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Encyclopedia > Foreign relations of France
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France

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
France
Politics, sometimes defined as the art and science of government[1], is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ... Image File history File links France_coa. ... // French politics under the Fifth Republic After Charles de Gaulle had the constitution of the French Fifth Republic adopted in 1958, France was ruled by successive right-wing administrations until 1981. ...

See also History of France

edit The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... It has been suggested that Human rights in France be merged into this article or section. ... The President of the French Republic (French: Président de la République française) colloquially referred to as President of France, is Frances elected Head of State and also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra and Grand Master of the Légion dhonneur. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932), French politician, is President of the French Republic. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (born 14 November 1953 in Rabat, Morocco) simply known as Dominique de Villepin ( — , is a French diplomat and politician. ... This page is a list of French prime ministers. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Political parties in France lists political parties in France. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (from French Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... France is a representative democracy. ... // Second Round First Round General Summary On May 1, Labour Day, the yearly demonstrations for workers rights were compounded by protests against Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... The 2007 French presidential election will herald the first contest since Frances rejection of the European constitution in May 2005. ... These are the results of the French legislative election of 2002 Category: ... The French legislative election will take place in June 2007, a few weeks after the French presidential election. ... France is named The Country of the Human Rights. In the Constitution and in the laws, the Human Rights are respected. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 25 European states. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ... In 1589, the four French Secretaries of State became specialized, with one of the secretaries responsible for foreign affairs. ... This is a list of major political scandals in France: 1816 shipwreck of and search for French frigate Medusa off the west coast of Africa Dreyfus Affair, 1894 treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus - exposed by writer Emile Zola on January 13, 1898 The Ben Barka affair, 1965 disappearance of the... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ...

A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. A Major Power in international affairs, it wields considerable clout in especially African and Middle Eastern affairs. United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...

Contents


Relations per wide geographic areas

Germany and Europe

France is a major power in western Europe because of its size, location, strong economy, membership in European organizations, strong military posture, and energetic diplomacy. France generally has worked to strengthen the global economic and political influence of the EU and its role in common European defense and collective security. A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ...


It views Franco-German cooperation and the development of a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) as the foundation of efforts to enhance European Union security. France cooperates closely with Germany and Spain, but the relations with the United Kingdom are historically tense. Francois Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl in Verdun in 1984 The Franco-German Cooperation or Franco-German Partnership are terms to describe the high collaboration between the countries of France and Germany. ... The European Security and Defence Identity is a term which was used to describe a European common defence and security policy in the 1990s, now effectively replaced by the European Security and Defence Policy. ...


Middle East

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.

France's relations with Middle East have a long history. Relations with Persia, now known as Iran began during the middle ages. In the Thirty Years' War France was a friend of and ally to the Ottoman Empire supplying weaponry and training and on occasion cooperating against the Holy Roman Empire, their mutual enemy. One advisor who was about to be sent to Constantinople in 1795 was a young artillery commander named Napoleon Bonaparte, but a few days before he was to leave the famous "whiff of grapeshot" occurred and it was decided he should stay in France. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of todays Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ...


Throughout the nineteenth century the French pursued a policy of shoring up the Ottoman Empire to prevent advances by France's rivals Austria and Russia into the Balkans. This finally culminated in the Crimean War where France joined with Britain to prevent the Russian overrunning of the Ottoman Turks. Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia Imperial Russia Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of...


France also pursued close relations with the semi-autonomous Egypt. In 1869 French workers completed the Suez Canal. A rivalry emerged between France and Britain for control of Egypt, and eventually Britain emerged victorious by buying out the Egyptian shares of the company before the French had time to act. 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal. ...


After the unification of Germany in 1870 Germany attempted to co-op France's relations with the Ottomans and was quite successful. In World War I the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, and was defeated by France and the United Kingdom. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire France and Britain divided the Middle East between them. France received Syria and Lebanon. 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ...


These colonies were granted independence after the Second World War but France still tries to forge cultural and educational bonds between the areas, particularly with Lebanon. Relationships with Syria are more strained, due to the policies of that country. In 2005, France, along with the United States, pressured Syria to evacuate Lebanon. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the post-WWII era French relations with the Arab Middle East reached a very low point. The war in Algeria between Muslim fighters and French colonists deeply concerned the rest of the Muslim world. The independence fighters received much of their supplies and funding from Egypt and other Arab powers, much to France's displeasure. Most damaging to Franco-Arab relations, however, was the Suez Crisis. It greatly diminished France's reputation in the region. France openly supported the Israeli attack on the Sinai peninsula, and was working against Nasser, then a popular figure in the Middle East. The Suez Crisis also made France and the United Kingdom look again like imperialist powers attempting to impose their will upon weaker nations. The Algerian War of Independence (1954–62) was a period of guerrilla strikes, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians on both sides, and riots between the French army and colonists, or the colons as they were called, in French special département Algeria and the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale... Combatants Israel, France, United Kingdom Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 189 Israelis KIA, unknown number WIA, 16 British... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


Another hindrance to France's relations with the Arab Middle East was its close alliance with Israel. In the 1950s France was, perhaps, Israel's closest ally in the world. France had quickly recognized the state of Israel and for many years backed Israel at the United Nations. French arm shipments, including fighter jets, missiles, and helicopters had formed the backbone of Israel's army in the nineteen-fifties and early sixties. In the 1967 war it was French Mirage fighters that had guaranteed Israeli air superiority, while on the ground French small arms equipped the IDF soldiers. This support was consistent, and also deeply ingrained in the population. The support for Israel has been attributed to a number of causes, including guilt felt over the Vichy regime's treatment of Jews, and a similar desire to reject any viewpoints that could have Nazi overtones. The right also had strong sympathies towards Israel as they saw the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to be in many ways similar to France's war with Algerian separatists. // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


This all changed dramatically with the coming of Charles de Gaulle to power. De Gaulle's foreign policy was centered around an attempt to limit the power and influence of both superpowers, and at the same time increase France's international prestige. De Gaulle hoped to move France from being a follower of the United States to becoming the leading nation of a large group of non-aligned countries. The nations de Gaulle looked at as potential participants in this grouping were those in France's traditional spheres of influence: Africa and the Middle East. The former French colonies in eastern and northern Africa were quite agreeable to these close relations with France. These nations had close economic and cultural ties to France, and they also had few other suitors amongst the major powers. This new orientation of French foreign policy also appealed strongly to the leaders of the Middle East. None of them wanted to be dominated by either of the superpowers, and they supported France's policy of trying to balance the US and the USSR and to prevent either from becoming dominant in the region. The Middle Eastern leaders wanted to be free to pursue their own goals and objectives, and did not want to be chained to either alliance block. De Gaulle hoped to use this common foundation to build strong relations between the nations. He also hoped that good relations would improve France's trade with the region. De Gaulle also imagined that these allies would look up to the more powerful French nation, and would look to it in leadership in matters of foreign policy. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 - 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as le général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ...


The end of the Algerian conflict in 1962 accomplished much in this regard. France could not portray itself as a leader of the oppressed nations of the world if it still was enforcing its colonial rule upon another nation. The battle against the Muslim separatists that France waged in favour of the minority of white settlers was an extremely unpopular one throughout the Muslim world. With the conflict raging it would have been next to impossible for France to have had positive relations with the nations of the Middle East. The Middle Eastern support for the FLN guerillas was another strain on relations that the end of the conflict removed. Most of the financial and material support for the FLN had come from the nations of the Middle East and North Africa. This was especially true of Nasser's Egypt, which had long supported the separatists. Egypt is also the most direct example of improved relations after the end of hostilities. The end of the war brought an immediate thaw to Franco-Egyptian relations, Egypt ended the trial of four French officers accused of espionage, and France ended its trade embargo against Egypt. 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... The National Liberation Front , (Arabic: Jabhat al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī, French: Front de Libération Nationale aka FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ...


In 1967 de Gaulle completely overturned France's Israel policy. De Gaulle and his ministers reacted very harshly to Israel's actions in the Six Day War. The French government and de Gaulle condemned Israel's treatment of refugees, warned that it was a mistake to occupy the Palestinian areas, and also refused to recognize the Israeli control of Jerusalem. The French government continued to criticize Israel after the war and de Gaulle spoke out against other Israeli actions, such as the operations against the PLO in Lebanon. France began to use its veto power to oppose Israel in the UN, and France sided with the Arab states on almost all issues brought to the international body. Most importantly of all, however, de Gaulle's government imposed an arms embargo on the Israeli state. The embargo was in fact applied to all the combatants, but very soon France began selling weaponry to the Arab states again. As early as 1970 France sold Libya a hundred Dassault Mirage fighter jets. However, after 1967 France continued to support Israel's right to exist, as well as Israel's many preferential agreements with France and the European Economic Community. The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), the capital of Israel, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


De Gaulle launched the immense shift in policy from one favouring Israel to one favouring the Arab states for a combination of reasons. It was becoming obvious that the strengthening alliance between the United States and Israel would soon make France's role as an ally mostly irrelevant. The US could always provide Israel with more money and with higher levels of military technology. For France to play an important role in the region it seemed supporting the Arab side would give it more leverage in the future. Trade considerations also came into play. The Arab states at the time had a combined population of over a hundred million, compared to only three million in Israel. As de Gaulle memoirs show he was personally quite sympathetic to Israel, but he saw it in the interest of France to distance the two nations. For the pursuit of political and economic ends de Gaulle crafted a new Middle Eastern policy that discontinued support for Israel and instead pursued close relations with the Arab states.


Also important was the increase in foreign aid spending by the French government. France increased its expenditures greatly to become second only to the United States in total aid amongst the Western powers but first on a per capita basis. By 1968 France was paying out $855 million dollars per year in aid far more than either West Germany or the United Kingdom. The vast majority of French aid was directed towards Africa and the Middle East, usually either as a lever to promote French interests or to help with the sale of French products (e.g. arms sales). France also increased its expenditures on other forms of aid sending out skilled individuals to developing countries to provide technical and cultural expertise.


The combination of aid money, arms sales, and diplomatic alignments helped to erase the memory of the Suez Crisis and the Algerian War in the Arab world and France successfully developed amicable relationships with the governments of many of the Middle Eastern states. Nasser and de Gaulle, who shared many similarities, cooperated together on limiting American power in the region. Nasser proclaimed France as the only friend of Egypt in the west. France and Iraq also developed a close relationship with business ties, joint military training exercises, and French assistance in Iraq's nuclear program in the 1970s. France's relations with its former colony Syria were improved, and eroded cultural links were partially restored.


In terms of trade France did receive some benefits from the improved relations with the Middle East. French trade with the Middle East increased by over fifty percent after de Gaulle's reforms. The weaponry industries benefited most as France soon had lucrative contracts with many of the regimes in the Middle East and North Africa, though these contracts account for a negligible part of France's economy.


De Gaulle had hoped that by taking a moderate path and not strongly supporting either side France could become integral to the Middle East peace process. However, peace negotiations between Israel, the Palestinians, and the Arab powers have almost always involved representatives of the one or both of the superpowers, but France has been universally excluded. In the Camp David accords between Sadat and Begin US President Jimmy Carter played an immense role, the French played virtually none. The French foreign minister complained that a separate peace between Israel and Egypt would not benefit Middle East peace, but none of the leaders involved were particularly concerned about what the French government thought. This pattern has repeated itself frequently. The Oslo Accords, the Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty, and others were all negotiated and written with no input at all from France. When France does try to intervene it is looked on as unhelpful by the US and Israel, and these nations have rejected all major French peace proposals. Chirac's visit to the Middle East in 1996 annoyed the Americans and Israelis, and had no lasting impact on the peace process.


France is one of the West's most frequent targets of Islamic terrorism. Throughout the period since de Gaulle left power there have been a number of attacks against French targets. There have been hijackings, such as those of an Air France plane to Uganda in 1976, and one to perhaps be crashed into the Eiffel Tower in 1994 (see Air France Flight 8969). Another plane was blown up over the Sahara in 1989, killing many French citizens. There have also been bombings in France such as those in 1986 or that against the Jo Goldenberg Jewish restaurant in 1982. In 1995, Algerian militants of the GIA launched a terror bombing campaign against the French public. The Tower at sunrise. ... Air France Flight 8969 (AF8969,AFR8969) was an Air France flight that was hijacked on December 24, 1994 at Algiers. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ... In 1995, the GIA Islamist militant group staged a series of attacks against the French public, targeting public transportation. ...


Africa

France plays a significant role in Africa, especially in its former colonies, through extensive aid programs, commercial activities, military agreements, and cultural impact. In those former colonies where the French presence remains important, France contributes to political, military, and social stability. It is often held that French policy in Africa - particularly where British interests are also involved - is susceptible to what is known as 'Fashoda syndrome'. This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Fashoda syndrome is the name given to a tendency within French foreign policy in Africa, giving importance to asserting French influence in areas which may be becoming susceptible to British influence. ...


In the period from 1990, until during and after the Rwandan genocide, France (under Mitterand) took a role sympathetic to the Habyarimana regime, and was even ambivalent toward the genoicdaires. France gave military aid to the government, despite knowing that factions in the elite and army were preparing for the ethnic elimination of the Tutsi. Details of this can be found in Martin Meredith's The State of Africa, chapter 27. The Rwandan Genocide was the slaughter of an estimated 1 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus, mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups, the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi, during a period of 100 days from April 6th through mid-July 1994. ... Juvénal Habyarimana (March 8, 1937 - April 6, 1994) was president of Rwanda from 1973 until his death in 1994. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ...


In 2002 and 2003, France participated in military interventions in Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, helping in the evacuation of foreign residents and the protection of civilians from warring factions. For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Concerning European Integration, France and Germany decided on a concerted military operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This operation will include sending 1500 European troops to the DRC to support fair and regular presidential elections in June 2006. While Germany will lead the mission, both France and Germany provide 500 soldiers each, with the rest of the soldiers made up of other European countries.


Many scholars of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) question whether the mission is of great use, and argue that it is rather symbolic in character. With 17.000 United Nations forces already deployed in the DRC the purpose of such a small operation remains questionable. The European troops will be stationed in the capital-city Kinshasa only. It is probable however, that the expertise of former peace-building missions on the balkans will be useful in order to prevent any major escalation during the elections.


Asia

France has extensive political and commercial relations with Asian countries, including China, Japan, and Southeast Asia as well as an increasing presence in regional fora. France was instrumental in launching the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) process which could eventually emerge as a competitor to APEC. France is seeking to broaden its commercial presence in China and will pose a competitive challenge to U.S. business, particularly in aerospace, high-tech, and luxury markets. In Southeast Asia, France was an architect of the Paris Accords, which ended the conflict in Cambodia. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) was officially established in 1996 at the first summit in Bangkok. ... APEC may refer to: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Advanced Placement European Civilization Atlantic Provinces Economic Council This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


France does not have formal diplomatic relationships with North Korea. North Korea however maintains a delegation (not an embassy nor a consulate) near Paris. As most countries, France does not recognize, nor have formal diplomatic relationships with the Republic of China (Taiwan, capital Taipei), for it is impossible to recognize and have relationships with both the RoC and the People's Republic of China; however, Taiwan maintains a representation office in Paris, similar to an embassy but in name. Likewise, the French Institute in Taipei has an administrative consular section that delivers visas and fulfills other missions normally dealt with by diplomatic outposts. National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Vice President Annette Lu Premier Su Tseng-chang Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ... City nickname: the City of Azaleas Government Official Website City of Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou Capital District Xinyi Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ...


Japan

Main article: Franco-Japanese relations The history of Franco-Japanese relations (Japanese: 日仏関係, Nichi-Futsu kankei) goes back to the early 17th century, when a Japanese samurai and ambassador on his way to Rome landed for a few days in Southern France, creating a sensation. ...


Recently France has been very involved in trade and cultural exchange initiatives with Japan. Some people see this as being a result of French leader Jacques Chirac being a Japanophile. Chirac has visited Japan over 40 times, probably more than any other world leader outside of Japan, and is an expert on the country. France has started the export promotion campaign "Le Japon, c'est possible" and the international liaison personnel exchange program JET. Together they built the Maison de la Culture du Japon à Paris. Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932), French politician, is President of the French Republic. ... Look up Japanophile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A jet is a stream of fluid produced by discharge through an orifice into free space. ...


France and Japan have also worked together to improve dire health situations from AIDS and underdevelopment in Djibouti, Madagascar, Uganda, and other countries.


Japan and France are also known to share ideas with each other in the realms of art and cooking. Japan has been heavily influenced by French cuisine within the past few decades, as seen on the television show Iron Chef. Anime is popular in France, and French historical figures and settings from medieval, Renaissance, Napoleonic, and World War eras have served as models for certain popular stories in Japanese entertainment. The purity of Japanese painting and illustration, and likewise the modernity and elegance of French visual arts has resulted in hybrid styles in those creative fields. Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... Cooking is an act of preparing food for eating. ... Iron Chef Hiroyuki Sakai Iron Chef is a Japanese television program produced by FujiTV. The original Japanese title is Ironmen of Cooking ). It began airing on October 10, 1993 as a half-hour show, and after 23 episodes was expanded to a one-hour format. ... Atom, star of the long-running science fiction series Mighty Atom (also known as Astro Boy to Western audiences). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ... Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ... A world war is a military conflict affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ...


For more on Franco-Japanese relations visit Japan-France Relations. (English)


North America

Main articles: Canada-France relations, Franco-U.S. relations Modern Canada-France relations have been marked by high levels of military and economic cooperation, but also periods of diplomatic discord primarily over the status of Quebec. ... The groundwork for Franco-U.S. relations was laid by the colonization of parts of the Americas by European powers Britain and France. ...


Relations between Canada and France are friendly and stable, with the possible exception over Quebec's status in Canada. Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 2nd 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176,928...


Relations between the United States and France are active and cordial. Mutual visits by high-level officials are conducted on a regular basis. Bilateral contact at the cabinet level has traditionally been active. France and the United States share common values and have parallel policies on most political, economic, and security issues. Differences are discussed frankly and have not been allowed to impair the pattern of close cooperation that characterizes relations between the two countries. The largest Current fallout between the United States and France involve U.S.-led Operation Iraqi Freedom, a major part of the Post September 11 War on Terror. When the United States went to war with Saddam Hussein, they were not supported by France, who was later found to have ben involved in the Oil for Food Scandal. However, in the past year both sides have undertaken efforts to repair relations. For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was the President of Iraq from 1979 until he lost power over Iraq when American troops arrived in Baghdad on April 9, 2003. ... The Oil-for-Food Programme, established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) and terminated in late 2003, was intended to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing...


United Kingdom

Main articles: Anglo-French relations Anglo-French relations describes relations between the governments of France and the UK. The designation anglo specifically refers to England, not the UK, however, modern intergovernmental relations between these two nations are habitually called Anglo-French relations, and understood to refer to the UK and not England. ...


Starting with the Hundred Years' War, France and England (later Great Britain and later still, the UK) were often enemies, and occasionally allies. As of today, the United Kingdom still celebrates its victories over the French emperor Napoleon in much the same way that any nation that has historically won wars commemerates these events. A map of Europe in the 1430s, near the end of the Hundred Years War The Hundred Years War is the name modern historians have given to what was actually a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between England and France, and later Burgundy; beginning in... Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ...


However, in the beginning of the 20th century a policy of entente cordiale (cordial agreement) was started. France and the United Kingdom have been allies ever since, despite occasional tensions (such as: the French perception that the British abandoned France in 1940, see Battle of France and Mers-el-Kébir; the British perception that the French wrongly opposed the 2003 Invasion of Iraq). The Entente Cordiale (French for friendly understanding) is a series of agreements signed on April 8, 1904, between the United Kingdom and France. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Combatants Allies (France, Britain, Canada, Poland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) Germany, Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia (Army Group West) Strength... Mers-el-Kébir is a port town in northwestern Algeria, located by the Mediterranean Sea near Oran, in the Oran Province. ... This article covers invasion specifics. ...


A chronic point of contention is the future of the European Economic Community, then the European Union. Under French president Charles de Gaulle, France refused on several occasions that the UK joins the EEC because, De Gaulle argued, the UK had extensive alliances outside Europe and was famously suspicious of its European neighbours. After the UK joined the EEC at last, tensions started again when British prime minister Margaret Thatcher demanded that her country paid less to the EEC budget, as well as other demands. Finally, as Tony Blair is prime minister, the United Kingdom has clearly expressed scepticism at the economic policies conducted in France. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 - 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as le général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. ...


At the level of the populations, there seems to exist some deep-seated reciprocal distrust between the two countries. The British tabloid press frequently uses demeaning terms such as "the Frogs" to call the French. Genera See text. ...


New Zealand

New Zealand has always had excellent relations with France, which recently thanked New Zealand for helping it during German occupations of World War I and II. The relations were strained for a short period in the late 20th Century, however, over the French nuclear tests at Mururoa Atoll and the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... France is said to have an arsenal of 350 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 2002 [1]. The weapons are part of the national Force de frappe. ... Moruroa (Mururura, Mururoa) (21°50S., 138°55W.) is an atoll in which forms part of the Tuamoto archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Rainbow Warrior II Rainbow Warrior is the name of a series of ships operated by Greenpeace. ...


International organization participation:

ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Inmarsat, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee The Agence de coopération culturelle et technique (ACCT, French for Agency of cultural and technical cooperation) is an organisation that is part of La Francophonie. ... The African Development Bank (AfDB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of promoting economic and social development in Africa. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a multilateral development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific. ... Australia Group is an informal group of countries established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help reduce the spread of chemical and biological weapons by monitoring and controlling the spread of technologies required to produce them. ... BIS Headquarters in Basel The Bank for International Settlements (or BIS) is an international organization of central banks which exists to foster cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability. It carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts, and through its... World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps member states communicate and cooperate on customs issues. ... The Caribbean Development Bank is a financial institution which assists Caribbean nations in financing social and economic programs in its member countries. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope, German: Europarat) is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire), commonly known as CERN, is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just west of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) is a NATO organization, a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery. ... Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states (the nations of the African continent). ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) was established in 1948 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. ... The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. ... The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), located in Bangkok, Thailand, is the regional arm of the United Nations Secretariat for the Asian and Pacific region. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... FZ.se is a Swedish gaming site, initially named FragZone. ... The Group of Five (or G5) consists of five of the worlds leading industrialized countries: France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ... The Group of Eight (G8) consists of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. ... G10 countries. ... The Inter-American Development Bank (preferred abbreviation: IDB; but frequently given as IADB), was established in 1959 to support Latin American and Caribbean economic/social development and regional integration by lending mainly to public institutions. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is one of the five institutions consisting the World Bank Group. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement consists of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Federation), and the 183 national... The International Development Association (IDA) was created on September 24, 1960, is a UN specialized agency. ... The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based governmental organisation founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries as a way to reduce poverty and improve peoples lives. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement consists of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Federation), and the 183 national... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations to deal with labour issues. ... The logo of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... INMARSAT, is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... The Indian Ocean Commission (COI), known as the Commission de lOcéan Indien in French, is an intergovernmental organization that joins Reunion Island, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Mayotte together to encourage cooperation. ... Intelsat, Ltd. ... Interpol logo INTERPOL (or International Criminal Police Organization) was created in 1923 to assist international criminal police co-operation. ... The International Olympic Committee is an organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on June 23 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece between 776 BC to 396 AD. Its membership is 202 National Olympic Committees. ... The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organisation. ... Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization, also known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Monument in Bern, Switzerland. ... MINURSO is a UN peacekeeping mission, established in 1991 to monitor the ceasefire and to organize and conduct a referendum which would enable the people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. ... MONUC peacekeepers MONUC is a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations unies en République démocratique du Congo, in English: Mission of the United Nations (UN) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005) The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM, is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The Nuclear Energy Agency is an intergovernmental multinational agency that is organized under the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. ... The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., USA. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is not an agency of the United Nations. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... Flag of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community The Secretariat of the Pacific Community or SPC is a regional intergovernmental organisation whose membership includes both nations and territories. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations (UN). ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Headquartereded in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ... UNIKOM, the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission, was established on April 9, 1991 following the Gulf War by Security Council resolution 689 (1991) and fully deployed by early May. ... The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) was established in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations with the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the Organization through appropriate training and research. ... The United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) is an international organization formed under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1035, as extended by Security Council Resolution 1357. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established on 24 August 1993 by Security Council Resolution 858 to verify compliance with the 27 July 1993, ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi... The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency, providing education, healthcare, social services and emergency aid to over four million Palestinian refugees living in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab... UNTSO is an acronym for United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, an organization founded in 1948 for peacekeeping in the Middle East. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The World Confederation of Labour was founded in 1920 under the name of the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions as a confederation of unions associated with the Christian Democratic parties of Europe. ... Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 Not to be confused with the European Union (EU), the Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... WHO emblem The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Headquarters in Geneva The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... World Tourism Organization Building in Madrid The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... WTO Logo The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international, multilateral organization, which sets the rules for the global trading system and resolves disputes between its member states, all of whom are signatories to its approximately 30 agreements. ... The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. ...


International disputes

The French Southern Territories (long name: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises or TAAF) are antarctic, volcanic islands in the southern Indian Ocean, south of Africa and about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia. ... The Matthew and Hunter Islands are a group of volcanic islands in the Tafea province of Vanuatu, claimed by Vanuatu, New Caledonia and France. ...

Other issues

Illicit drugs

France is a transshipment point for and consumer of South American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin. This article is about the drug cocaine. ... Heroin or diacetylmorphine (INN) is a semi-synthetic opioid. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Foreign relations of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3413 words)
France is a major power in western Europe because of its size, location, strong economy, membership in European organizations, strong military posture, and energetic diplomacy.
France generally has worked to strengthen the global economic and political influence of the EU and its role in common European defense and collective security.
France gave military aid to the government, despite knowing that factions in the elite and army were preparing for the ethnic elimination of the Tutsi.
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