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Encyclopedia > Foreign relations of Canada
Canada

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Canada
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ...


Executive (The Crown)
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)

Governor General (Michaëlle Jean)
Queen's Privy Council for Canada
Prime Minister (Stephen Harper)
Cabinet (Twenty-Eighth Ministry)
Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is the Head of State; Canada is one of... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ... Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Governor General Michaëlle Jean with Twenty-Eighth Ministry after the swearing-in ceremony (February 6, 2006) The Twenty-Eighth Canadian Ministry is the cabinet and secretaries of state of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, which have governed Canada since the beginning of the 39th Parliament...

Legislative (Parliament)
Senate

Speaker of the Senate
Government Leader in the Senate
Opposition Leader in the Senate
Canadian Senate divisions
House of Commons
Speaker of the House
Government House Leader
Official Opposition
Leader of the Opposition
Opposition House Leader
Shadow Cabinet
A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... The Leader of the Government in the Senate is a Canadian cabinet minister who leads the government side in the Canadian Senate and is chiefly responsible for promoting and defending the governments program in the Upper House. ... In Canada, the Leader of the Official Opposition in the Senate is the leader of the largest party in the Senate that is not in government. ... Representation in the Canadian Senate is divided into seats on a provincial basis. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... The Leader of the Government in the House of Commons (French: Leader du gouvernement à la Chambre des communes), more commonly known as the Government House Leader, is the Cabinet minister responsible for planning and managing the governments legislative program in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... In Canada each political party with representation in the House of Commons has a House Leader who is a front bench MP and an expert in parliamentary procedure. ... The outgoing Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet is listed below. ...

Elections
Parliamentary constituencies

Electoral system
Last election
The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... This is a list of Canadas 308 electoral districts (also known as ridings in Canadian English) as defined by the 2003 Representation Order, which came into effect on May 23, 2004. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...

Judicial
Supreme Court

Chief Justice
Lower Courts of Appeal
Constitution
British North America Acts
Peace, Order and Good Government
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Right Hon. ... List of final courts of appeal in Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom dealing with the government of Canada, which was known as British North America until 1867. ... In Canada, the phrase peace, order and good government (in French, paix, ordre et bon gouvernement), called POGG for short, is often used to describe the principles upon which that countrys Confederation took place. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...

Provinces and territories Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ...

Lieutenant-Governors
Premiers
Legislatures
Politics of: AB | BC | MB | NB | NL
NT | NS | NU | ON | PE
QC | SK | YT

Regions
Political culture
Foreign relations In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... This is a list of the Legislative Assemblies of Canadas provinces and territories. ... Albertas first Legislature, Edmonton, 1906 The politics of Alberta are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces. ... Prior to 1903, there were no political parties in British Columbia, Canada, other than at the federal level. ... The Canadian province of Manitoba is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, which operates under the Westminster system of government. ... New Brunswick has a unicameral legislature with 55 seats. ... The politics of Northwest Territories have been centered around the struggle for responsible government and provincial rights. ... Nova Scotia is a parliamentary democracy. ... The Province of Ontario is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, which operates in the Westminster system of government. ... The politics of Prince Edward Island are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Politics of Saskatchewan are part of the Canadian federal political system along with the other Canadian provinces. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... Canadian political culture is in some ways part of a greater North American and European political culture, which emphasizes constitutional law, freedom of religion, personal liberty, and regional autonomy; these ideas stemming in various degrees from the British common law and French civil law traditions, North American aboriginal government, and...


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Contents

Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

Early diplomatic history

The British North American colonies which today constitute modern Canada had little control over their foreign affairs until the achievement of responsible government in the late 1840s. Up to that point wars, negotiations and treaties were carried out by the British government to settle disputes concerning the colonies over fishing and boundaries, and to promote trade. Notable examples from the colonial period include the Nootka Convention, War of 1812, Rush-Bagot Treaty, the Treaty of 1818, the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, and the Oregon Treaty. While before the granting of responsible government, it might be said that matters were concluded more to smooth British-American relations than to satisfy the colonists, the Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 signalled an important change in relations between Britain and its North American colonies. In this treaty, the Canadas were allowed to impose tariff duties more favourable to a foreign country than to Britain, a precedent that was extended by new tariffs in 1859, 1879, and 1887 in the face of angry demands on the part of British industrialists that these tariffs be disallowed by London. Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... The Nootka Convention was a treaty between Spain and Great Britain in 1790 that averted a war between the two countries over overlapping claims to portions of the northwestern coast of North America. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Canada Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •United States Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other... The Rush-Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom enacted in 1817. ... The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between... The Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Great Britain and the shared use of the Great Lakes. ... Map of the lands in dispute The Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, also known as the Oregon Treaty or Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States that was signed... The Canadian American Reciprocity Treaty, also known as the Elgin-Marcy Treaty, was a trade treaty between the colonies of British North America and the United States. ...


Soon after Confederation, the prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald appointed Sir John Rose as his lobbyist in London. The British government finally consented to a Canadian High Commissioner in 1880, Sir Alexander Galt. A trade commissioner was appointed to Australia in 1894. In 1909 Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier reluctantly established a Department of External Affairs and the positions of Secretary and Under-Secretary of State for External Affairs largely at the urging of the Governor General Earl Grey and James Bryce, the British ambassador in Washington, who estimated that three-quarters of his embassy's time was devoted to Canadian-American matters. The Alaska boundary dispute was resolved by a commission in 1903 at which the British delegate sided with the Americans, stunning Canadians into a realization that the Empire's interests were paramount to Canada's. In protest the Canadian judges refused to sign the award, issued 20 October 1903, and violent anti-British feeling erupted in Canada.[1] Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D was born on January 11, 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Rt. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... Alexander Tilloch Galt Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt (September 6, 1822-September 19, 1911) was an English-born Canadian politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... Albert Grey Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey (November 28, 1851 – August 29, 1917) was the ninth Governor General of Canada from 1904 to 1911. ... James Bryce, right, with Andrew Carnegie; Bryce served as a trustee of the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, OM, GCVO, FRS, PC (May 10, 1838 - January 22, 1922), was a British jurist, historian and politician. ... The Alaska Boundary Dispute was a territorial dispute between the United States of America and Canada (then a British Dominion with its foreign affairs controlled from London), and at a subnational level between the territory of Alaska on the U.S. side and British Columbia and the Yukon on the...



Because of Canada's important contributions to the British war effort 1914-18, prime minister Sir Robert Borden insisted that Canada be treated as separate signatory to the Treaty of Versailles and it subsequently joined the League of Nations. Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC, DCL, LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ...


The government operated a Canadian War Mission in Washington D.C. between 1918-1921, but it was not until William Lyon Mackenzie King became prime minister in 1921 that Canada seriously pursued an independent foreign policy. In 1923, Canada independently signed the Halibut Treaty with the United States at Mackenzie King's insistence - the first time Canada signed a treaty without the British also signing it. In 1925 the government appointed a permanent diplomat to Geneva to deal with the League of Nations and International Labour Organization. Following the Balfour Declaration 1926, King appointed Vincent Massey as the first Canadian minister plenipotentiary in Washington (1926), raised the office in Paris to legation status under Philippe Roy (1928), and opened a legation in Tokyo with Herbert Marler as envoy (1929). Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Halibut Treaty was between the Americans and the Canadians. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a report of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... Charles Vincent Massey, PC, CH, CC, CD [1] (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was the eighteenth Governor General of Canada and the first who was born in Canada. ... ... Philippe Roy (February 13, 1868 – December 10, 1948) was a Canadian physician, politician, and diplomat. ... The Hon. ...


After the outbreak of war in 1939, Canada rapidly expanded its diplomatic missions abroad. The period from 1945-1957 is considered the golden age of Canadian diplomacy under Lester B. Pearson, when Canada had its greatest impact on world diplomacy. In 1982 responsibility for trade was added with the creation of the Department of External Affairs and International Trade. In 1995 the name was changed to Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Lester Bowles Pearson, often referred to as Mike, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ...


Canada has carried out its foreign policy through coalitions and international organizations. It is argued by some critics that Canada no longer carries as much diplomatic weight because of the cut-backs to the military and foreign aid budgets by the government of Jean Chrétien. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ...


The are two major elements of Canadian foreign relations.


Canada-United States relations

Main article: Canada-United States relations

The bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of extreme importance to both countries. About 75%-85% of Canadian trade is with the United States, and Canada is the United States largest trading partner. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries famously share the "world's longest undefended border." Canada-United States relations span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. ... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ...


Canada was a close ally of the United States in both World Wars, the Korean War and the Cold War. Canada was an original member of NATO and the two countries' air defences are fused in NORAD. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... NORAD is short for: North American Aerospace Defense Command Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Multilateralism

Just as important to the Canadian identity is Canada's strong support of multilateralism. Until recently, Canada was seen as one of the world's leading peacekeepers, sending soldiers under U.N. authority around the world. Canadian external affairs minister, Lester B. Pearson, is sometimes credited with inventing the modern concept of peacekeeping, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Canada is also committed to disarmament and is especially noted for its leadership in the Ottawa Convention to ban land mines. Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Lester Bowles Pearson, often referred to as Mike, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize Image:Nobel-medal. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...


In the last century Canada has made efforts to reach out to the rest of the world and promoting itself as a "middle power" able to work with large and small nations alike. This was clearly demonstrated during the Suez Crisis when Lester B. Pearson mollified the tension by proposing peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts. Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2... Lester Bowles Pearson, often referred to as Mike, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Peacekeeping is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War and Afghanistan. It was also willing to participate with its NATO and OAS allies in the Kosovo Conflict and in Haiti respectively. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... OAS may stand for: Old Age Security Oracle Application Server Oral Allergy Syndrome Organisation de larmée secrète Organization of American States Office Automation Systems Option Adjusted Spread Oas, Albay is a municipality in the Philippines. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


Despite Canada's track record as a liberal democracy that has whole-heartedly embraced the values of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights and its obvious commitment to global security, Canada has been left out of every major plan for Reform of the United Nations Security Council. Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals, including procedural reforms, such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members, and expansion of the Council. ...


Canada hosted the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City. Canada also seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). Canada also is an active participant in discussions stemming from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and has been an active member, hosting the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000. The Summit of the Americas is the name for one of a sequence of summits bringing together the countries of the Americas for discussion of a variety of issues. ... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government  - Mayor... The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ... APEC member countries shown in green Headquarters Type Economic forum Member countries 21 Leaders  -  Executive Director  Colin S. Heseltine Establishment 1989 Website http://www. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States of America. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in June, 2000. ...


Other bilateral relations

Canada maintains close links to the United Kingdom, with which it has strong historic ties and shares a monarch. It also remains a member of the Commonwealth. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

See also: Canada-United Kingdom relations

Canada also has close, if sometimes turbulent, relations with France, partly for historical and linguistic reasons.

See also: Canada-France relations

One important difference between Canadian and American foreign policy has been in relations with communist governments. Canada established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (October 13, 1970) long before the Americans did (January 1, 1979). It also has maintained trade and diplomatic relations with communist Cuba, despite pressures from the United States. Modern Canada-France relations have been marked by high levels of military and economic cooperation, but also periods of diplomatic discord primarily over the status of Quebec. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Many Caribbean Community countries turn to Canada as a valued partner. Canadians, particularly Canadian banks, have played an important economic role in the life of former British West Indies colonies. Perennial efforts to improve trade have even included the idea of concluding a free trade agreement to replace the 1986 bilateral CARIBCAN agreement. At various times, several Caribbean countries have also considered joining Canadian Confederation as new provinces or territories, although to date no Caribbean nation has ever followed such a proposal through to completion. Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Caribbean-Canada Trade Agreement known as (CARIBCAN) is a Canadian government programme, established in 1986 by the Parliament of Canada. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Provincial Creationism is the wish for an area in one of Canadas provinces or territories to form its own province distinct from that which it is currently part of. ...

See also: Canada-Caribbean relations

The long established relationship between Canada and the many nation states of the Caribbean/West Indies have been on-going throughout the history of both regions. ...

Administration

The Lester B. Pearson Building home of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
The Lester B. Pearson Building home of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada

Canada's international relations are the responsibility of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), which is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position currently held by Peter MacKay. Traditionally the Prime Minister has played a prominent role in foreign affairs decisions. Image File history File links Dept. ... Image File history File links Dept. ... The Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) was among the most powerful departments of the Government of Canada. ... In the Cabinet of Canada, the Minister of Foreign Affairs is responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations department, Foreign Affairs Canada. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, BA, LL.B, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ...


Foreign aid is delivered through the Canadian International Development Agency. The Canadian International Development Agency is a Canadian government agency which administers foreign aid programs in developing countries. ...


Provinces have always participated in some foreign relations, and appointed agents-general in the United Kingdom and France for many years, but they cannot legislate treaties. The French-speaking provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick are members of la Francophonie, and Ontario has announced it wishes to join. Quebec, ruled primarily by separatist governments since 1976, has pursued its own foreign relations, especially with France. Alberta opened an office in Washington D.C. in March 2005 to lobby the American government, mostly to reopen the borders to Canadian beef. With the exception of Quebec, none of these efforts undermine the ability of the federal government to conduct foreign affairs. Ultimately it is the federal government which has to weigh and balance the various issues which affect provinces differently, and sometimes there are winners and losers. Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ...


Territorial and boundary disputes

Canada and the United States have negotiated the boundary between the countries over many years, with the last significant agreement having taken place in 1984 when the International Court of Justice ruled on the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine. Likewise, Canada and France had previously contested the maritime boundary surrounding the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, but accepted a 1992 International Court of Arbitration ruling. Canada and the United States of America share the longest common border among any two countries that is not militarized or actively patrolled. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Gulf of Maine The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the northeastern coast of North America. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Court of Arbitration is an institution for the resolution of international commercial disputes. ...


Remaining disputes include managed maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island). Also, there is a dispute with Denmark over the sovereignty of Hans Island and surrounding waters in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland. The Dixon Entrance is a strait about 80 km (50 miles) long and wide in the Pacific Ocean at the International Boundary between the United States ( Alaska) and Canada. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... The Strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Island of British Columbia from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. ... Machias Seal Island is an island located at 44° 30′10″N, 67° 06′10″W. Sovereignty of the island is under dispute with ownership claimed by both Canada and the United States. ... Hans Island, 1 August 2003, HDMS Triton Hans Island (Greenlandic/Inuktitut: Tartupaluk; Danish: Hans Ø; French: Île Hans) is a small, uninhabited barren knoll measuring 1. ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ...


Arctic disputes

A long-simmering dispute between Canada and the U.S. involves the issue of Canadian sovereignty over the Northwest Passage (the sea passages in the Arctic). Canada’s assertion that the Northwest Passage represents internal (territorial) waters has been challenged by other countries, especially the U.S., which argue that these waters constitute an international strait (international waters). Canadians were incensed when Americans drove the reinforced oil tanker Manhattan through the Northwest Passage in 1969, followed by the icebreaker Polar Sea in 1985, both without asking for Canadian permission. In 1970, the Canadian government enacted the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, which asserts Canadian regulatory control over pollution within a 100-mile zone. In response, the Americans in 1970 stated, “We cannot accept the assertion of a Canadian claim that the Arctic waters are internal waters of Canada.... Such acceptance would jeopardize the freedom of navigation essential for United States naval activities worldwide.” A compromise of sorts was reached in 1988, by an agreement on “Arctic Cooperation,” which pledges that voyages of American icebreakers “will be undertaken with the consent of the Government of Canada.” However the agreement did not alter either country’s basic legal position. In January 2006 David Wilkins, the American ambassador to Canada, said his government opposes Stephen Harper's proposed plan to deploy military icebreakers in the Arctic to detect interlopers and assert Canadian sovereignty over those waters. [2] Popular Northwest Passage routes through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago This article describes the route through the Canadian Arctic. ... Polar Sea may have several meanings: The Arctic Ocean The Southern Ocean USCGC Polar Sea (WAGB 11), a United States Coast Guard icebreaker The Open Polar Sea, a hypothesized ice-free ocean surrounding the North Pole Category: ...


Bibliography

Primary Sources

  • Walter A. Riddell, ed; Documents on Canadian Foreign Policy, 1917-1939 Oxford University Press, 1962 806 pages of documents

Secondary Sources

  • Bothwell, R. Canada and the United States (1992)
  • Matthew Carnaghan, Allison Goody, "Canadian Arctic Sovereignty" (Library of Parliament: Political and Social Affairs Division, 26 January 2006) at [3]
  • Eayrs James. In Defence of Canada. 5 vols. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1964- 1983. the standard history
  • Annette Baker Fox; Canada in World Affairs Michigan State University Press, 1996
  • Jamie Glazov. Canadian Policy Toward Khrushchev's Soviet Union 2003
  • Holmes John W. The Shaping of Peace: Canada and the Search for World Order. 2 vols. University of Toronto, 1979, 1982.
  • John M. Kirk and Peter McKenna; Canada-Cuba Relations: The Other Good Neighbor Policy University Press of Florida, 1997
  • Kohn, Edward P. This Kindred People: Canadian-American Relations and the Anglo-Saxon Idea, 1895-1903 (2005)
  • George Melnyk; Canada and the New American Empire: War and Anti-War University of Calgary Press, 2004, highly critical
  • Ronnie Miller; Following the Americans to the Persian Gulf: Canada, Australia, and the Development of the New World Order Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994
  • Molot Maureen Appel, "Where Do We, Should We, Or Can We Sit? A Review of the Canadian Foreign Policy Literature", International Journal of Canadian Studies (Spring-Fall 1990).
  • Galen Roger Perras; Franklin Roosevelt and the Origins of the Canadian-American Security Alliance, 1933-1945: Necessary, but Not Necessary Enough Praeger Publishers, 1998
  • Reid, Escott. Time of Fear and Hope: The Making of the North Atlantic Treaty, 1947-1949 McClelland and Stewart, 1977.
  • James Rochlin; Discovering the Americas: The Evolution of Canadian Foreign Policy towards Latin America University of British Columbia Press, 1994
  • Stacey C. P. Canada and the Age of Conflict, 1921-1948. Vol. 2. University of Toronto, 1981. the standard history
  • Stairs Denis, and Gilbert R. Winham, eds. The Politics of Canada's Economic Relationship with the United States' University of Toronto, 1985.
  • Brian J R Stevenson. Canada, Latin America, and the New Internationalism: A Foreign Policy Analysis, 1968-1990 2000
  • Robert R. Wilson and David R. Deener; Canada-United States Treaty Relations Duke University Press, 1963

-

  1. ^ Hohn 2005
  2. ^ Matthew Carnaghan, Allison Goody, "Canadian Arctic Sovereignty" (Library of Parliament: Political and Social Affairs Division, 26 January 2006) at [1]; 2006 news at [2]

Selected dates of diplomatic representation abroad

Charles Jost Burchell, P.C., was a Canadian diplomat. ... Jean Désy, Canadian diplomat, was born in Montreal in 1893. ... Major General Victor Odlum 21 October 1880 - 4 April 1971 was prominent and very active in the business and political elite of Vancouver, British Columbia up until his death in the 1960s. ... Hector Fabre Louis-Roch-Hector Fabre (9 August 1834 – 2 September 1910) was a Canadian lawyer, journalist, diplomat, and senator. ... Philippe Roy (February 13, 1868 – December 10, 1948) was a Canadian physician, politician, and diplomat. ... Major-General Georges-Philéas Vanier (April 23, 1888 - March 5, 1967) was a Canadian diplomat who was Governor General of Canada from 1959 to 1967. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Hon. ... William Ferdinand Alphonse Turgeon (1877 – 1969) was a Canadian politician and diplomat. ... Jean Désy, Canadian diplomat, was born in Montreal in 1893. ... Charles Jost Burchell, P.C., was a Canadian diplomat. ... Alexander Tilloch Galt Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt (September 6, 1822-September 19, 1911) was an English-born Canadian politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... Andrew George Latta McNaughton, PC (February 25, 1887 - July 11, 1966) was a Canadian army officer, politician and diplomat. ... Charles Vincent Massey, PC, CH, CC, CD [1] (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was the eighteenth Governor General of Canada and the first who was born in Canada. ...

International Organizations

Canada is a member of the following organizations:

The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States of America. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Secretariats Mexico City, Ottawa and Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French and Spanish Membership Canada, Mexico and the United States Establishment  -  Formation 1 January 1994  Website http://www. ... The World Trade Organization (WTO), (OMC - Spanish: , French: ), is an international organization designed to supervise and liberalize international trade. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... APEC member countries shown in green Headquarters Type Economic forum Member countries 21 Leaders  -  Executive Director  Colin S. Heseltine Establishment 1989 Website http://www. ...

Organizations with headquarters in Canada

The International Air Transport Association is an international trade organisation of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ...

Major treaties signed in Canada

 State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty, formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2000 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Protocol (disambiguation). ... The Great Peace of Montreal was a peace treaty between New France and 39 First Nations of North America. ...

See also

This is a list of ambassadors and high commissioners from Canada to other countries and entities: See also Ambassadors to Canada. ... Canadian Secretaries of State for External Affairs In 1993, the post was replaced by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. ... Canadian Ministers of Foreign Affairs Until 1993, the post was known as Secretary of State for External Affairs. ... Canadian Ministers for International Cooperation See other lists of incumbents Categories: Lists of Canadian ministers | Foreign relations of Canada ... Canadian Ministers of International Trade > See other lists of incumbents Categories: Lists of Canadian ministers | Foreign relations of Canada ... List of Canadian High Commissioners to Australia. ... List of Canadian High Commissioners to the United Kingdom. ... List of Canadian ambassadors to France Categories: Foreign relations of Canada ... This is a list of Canadas ambassadors to the United States. ... List of Canadian ambassadors to the United Nations Categories: Foreign relations of Canada ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Radio Canada International (RCI) is the international broadcasting service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Foreign relations of Canada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1772 words)
Canada is also committed to disarmament and is especially noted for its leadership in the Ottawa Convention to ban land mines.
Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War.
Canada's international relations are the responsibility of Foreign Affairs Canada (FAC), which is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position currently held by Peter MacKay.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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