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Encyclopedia > Foreign relations of Iran
For current international events related to Iran see Current international disputes with Iran

Foreign relations of
Iran This article is about the current international disputes between Iran and other countries, especially the United States and Israel. ...




Politics Portal Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... This article is about the current international tensions between Iran and other countries, especially the United States and Israel. ... The first Minister of Foreign Affairs (or Foreign Minister) of Iran was Mirza Abdolvahhab Khan Motamed od-Dowleh Neshat who served between 1819 and 1824. ... Iran has a substantial diplomatic network, reflecting its foreign affairs priorities within the Islamic and Non-Aligned world. ... This article outlines economic, trade, scientific and military Sanctions against Iran, which has been put forward by the U.S. government, or under U.S. pressure. ... Iranian-Arab relations have always been very mixed. ... Image:Arafat-khomeini. ... The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal in the United States during the 1980s. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Introduction

Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli: The main gates to Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tehran.
Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli: The main gates to Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tehran.
The newly renovated building of Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs uses pre-Islamic Persian architecture extensively in its facade.
The newly renovated building of Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs uses pre-Islamic Persian architecture extensively in its facade.

Since the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini's regime initiated sharp changes from the foreign policy pursued by the Shah, particularly in reversing the country's orientation toward the West. Following Iran's initial post-revolutionary idealistic and hard-line foreign policy and the Iran-Iraq war, the country has begun to settle down into a more rational foreign policy. However, this is still occasionally overshadowed by rhetoric. Gates of Irans Foreign Ministry, called Bagh-Melli, Tehran, Iran. ... Gates of Irans Foreign Ministry, called Bagh-Melli, Tehran, Iran. ... The main gates to the compound were constructed during the Qajar dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x791, 940 KB) Summary I took this image with a Fuji 200 slide camera. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x791, 940 KB) Summary I took this image with a Fuji 200 slide camera. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4...


In recent years Iran has made great strides in improving relations with its neighbours, particularly Saudi Arabia. Iran's regional goals are trying not to be dominated by wanting to establish a leadership role, curtail the presence of the United States and other outside powers, and build trade ties. In broad terms, Iran's foreign policy emphasizes three main guidelines:

  • It takes stances against the United States and Israel, the former as a military power that threatens it in the Persian Gulf, and the latter as part of its stance to support the Palestinians. See U.S.-Iran relations.
  • It wants to eliminate outside influence in the region. Iran sees itself as a regional power, when global powers such as the United States or the United Kingdom do not supersede it. It seeks to reduce their presence in the Persian Gulf wherever possible.
  • It pursues a great increase in diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries, as part of an effort to build trade and political support, now that it has lost its pre-revolutionary US backing.

Despite these guidelines, however, bilateral relations are frequently confused and contradictory, due to Iran's oscillation between pragmatic and ideological concerns. Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Morgan Shuster and US officials at Atabak Palace, Tehran, 1911. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


History

Post Revolution Period (1979-1980)

The country's foreign relations since the revolution have been tumultuous. A number of varying factors account for this; the most important among them is Iran's significant anti-western backlash after its revolution (The roots of this were in the west's support for the Shah).


At this time, Iran found itself very isolated, due to its hardline and aggressive Islamic foreign policy, which wanted to see its revolutionary ideals spread across the Persian Gulf. This resulted in confrontation with the U.S. in the hostage crisis. Map of the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Iran-Iraq War Period (1980-1988)

Iranian attempts to spread its Islamic revolution also strained the country's relations with many of its Arab neighbors. In 1981, Iran supported a plot to overthrow the Bahraini government. In 1983, Iran expressed political support for Shi'ites who bombed Western embassies in Kuwait, and in 1987, Iranian pilgrims rioted at poor living conditions and treatment and were consequently massacred during the Hajj (pilgrimage) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Nations with strong fundamentalist movements, such as Egypt and Algeria, also began to mistrust Iran. With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Iran was thought to be supporting the creation of the Hizballah organization. Furthermore, Iran went on to oppose the Arab-Israeli peace process, because it saw Israel as an illegal country. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ...


Iran also concerned European nations, particularly France and Germany, after its secret service executed several radical Iranian dissidents in Europe.


Relations with Iraq had never been good historically; however, they took a turn for the worse in 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran. The stated reason for Iraq's invasion was centered around sovereignty over the waterway between the two countries, the Shatt al-Arab. However, other non-stated reasons are probably more convincing. Iran and Iraq had a history of interference in each other's affairs by supporting separatist movements. Although these interferences had stopped since the Algiers Agreement (1975), Iran resumed support for Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq after the Revolution. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al...


Iran demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Shatt al-Arab, as established under the 1975 Algiers Agreement signed by Iraq and Iran. This period saw Iran become even more isolated—with virtually no allies. Exhausted by the war, Iran signed UN Security Council Resolution 598 in July 1988 after the United States and Germany began supplying Iraq with chemical weapons. The cease-fire, resulting from the UN Resolution, was implemented on August 20, 1988. Neither nation had made any real gains in the war. It left one million dead (including about 700,000 Iranians) and had a dramatic effect on the country's foreign policy. From this point on, the until-then-radical Islamist government recognised that it had no choice but to moderate and rationalise its objectives. This was the beginning of what Anoushiravan Ehteshami calls the reorientation phase of Iranian foreign policy Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saddam Hussein talking with Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr For the Algiers Agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea see Algiers Agreement (2000) The 1975 Algiers Agreement, commonly known as the Algiers Accord. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Post War Period (1988-present)

Since the end of the Iran-Iraq war, Iran's new foreign policy (see Introduction) has had a dramatic effect on its global standing. Relations with the European Union have dramatically improved to the point where Iran is a major oil exporter and trading partner for countries such as Italy, France, and Germany. China and India have also emerged as friends of Iran. Together, these three countries face similar challenges in the global economy as they industrialize and consequently find themselves aligned on a number of issues.


Iran maintains regular diplomatic and commercial relations with Russia and the former Soviet Republics. Both Iran and Russia believe they have important national interests at stake in developments in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus, particularly on energy resources from the Caspian Sea. Russian and other sales of military equipment and technology concern Iran's neighbors and the United States.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


Significant historical treaties

The Treaty of Zuhab was an accord signed between Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire. ... Treaty of Turkmenchay (also Turkmenchai, Torkamanchay) was signed on February 10, 1828 between Persia (now Iran) and Russia. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... Akhal Treaty was a treaty signed by Persia and Imperial Russia on 21 September 1881. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... The blue areas were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British. ...

Current policies of The Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Republic of Iran accords priority to its relations with the other states in the region and with the rest of the Islamic world. This includes a strong commitment to the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and the Non-Aligned Movement. Relations with the states of the (Persian) Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), especially with Saudi Arabia, have improved in recent years. However, an unresolved territorial dispute with the United Arab Emirates concerning three islands in the Persian Gulf (see above) continues to mar its relations with these states. The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) OIC redirects here. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... ...


Tehran supports the interim Governing Council in Iraq, but it strongly advocates a prompt and full transfer of state authority to the Iraqi people. Iran hopes for stabilization in Afghanistan and supports the reconstruction effort so that the Afghan refugees in Iran (which number approximately 2.5 million.[1]) can return to their homeland and the flow of drugs from Afghanistan can be stemmed. Iran is also pursuing a policy of stabilization and cooperation with the countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia, whereby it is seeking to capitalise on its central location to establish itself as the political and economic hub of the region. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Current disputes

  • Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990, but they are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway.
  • Iran governs and owns two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser Tunb (which the UAE calls Tunb as Sughra in Arabic, and Iran calls Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian) and Greater Tunb (which the UAE calls Tunb al Kubra in Arabic, and Iran calls Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian).
  • Iran jointly administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (Arabic, Abu Musa; Persian, Jazireh-ye Abu Musa), over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since 1992, including access restrictions.
  • The Caspian Sea borders are not yet determined with Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan, although this problem is set to be resolved peacefully in the coming years through slow negotiations. Issues between Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan were settled in 2003, but Iran does not recognize these agreements, albeit it has no common border with Russia or Kazakhstan.
  • 2007 UK-Iran maritime capture controversy
  • Iran on June 5, 2007 reaffirmed the country's non-interference in Lebanese national affairs and called for unity among the Lebanese people.[2]

Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... The Greater and Lesser Tunbs, and Abu Musa Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (Persian: , Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak; Arabic: , Tunb al-kubra and Tunb al-sughra) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. ... Motto God, Nation, Royal Family Anthem Ishy Bilady Capital (and largest city) Abu Dhabi Official languages Arabic Demonym Emirati Government Federal constitutional monarchy  -  President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan  -  Prime Minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Establishment December 2, 1971  Area  -  Total 83,600 km² (116th) 32,278 sq mi... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Combatting the flow of illicit drugs

Despite substantial interdiction efforts, Iran remains a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin (primarily from neighboring Afghanistan) to Europe; domestic consumption of narcotics remains a persistent problem and Iranian press reports estimate that there are at least 1.2 million drug users in the country. Iran has been trying to increase the profile of its anti-drugs campaign abroad, but it is having little success. Most countries support it politically, but refuse Iran the critical equipment and training it needs. Heroin (INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is an opioid synthesized directly from the extracts of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. ...


Relations with the United States of America and the Member States of the European Union

Main article: U.S.-Iran relations Morgan Shuster and US officials at Atabak Palace, Tehran, 1911. ...


Relations between Iran and the United States have been disrupted since the revolution in Iran. Iran does not maintain official diplomatic relations with either the United States or Israel, and it views the Middle East peace process with skepticism. Iran and the United States do have diplomatic "Interest Sections" in each other's countries, but that's it. Relations between Iran on the one hand and the European Union and its member states on the other hand are slowly but surely increasing in importance, a fact underscored by President Seyed Mohammad Khatami's visits to Italy, France and Germany in July 2000 and to Austria and Greece in March 2002, as well as by reciprocal visits of European heads of state and government to Tehran and a lively exchange at ministerial levels. In 2002, the European Union launched negotiations on a Trade and Co-operation Agreement (TCA) with Iran. Parallel to these negotiations, the EU voiced its expectation that the political dialogue with Iran must lead to concrete results in the areas of human rights, efforts to counter terrorism, Iran’s stance on the Middle East peace process and issues associated with the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. During a joint visit to Tehran in October 2003, the foreign ministers of France, Germany and the United Kingdom successfully prompted the Iranian government to sign an additional protocol to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and commit itself to fully cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and voluntarily suspend its uranium enrichment and processing activities. The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ...


Regional interference or influence?

Patrick Clawson of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy sums up this question best: Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is a Jewish organization founded in 1985 by Martin Indyk, previously research director of the leading pro-Israel lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Aipac). ...

"A strong sense of history pervades Iran. Many Iranians consider their natural sphere of influence to extend beyond Iran's present borders. After all, Iran was once much larger. Portuguese forces seized islands and ports in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 19th century, the Russian Empire wrested from Tehran's control what is today Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan, and part of Georgia. Iranian elementary school texts teach about the Iranian roots not only of cities like Baku, but also cities further north like Derbent in southern Russia. The Shah lost much of his claim to western Afghanistan following the Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-1857. Only in 1970 did a UN sponsored consultation end Iranian claims to suzerainty over the Persian Gulf island nation of Bahrain. In centuries past, Iranian rule once stretched westward into modern Iraq and beyond. When the western world complains of Iranian interference beyond its borders, the Iranian government often convinced itself that it is merely exerting its influence in lands that were once its own. Simultaneously, Iran's losses at the hands of outside powers have contributed to a sense of grievance that continues to the present day."[2]

Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Baku (disambiguation). ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran is selected by the President of Iran. Manouchehr Mottaki is the current acting Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs. Hamid Reza Assefi is the official spokesman. The first Minister of Foreign Affairs (or Foreign Minister) of Iran was Mirza Abdolvahhab Khan Motamed od-Dowleh Neshat who served between 1819 and 1824. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... Manouchehr Mottaki (Persian: منوچهر متکی) (born 1953 in Bandar Gaz) is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs appointed by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. ... Hamid Reza Assefi (In Persian: حمیدرضا آصفی) is the Spokesman, Vice Minister of Parliamentary and Consular Affairs and Communication, and the Special Assistant to the Minister at the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ...


References

  1. ^ Afghan Refugees in Iran, "[1]", International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, 16-Jun-2004. Retrieved 29-Apr-2007.
  2. ^ Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin (historian). ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.9, 10

Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ... Michael Rubin. ...

See also

Iran has a substantial diplomatic network, reflecting its foreign affairs priorities within the Islamic and Non-Aligned world. ... The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal in the United States during the 1980s. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... Flag of the United Nations Flag of Islamic Republic of Iran United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on 24 March 2007. ...

External links

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Permanent Mission of Iran to the United Nations in New York
  • The EU's relations with Iran

  Results from FactBites:
 
Foreign relations of Iran - definition of Foreign relations of Iran in Encyclopedia (1085 words)
Iran's regional goals are dominated by wanting to establish a leadership role, curtail the presence of the United States and other outside powers, and build trade ties.
Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway.
Iran occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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