationship Britain Israel Communications and Research Centre] (BICOM) 23 November 2005. Accessed 2006-08-18
  17. ^ German Embassy. Background Papers. Germany and Israel
  18. ^ http://www.westerndefense.org/bulletins/Dec-01.htm
  19. ^ http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2003/5/29/162032.shtml
  20. ^
    • Iranians visit Israel's Holocaust Web site. Reuters (January 30, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-01-31. “Jews are alarmed by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who since coming to power in 2005 has drawn international condemnation by describing the Holocaust as "a myth" and calling for Israel to be "wiped off the map."”
    • Iranians say Israel spat is really about nukes. MSNBC (October 30, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-10-18. “President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s remark on Wednesday that Israel should be ‘wiped off the map’ sparked international condemnation, including a rebuke from the U.N. Security Council.”
    • "The European Union and Russia have joined condemnation of the Iranian president's public call for Israel to be 'wiped off the map'." "Iran leader's comments attacked", BBC News, October 27, 2005.
    • "Iranian President Mahmud Ahmadinejad -- who in October called for Israel to be 'wiped off the map' -- has now questioned the extent of the Holocaust and suggested that the Jewish state be moved to Europe. Ahmadinejad's comments, made on the sidelines of a summit of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), have again sparked international condemnation." Golnaz Esfandiari. "Iran: President's Latest Comments About Israel Spark Further Condemnation", Radio Free Europe, December 9, 2005.
    • "Leaders around the world on Thursday condemned a call by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that Israel be 'wiped off the map,'... In a joint statement, the E.U. leaders 'condemned in the strongest terms' the Iranian president's call..." Mary Jordan and Karl Vick. World Leaders Condemn Iranian's Call to Wipe Israel 'Off the Map', Washington Post, October 28, 2005
    • "In unusually strong language, the National Council of Churches USA has condemned Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s call for the obliteration of Israel and his claim that the Holocaust was “a myth.”" NCC Condemns Ahmadinejad’s Holocaust Statement, National Council of Churches, December 16, 2005.
    • "Iran's president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was condemned in the West when he called the Holocaust a myth." Michael Slackman. In Tehran, a riposte to the Danish cartoons The New York Times, August 24, 2006.
    • "In October 2005, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was condemned for calling for Israel to be "wiped off the map" and followed up with comments downplaying the Holocaust." Israel planning tactical nuclear strike on Iran, Daily News Sri Lanka, January 8, 2007.
    • "Ahmadinejad has been widely condemned for describing the Holocaust as a "myth" and calling for Israel to be "wiped off the map" Germans Protest Against Ahmadinejad, Racism As Cup Opens, Deutsche Welle, June 11, 2006.
    • "Ahmadinejad has been condemned internationally after denying the Holocaust, and calling for Israel to be 'wiped off the map.'" Sharon's absence from world stage prompts conflicting views, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, January 5, 2006
    • "Mr Ahmadinejad has been condemned for calling for Israel's destruction and saying the Nazi Holocaust was a 'myth'." Bayern Munich deny backing Iran, BBC News, January 13, 2006.
  21. ^ Repeat Offenders. Iran Says It Wants to Destroy Israel
  22. ^ Little fanfare in Iraq "Iranian supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei called for the destruction of Israel, saying it was the only way to solve the problems of the Middle East." CNN, 1 January 2000
  23. ^ European Parliament rips Iran leader’s remarks
  24. ^ European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood policy: Statement on recent declarations by the President of Iran
  25. ^ Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of relations. Government of Israel. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  26. ^ Embassy of Israel, Dublin. Israeli Embassy, Dublin. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  27. ^ Irish Consulate and Embassy Information. Government of Ireland. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  28. ^ Taoiseach condemns killing of 4 UN Observers in Southern Lebanon. Government of Ireland (26 July 2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  29. ^ Flights protest targets Prestwick. BBC News (30 July 2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  30. ^ [http://singapore.mfa.gov.il/mfm/web/main/document.asp?SubjectID=2010&MissionID=58 &LanguageID=0&StatusID=0&DocumentID=-1]
  31. ^ http://www.nclci.org/Articles/art-flan-foundation.htm
  32. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/918284.html
  33. ^ Venezuela 'to sever Israel ties'
  34. ^ Halvorssen, Thor. Hurricane Hugo. The Weekly Standard, August 8, 2005, Volume 010, Issue 44. Also available at LookSmart.
  35. ^ Stephen Roth Institute. Annual Report 2004: Venezuela. Accessed August 11, 2006.
  36. ^ Berrios, Jerry. S. Fla. Venezuelans: Chavez incites anti-Semitism. Miami Herald (August 10, 2006).
  37. ^ Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County. JCRC expresses concern with Venezuelan unrest. Accessed August 11, 2006.
  38. ^ Government, International Organizations (countriesquest.com)
  39. ^ UNESCO Ministry of Science and Technology of Israel (MOST)
  40. ^ FP (MOST)
  41. ^ CERN (MOST)
  42. ^ ESRF (MOST)
  43. ^ EMBP/EMBL/EMBC (MOST)
  44. ^ IPGRI (MOST)
  45. ^ INSME members
  46. ^ Bank for International Settlement - profilePDF (34.8 KiB)
  47. ^ OECD (MOST)

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of... Foreign Relations of Bhutan // Main article: Suzerainty#Bhutan Peoples Republic of Bangladesh; in Thimphu, Bhutan Canada through the Canadian Cooperation Office [1] as a conduit; in Thimphu, Bhutan Republic of India; in Thimphu, Bhutan Republic of India; in Puntsholing, Bhutan United Nations; in Thimphu, Bhutan See also Bhutanese diplomatic... The Jewish Virtual Library is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), notable for its strong pro-Israel views. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is an association of 35 Christian faith groups in the United States with 100,000 local congregations and more than 45,000,000 adherents. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thor Halvorssen (born 1976) [1] is a human rights advocate and film producer with contributions in the field of public policy, public interest advocacy, individual rights and civil liberties, and pro-democracy advocacy in his native Venezuela. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

See also

Israel Portal

Image File history File links COA_of_Israel. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United States Jerusalem Embassy Act, passed by Congress on October 23, 1995 , states that Jerusalem should be recognized as the capital of the State of Israel; and the United States Embassy in Israel should be established in Jerusalem no later than May 31, 1999. The act explains that every... The accession of Israel to the European Union has been supported by several prominent Israeli politicians, such as former Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom, Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu and Simon Peres. ... There are 71 resident embassies, 18 consulates and five special missions in the 161 states that recognise Israel. ... List of well-known ambassadors from the State of Israel, other country or body in parentheses: Daniel Ayalon (United States) Abba Eban (UN/United States) Dan Gillerman (UN) Dore Gold (UN) Chaim Herzog (UN) Golda Meir (USSR) Benjamin Netanyahu (UN) Yitzhak Rabin (United States) Categories: Lists of ambassadors ... This page lists embassies posted in Israel (as of July 2007). ...

Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

External links

  • Official Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website
  • Timeline of Turkish-Israeli Relations, 1949-2006PDF (216 KiB)
  • India-Israeli Relations: The Imperatives for Enhanced Strategic Cooperation
  • Le Monde diplomatique report on EU-Israeli relations
  • European Union's relations with Israel
  • US-Israeli Relations from the Jewish Virtual Library.
  • Britain Israel Communications & Research Centre
  • Anglo-Israel Association
  • Scottish Friends of Israel
  • The Norwegian Organization With Israel for Peace
  • Sweden-Israel Friendship Association
  • Friends of Israel Association (Italy)
  • Shalom
  • Germany and Israel: Friendship and Criticism
  • European Coalition for Israel
  • Pro-Israel Friends of Israel Worldwide
  • Israel-Canada Chamber of Commerce & Industry
  • South African Zionist Federation

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Israel (05/06) (5923 words)
Israel and the PLO subsequently signed the Gaza-Jericho Agreement on May 4, 1994, and the Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities on August 29, 1994, which began the process of transferring authority from Israel to the Palestinians.
Israel’s tech market is very developed, and in spite of the pause in the industry’s growth, the high-tech sector is likely to be the major driver of the Israeli economy.
Israel has diplomatic relations with nine non-Arab Muslim states and with 32 of the 43 Sub-Saharan states that are not members of the Arab League.
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