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Encyclopedia > Foreign policy of the United States
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For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history
For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States
United States of America

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States
Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The United States have rich and complicated diplomatic histories. ... The Foreign Relations of the United States is a book series published by the Office of the Historian in United States Department of State. ... The Great Seal of the United States, obverse side. ... Politics of the United States of America takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of the United States is both head of state and head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ...


Federal constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...

Federal government

President This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ...

Vice President
Cabinet

Congress The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... Seal of the U.S. Congress. ...

Senate
President of the Senate
President pro tempore
Majority Leader
Minority Leader
House of Representatives
Speaker
Majority Leader
Minority Leader
Congressional districts

Federal courts Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... The seal for the President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by the party conference which holds the majority in the Senate to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the... The Senate Minority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesmen for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Dennis Hastert, the current Speaker, presiding from a chair in the front of the chamber. ... The Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives acts as the leader of the party that has a majority control of the seats in the house (currently at least 218 of the 435 seats). ... The Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the minority counterpart to the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives. ... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. ...

Supreme Court
Chief Justice
Associate Justices

Elections The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Associate Justices of the United States Supreme Court are the members of that court other than the Chief Justice. ... The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and local level. ...

Presidential elections
Midterm elections

Political Parties United States presidential elections determine who serves as President and Vice President of the United States for four-year terms, starting on Inauguration Day, which is January 20th of the year after the election. ... Midterm elections are elections in the United States in which members of Congress and the state governors are elected, but not the President. ... This list of political parties in the United States catalogues political parties in the United States. ...

Democratic
Republican
Minor parties

States The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... A state of the United States (a U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ...

Governors
Legislatures
Courts

Local government Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... State legislatures are the lawmaking bodies of the 50 states in the United States of America. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...

Counties, Cities, and Towns

Current political issues This article is in need of attention. ...

War on Terror
Wiretapping
Gas Prices
Illegal immigration
Iraq War
Ethics

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The foreign relations of the United States are marked by the country's large economy, well-funded military, and notable political influence. According to estimates given in the CIA World Factbook, the United States has the world's largest economy, the world's most well-funded military, and a large amount of political influence.[1] Combatants United States United Kingdom Pakistan Canada Israel South Korea Australia Italy Denmark Germany Philippines Jordan Saudi Arabia New Iraqi Army NATO and others some of these forces may be allies Taliban Baathist Iraq Baath Loyalists Hezbollah al-Qaeda Waziristan tribesmen Iraqi insurgency Jemaah Islamiyah, Abu Sayyaf some... Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. ... Illegal immigration refers to a immigration of people across national borders —in violation of the immigration laws of the country of destination. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ethikos, meaning arising from habit) is a major branch of philosophy. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The World Factbook 2006 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


The officially stated goals of U.S. foreign policy, repeatedly mentioned and emphasized by U.S. officials are:

  • Protecting the safety and freedom of all American citizens, both within the United States and abroad;
  • Protecting allied nations of the United States from attack or invasion and creating mutually beneficial international defense arrangements and partnerships to ensure this;
  • Promotion of peace, freedom (most notably of speech and enterprise), and democracy in all regions of the world;
  • Furthering free trade, unencumbered by tariffs, interdictions and other economic barriers, and furthering capitalism in order to foster economic growth, improve living conditions everywhere, and promote the sale and mobility of U.S. products to international consumers who desire them; and
  • Bringing developmental and humanitarian aid to foreign peoples in need.


All of these statements are the targets of many critcisms from various sources, some of which are listed below. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Political freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination as an expression of the individual will. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... A tariff is a tax on imported goods. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Accumulated GDP growth for various countries. ... OECD Statistics on Public Foreign Aid by country Development aid (also development assistance, international aid, overseas aid or foreign aid) is aid given by developed countries to support economic development in developing countries. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ...

Contents


Decision-making

The President negotiates treaties with foreign nations. The President is also Commander in Chief of the military, and as such has broad authority over the armed forces once they are deployed. The Secretary of State is the foreign minister of the United States and is the primary conductor of state-to-state diplomacy. The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...


The Congress has the power to declare war, but the President has the ability to commit military troops to an area for 60 days without Congressional approval, though in all cases it has been granted afterwards. The Senate (one of the two houses of Congress) also holds the exclusive right to approve treaties made by the President. Congress is likewise responsible for passing bills that determine the general character and policies of United States foreign policy. Congress in Joint Session. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... It has been suggested that Protocol (treaty) be merged into this article or section. ...


The third arm of government is the Supreme Court which has traditionally played a minimal role in foreign policy. The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged. ...


Brief history

During the American Revolution, the United States established relations with several European powers, convincing France, Spain, and the Netherlands to intervene in the war against Britain, a mutual enemy. In the period following, the U.S. oscillated between pro-French and pro-British policies. In general, the U.S. remained aloof from European disputes, focusing on territorial expansion in North America. The American Revolution was a political movement that ended British control of the south-eastern coastal area of North America, resulting in the formation of the United States of America in 1776 and sparking the American Revolutionary War. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


After the Spanish colonies in Latin America declared independence, the U.S. established the Monroe Doctrine, a policy of keeping European powers out of the Americas. U.S. expansionism led to war with Mexico and to diplomatic conflict with Britain over the Oregon Territory and with Spain over Florida and later Cuba. During the American Civil War, the U.S. accused Britain and France of supporting the Confederate States and trying to control Mexico, but after that, the U.S. was unchallenged in its home territory, except by Native Americans. Through the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, it strove to be the dominant influence in the Americas, trying to weaken European influence in Latin America and occasionally intervening to establish puppet governments in weak states. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... U.S. President James Monroe. ... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 93,000 Total dead: 258... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans February 4, 1861–May 1... American Indian and Alaskan Natives[1] (term preferred by the majority of people included) are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska down to their descendants in modern times. ... The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was a substantial alteration (called an amendment) of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... U.S. President James Monroe. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


As U.S. power grew, it began to look at interests farther abroad, particularly in the pursuit of trade. It occupied territories in the Pacific, such as Hawaii and the Philippines, demanded the opening of Japan to trade, and competed with other powers for influence in China. During World War I, the United States was among the victorious Allies, after which it returned to more isolationist policies. A fruit stand at a market. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire Canada France Italy Russian Empire United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Sir Arthur Currie Ferdinand Foch Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek Ä°smail Enver Ferdinand I... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ...

German Chancellor Angela Merkel, President George W. Bush
German Chancellor Angela Merkel, President George W. Bush

The United States entered World War II in 1941, again on the Allied side, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war against the U.S. by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. After the war, it was a major player in the establishment of the United Nations and became one of five permanent members of the Security Council. Image File history File linksMetadata MerkelBushWashington1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MerkelBushWashington1. ... (pronounced //) (born in Hamburg, Germany on July 17, 1954) is the current Chancellor of Germany. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ... This article is becoming very long. ... This article is about the year. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that aims at facilitating co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


During the Cold War, U.S. foreign policy sought to limit the influence of the Soviet Union around the world (called "containment"), leading to the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the over throw of at least one democratic government, and diplomatic actions like the opening of China and establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. It also sought to fill the vacuum left by the decline of Britain as a global power, leading international economic organizations such as the WTO and GATT. By the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the U.S. had military and economic interests in every region of the globe. In the twilight of the Cold War, the United States invaded Panama, partly based on its re-declaration of the "War on Drugs." In the 1980's the US declared a 'war on terror', operated campaigns in Central America which in 1986 led to the World Court conviction of international terrorism by the US against Nicaragua. In 1991, the U.S. organized and led the Gulf War against Iraq in response to its invasion of Kuwait. After the September 11, 2001 attack, the U.S. declared a second "War on Terror," under which it has led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Western Allied/UN combatants: Republic of Korea United States Britain Communist combatants: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Jeong Il-Gwon Douglas MacArthur Mark W. Clark Matthew Ridgway Kim Il-sung, Choi Yong-kun Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~520,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (usually abbreviated GATT) functions as the foundation of the WTO trading system, and remains in force, although the 1995 Agreement contains an updated version of it to replace the original 1947 one. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 660,000 545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The Gulf War (1990–1991) (also called the First Gulf War, Persian Gulf War, or Operation Desert Storm) was a... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda...


As of 2006, the US is one of only two countries in the English-speaking world not to be a member of the Commonwealth (the other being Eire). It is believed that the US has never applied for membership, nor would such an application be forthcoming in the future. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, almost all of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... Map of Éire Éire (pronounced AIR uh, in the Irish language, translated as Ireland) is the name given in Article 4 of the 1937 Irish constitution to the 26-county Irish state, created under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, which was known between 1922 and 1937 as the Irish Free...


Diplomatic relations

The United States has one of the largest diplomatic presences of any nation. Almost every country in the world has both a U.S. embassy and an embassy of its own in Washington, D.C. Only a few nations do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States. They are: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ... Main Lodge at Camp David during Nixon administration, February 9, 1971. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1], known as Tony Blair, is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament for the constituency of Sedgefield in North... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ...

In practical terms however, these lack of formal relations do not impede the U.S.'s communication with these nations. In the cases where no U.S. diplomatic post exists, American relations are usually conducted via the United Kingdom, Canada, Switzerland, or another friendly third-party. In the case of the Republic of China, de facto relations are conducted through the American Institute in Taiwan. The U.S. also operates an "Interests Section in Havana". While this does not create a formal diplomatic relationship, it fulfils most other typical embassy functions. The Republic of China governs Taiwan and some surrounding islands, and should not be confused with the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which governs mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. ... The Saharawi (or Sahrawi) Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is the long-form English translation of the government of Western Sahara (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الدمقرطية, Spanish: República Arabe Saharaui Democrática). ... The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) serves as the de facto embassy of the United States in Taiwan. ... The United States Interests Section in Havana, or USINT, is the presence of the United States Department of State in Cuba. ...


The U.S. maintains a Normal Trade Relations list and several countries are excluded from it, which means that their exports to the United States are subject to significantly higher tariffs. In the United States, Normal Trade Relations (NTR) status refers to what the World Trade Organization and much of the rest of the world still refer to (somewhat misleadingly) as Most-Favored Nation status. ...


Allies

In recent years, relations between the United States and India, have improved. Shown here is Indian PM Manmohan Singh with George Bush during his state visit to USA in July 2005.
In recent years, relations between the United States and India, have improved. Shown here is Indian PM Manmohan Singh with George Bush during his state visit to USA in July 2005.

The United States is a founding member of NATO, the world's largest military alliance. The 26 nation alliance consists of Canada and much of Europe. Under the NATO charter, the United States is compelled to defend any NATO state that is attacked by a foreign power. This is restricted to within the North American and European areas, for this reason the U.S. was not compelled to participate in the Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom. Image File history File linksMetadata Manmohan_singh_with_bush. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Manmohan_singh_with_bush. ... The Republic of India, the second most populous country and one of the fastest growing economies in the world, is considered as a major power and a potential superpower. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Dr. Manmohan Singh (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) is the 14th, and current Prime Minister of India. ... Ongoing events • 2005 Atlantic and Pacific hurricanes • 2005 Maharashtra floods • 2005 Gujarat Flood • Expo 2005 in Aichi, Japan • Fuel prices • Gomery Comm. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 258 killed[1] 777 wounded 2 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ...


The United States has also given major non-NATO ally-status to fourteen nations. Each such state has a unique relationship with the United States, involving various military and economic partnerships and alliances. Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have strong strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ...


The country's closest ally is the United Kingdom, itself a major military and economic power (see special relationship). Other allies include South Korea, Israel, Canada, Australia, and Japan, . The government of the Republic of China (Taiwan), does not have official diplomatic relations recognized and is no longer officially recognized by the State Department of the United States, but it is considered by some an ally of the United States. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ... The Republic of China governs Taiwan and some surrounding islands, and should not be confused with the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which governs mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. ...


July 2006: Congress, hitherto a staunch defender of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and all it stands for, is poised to allow America's laws to be amended to accommodate civilian nuclear trade with India, despite that country's bomb-building. There will then be pressure on the Nuclear Suppliers Group to carve an India-shaped hole in its global nuclear export restrictions and on the board of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to agree to “India-specific” safeguards on any nuclear materials or technology sold. The Bush administration defends its India deal as good for combating Global warming, good for friendship with the world's biggest democracy and good for jobs in America. By lifting restrictions on India's ability to buy nuclear technology and fuel from abroad, America will be helping it out of a uranium squeeze: its usable stocks of the enriched stuff (lower enriched for power generation, higher for weapons) have been dwindling fast. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... A residential smoke detector is for most people the most familiar piece of nuclear technology Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ...


The United Kingdom special relationship

The United Kingdom is a close military and political ally of the United States. The two countries share military research and intelligence facilities.The UK has purchased military technology from the USA and vice versa. The UK permits the USA to maintain a large number of military personnel in the UK. Various joint military bases can be found throughout the globe. In recent years, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States have often been close friends, for example Tony Blair and George W. Bush and in the 1980s the often like-minded Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the head of Her Majestys Government and so exercises many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1], known as Tony Blair, is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament for the constituency of Sedgefield in North... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ... Lady Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Criticism and responses

Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo with George W. Bush inspects the Malacanang Palace Honor Guards during the latter's 8-hour State Visit to the Philippines in October 2003
Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo with George W. Bush inspects the Malacanang Palace Honor Guards during the latter's 8-hour State Visit to the Philippines in October 2003
Foreign media have often been critical of U.S. foreign policies.
Foreign media have often been critical of U.S. foreign policies.

Critics of U.S. foreign policy tend to respond that these goals commonly regarded as noble were often overstated and point out what they see as contradictions between foreign policy rhetoric and actions: President George W. Bush and Philippine president Gloria Arroyo review troops during a welcoming ceremony at Malacanang Palace in Manila, Philippines, Saturday, Oct. ... President George W. Bush and Philippine president Gloria Arroyo review troops during a welcoming ceremony at Malacanang Palace in Manila, Philippines, Saturday, Oct. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is the 14th and current president of the Philippines. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ... Depiction of the Malacañang Palace at the back of the 20-peso bill. ... Image File history File links Indy_cover_22_july_2006. ... Image File history File links Indy_cover_22_july_2006. ... A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ...

  • The mention of peace as opposed to the long list of U.S. military involvements
  • The mention of freedom and democracy as opposed to the many former and current dictatorships that receive or received U.S. financial or military support, especially in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
  • The mention of free trade as opposed to U.S. import tariffs (to protect local industries from global competition) on foreign goods like wood, steel and agricultural products.
  • The mention of U.S. generosity as opposed to the low spendings on foreign developmental aid (measured as percentage of GDP) when compared to other western countries.
  • The mention of environment safety as opposed to the lack of support for environmental treaties (for instance the Kyoto Protocol)
  • The defense of human rights as opposed to the lack of ratification of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child.

There are a variety of responses to these criticisms. For instance, some argue that the increased American military involvement around the world is an outgrowth of the inherent instability of the world state system as it existed in the late 19th Century. The inherent failings of this system led to the outbreak of World War I and World War II. The United States has assumed a prominent peacekeeping role, on its own terms, due to the easily demonstrable inter-state insecurity that existed before 1945. The military history of the United States spans a period of less than two and a half centuries. ... A dictatorship is a autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, drafted by Eglantyne Jebb and adopted by the International Save the Children Union, Geneva, 23 February 1923 and endorsed by the League of Nations General Assembly on 26 November 1924: By the present declaration of the Rights of the Child, commonly known... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire Canada France Italy Russian Empire United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Sir Arthur Currie Ferdinand Foch Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek Ä°smail Enver Ferdinand I... This article is becoming very long. ...


Further, some experts have stated that since the US-led invasion of Iraq was not a war to defend against an imminent threat, it was a war of aggression, and therefore under the Nuremberg Principles it constitutes the supreme international crime from which all other war crimes follow. For example, Benjamin Ferenccz, a chief prosecutor of Nazi war crimes at Nuremberg said George W. Bush should be tried for war crimes along with Saddam Hussein for starting "aggressive" wars--Saddam for his 1990 attack on Kuwait and Bush for his 2003 invasion of Iraq.[2] Similarly, under the U.N. Charter, ratified by the U.S. and therefore binding on it, all U.N. member states including the U.S. are prohibited from using force against fellow member states (Iraq is a member of the U.N.) except to defend against an imminent attack or pursuant to explicit U.N. Security Council authorization (UN Charter; international law). "There was no authorization from the U.N. Security Council ... and that made it a crime against the peace," said Francis Boyle, professor of international law, who also said the U.S. Army's field manual required such authorization for an offensive war[3] The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitues a war crime. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Other realist critics, such as the late George F. Kennan, have noted that the responsibility of the United States is only to protect the rights of its own citizens, and that therefore Washington should deal with other governments as just that. Heavy emphasis on democratization or nation-building abroad, realists charge, was one of the major tenets of President Woodrow Wilson's diplomatic philosophy. According to realists, the failure of the League of Nations to enforce the will of the international community in the cases of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan in the 1930s, as well as the inherent weakness of the new states created at the Paris Peace Conference, demonstrated the folly of Wilson's idealism. Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as the father of containment and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. ... Democratization is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, negotiated the treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference, 1946, negotiated the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, with Germanys [[World War II allies and co-belligerents in Europe. ... Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry which asserts that everything is of a mental nature. ...


There is also criticism of alleged human rights abuse, the most important recent examples of which are the multiple reports of alleged prisoner abuse and torture at U.S.-run detention camps in Guantánamo Bay (at "Camp X-ray") (in Cuba), Abu Ghraib (Iraq), secret CIA prisons (eastern Europe), and other places voiced by, e.g. the Council of Europe and Amnesty International. Amnesty International in its Amnesty International Report 2005 [1] says that: "the detention facility at Guantánamo Bay has become the gulag of our times" [2]. This Amnesty report also claimed that there was a use of double standards in the U.S. government: the U.S. president "has repeatedly asserted that the United States was founded upon and is dedicated to the cause of human dignity". (Theme of his speech to the UN General Assembly in Sep 2004). But some memorandums emerged after the Abu Ghraib scandal "suggested that the administration was discussing ways in which its agents could avoid the international ban on torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment" [3]. Government responses to these criticisms include that Abu Ghraib, Guantánamo Bay, and the network of secret CIA jails in Eastern Europe and the Middle East were largely isolated incidents and not reflective of general U.S. conduct, and at the same time maintain that coerced interrogation in Guantánamo and Europe is necessary to prevent future terrorist attacks. Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... Satar Jabar standing on a box with wires connected to his body Prisoners Ordered to Form Human Pyramid Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse images Soldier rap irakien women in Abu Ghraib :-( http://irak. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... A double standard is an ethical rule applied more stringently to one party than to others. ... Human dignity is an expression that can be used a moral concept or a legal term. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... September 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: September 2004 in sports Events Deaths in September • 27 Tsai Wan-lin • 24 Françoise Sagan • 20 Brian Clough • 18 Russ Meyer • 15 Johnny Ramone • 12 Fred Ebb • 11 Peter VII of Alexandria • 8... Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, sadism, or information gathering. ... Cruelty is indifference to suffering and even positive pleasure in inflicting it. ... The Inhumans are a fictional race of superhumans in the Marvel Comics universe, created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


U.S. generosity is not demonstrated in the relatively low spendings on foreign developmental aid (measured as percentage of GDP) when compared to other western countries. The average U.S. citizen donates relatively more of his or her private, personal time and income to charity than any other nation's citizens. Religious tithes, emergency donations to relief organizations, and donations to medical research, for example, are common and frequent. The United States tax code structure is designed to further this type of charitable donation by private individuals and corporations.


Territorial disputes

The United States is involved with several territorial disputes, including maritime disputes over the Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Northwest Passage, and areas around Machias Seal Island and North Rock with Canada. [4] These disputes have become dormant recently, and are largely considered not to affect the strong relations between the two nations. The Dixon Entrance is a strait about 80 km (50 miles) long and wide in the Pacific Ocean at the International Boundary between the United States ( Alaska) and Canada. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... The Strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Island of British Columbia from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. ... Popular Northwest Passage routes through the Canadian archipelago This article describes the route through the Canadian Arctic. ... Machias Seal Island is an island located at 44° 30′10″N, 67° 06′10″W. Sovereignty of the island is under dispute with ownership claimed by both Canada and the United States. ... North Rock is an offshore rock to the east of the North American continent, adjacent to the Canadian province of New Brunswick and the U.S. state of Maine. ... Canada-United States relations were famously described by Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau as being like sleeping with an elephant. ...


Other disputes include:

Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... The Platt Amendment was a rider appended to the Army Appropriations Act, a United States federal law passed in March 1901. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT), adopted on May 22, 1969, codified the pre-existing international customary law on treaties, with some necessary gap-filling and clarifications. ...

Illicit drugs

United States foreign policy is influenced by the efforts of the U.S. government to halt imports of illicit drugs, including cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. This is especially true in Latin America, a focus for the U.S. War on Drugs. Those efforts date back to at least 1880, when the U.S. and China completed an agreement which prohibited the shipment of opium between the two countries. These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The illegal drug trade is a global black market activity consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... This article is about the drug cocaine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Operation Mallorca, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2005 [1] Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report No significant impact on retail or wholesale prices, UK Govt report The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States to carry out an all-out offensive (as President Nixon... The prohibition of drugs through legislation or religious law is a common means of controlling the perceived negative consequences of recreational drug use at a society- or world-wide level. ... Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ...


Over a century later, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act requires the President to identify the major drug transit or major illicit drug-producing countries. In September 2005 [4], the following countries were identified: Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Two of these, Burma and Venezuela are countries that the U.S. considers to have failed to adhere to their obligations under international counternarcotics agreements during the previous twelve months. Notably absent from the 2005 list were the People's Republic of China and Vietnam; Canada was also omitted in spite of evidence that criminal groups there are increasingly involved in the production of MDMA destined for the United States and that large-scale cross-border trafficking of Canadian-grown marijuana continues. The U.S. believes that The Netherlands are successfully countering the production and flow of MDMA to the U.S. ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


Military aid

The U.S. provides military aid through many different channels. Counting the items that appear in the budget as 'Foreign Military Financing' and 'Plan Colombia', the U.S. spent approximately $4.5 billion in military aid in 2001, of which $2 billion went to Israel, $1.3 billion went to Egypt, and $1 billion went to Colombia. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Plan Colombia is a controversial initiative aimed at resolving the ongoing, fifty-year civil war in Colombia. ...


History of exporting democracy

Further information: Iran Freedom and Support Act

In the history of the US, US presidents often use democracy as a justification for US intervention abroad.[5][6] A number of studies have been devoted to the historical success rate of the US in exporting democracy abroad. Most studies of US intervention have been pessimistic about the history of the United States exporting democracy.[7] Until recently, scholars have generally agreed with international relations professor Abraham Lowenthal that US attempts to export democracy have been "negligable, often counterproductive, and only occasionally positive."[8][9] The Iran Freedom and Support Act of 2005 (S. 333) is an act passed by the United States Congress that appropriates $10 million and directs the President of the United States to spend that money in support of groups opposed to the Iranian government. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... In telecommunication, the term justify has the following meanings: 1. ... From 1776 to 2004, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ...


But some studies, such as a study by Tures find US intervention has had mixed results,[7] and another by Hermann and Kegley have found that military intervention increase democracy in other countries.[10] From 1776 to 2004, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ... From 1776 to 2004, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ...


US intervention does not export democracy

Professor Paul W. Drake explains that the US first attempted to export democracy in Latin America through intervention from 1912 to 1932. Drake argues that this was contradictory because international law defines intervention as "dictorial interference in the affairs of another state for the purpose of altering the condition of things." Democracy failed because democracy needs to develop out of internal conditions, and US leaders usually defined democracy as elections only. Further the US State Department disapproved of any rebellion of any kind, which were often incorrectly labeled "revolutions", even against dictatorships.[11] As historian Walter LaFeber states, "The world's leading revolutionary nation (the US) in the eighteenth century became the leading protector of the status quo in the twentieth century."[12] Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The 1944 Invasion of Normandy An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geo-political entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period, and sometimes permanently. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Walter LaFeber (born 1933, Walkerton, Indiana) is Marie Underhill Noll Professor and a Steven Weisse Presidential Teaching Fellow of History at Cornell University. ...


Mesquita and Downs evaluate the period between 1945 to 2004. They state that the US has intervened in 35 countries, and only in one case, Colombia, did a "full fledged, stable democracy" develop within 10 years.[13] Samia Amin Pei argues that nation building in developed countries usually begins to unravel four to six years after the US intervention ends. Pei, quoting Polity, (a database on democracy in the world), agrees with Mesquita and Downs that most countries where the US intervenes never becomes a democracy or becomes more authoritarian after 10 years.[14] This is a list of notable political scientists. ... Polity is a general term that refers to political organization of a group. ...


Professor Joshua Muravchik argues that US occupation was critical for Axis power democratization after World War II, but America's failure to build democracy in the third world "prove...that US military occupation is not a sufficient condition to make a country democratic."[15][16] The success of democracy in former Axis countries maybe because of these countries per-capita income. Steven Krasner of the CDDRL states that a high per capita income may help build a democracy, because no democratic country with a per-capita income which is above $6,000 has ever become an autocracy.[11] Joshua Muravchik is a Jewish author and a scholar at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ...


US intervention has mixed results

Tures examines 228 cases of intervention from 1973 to 2005, using Freedom House data. The majority of interventions, 96, caused no change in the country's democracy. In 69 instances the country became less democratic after US intervention. In the remaining 63 cases, a country became more democratic after US intervention.[7] This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ...


US intervention has exported democracy

Hermann and Kegley find that US military interventions which are designed to protect or promote democracy increase freedom in those countries.[10] Penceny argues that the democracies created after military intervetion is still closer to an autocracy than a democracy, quoting Przeworski "while some democracies are more democratic than others, unless offices are contested, no regime should be considered democratic."[17] Therefore, Penceny concludes, it is difficult to know from the Hermann and Kegley study whether US intervention has only produced less repressive autocratic governments or genuine democracies.[18] From 1776 to 2004, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ...


Penceny states that the United States has attempted to export democracy in 33 of its 93 twentieth-century military interventions.[19] Penceny argues that proliberal policies after military intervention have a positive impact on democracy.[20]


Quotes

   
Foreign relations of the United States
No state has more consistently proclaimed its adherence to this liberal vision of the international system than the United States.[21]
   
Foreign relations of the United States
   
Foreign relations of the United States
Electorism is the faith (widely held by U.S. policymakers) that merely holding elections will channel political action into peaceful contests among elites and accord public legitimacy to the winners in there contests. Electorism requires that foreign or domestic elites do some political engineering to produce the most common surface manifestations of a democratic polity--parties, electoral laws, contested campaigns, and the like. Yet this sort of tinkering, however will-intended, cannot by itself produce the consensus...which must underlie any enduring democracy.[22]
   
Foreign relations of the United States
   
Foreign relations of the United States
I helped make Mexico, especially Tampico, safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefits of Wall Street. The record of racketeering is long. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916. In China I helped to see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested.[23]
   
Foreign relations of the United States

Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...

See also

History of U.S.
expansion and influence
American Empire
Foreign relations
List of military actions
Non-interventionism
Opposition to expansion
Overseas expansion
Pax Americana
Territorial acquisitions
This box: viewtalkedit

Relations with specific foreign nations: United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... This article is about views of the historical expansionism and current international influence of the United States. ... From 1776 to 2004 there have been hundreds of instances of the employment of United States military forces abroad. ... Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations, has had a long history in the United States. ... As the United States grew into a global power, its government has become more involved with other countries. ... After expanding across North America in the early and mid-nineteenth century, the United States soon began to expand overseas, emerging after World War II as a leading world power. ... Pax Americana (Latin: American Peace) is the period of relative peace in the Western world since the end of World War II in 1945, coinciding with the dominant military and economic position of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about views of the historical expansionism and current international influence of the United States. ... Benjamin Franklin established Americas first mission overseas in Paris in 1779. ... Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. ... From 1776 to 2004 there have been hundreds of instances of the employment of United States military forces abroad. ... Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ... The United States have rich and complicated diplomatic histories. ... The United States is a charter member of the United Nations and one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. ... from Congressional Research Service report, Order Code 96-816 C, Updated June 7, 2005 in Washington, DC, (Area Code 202) Afghanistan, Republic of, 2341 Wyoming Ave. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Afghanistan: US-Afghanistan relations
  • Canada: Canada-United States relations
  • China: Sino-American relations
  • Côte d'Ivoire(Ivory Coast): United States-Côte d'Ivoire relations
  • Cuba Cuba-United States relations
  • France: Franco-American relations
  • Germany: German-American relations
  • Iran: U.S.-Iran relations
  • Israel: Israel-United States relations
  • North Korea: U.S.-North Korea relations
  • Japan: Japan-American relations
  • Russia: Russo-United States relations
  • South Korea: South Korea-U.S. relations
  • Turkey: Turkey-United States relations
  • United Kingdom: Anglo-American relations
  • Venezuela: United States-Venezuela relations

US-Afghan contacts date back to the mid 1800s when Josiah Harlan, an adventurer from Pennsylvania, who was an adviser in Afghan politics in the 1830s, reputedly inspired Rudyard Kiplings story The Man Who Would be King. ... Canada-United States relations were famously described by Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau as being like sleeping with an elephant. ... Sino-American relations (Simplified Chinese: 中美关系; pinyin: Zhōng-Měi Guānxì) refers to international relations between the United States and China. ... United States-Côte dIvoire relations are bilateral international relations between the United States and Côte dIvoire. ... Cuba and the United States of America have had a mutual interest in one another since well before either of their independence movements. ... Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between France and the United States. ... German-American relations are the transatlantic relations between Germany and the United States and between the German and American people in particular. ... Morgan Shuster and US officials at Atabak Palace, Tehran, 1911. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel, dependent on the United States for its economic and military strength, with the... U.S.-North Korea relations developed primarily during the Korean War, but in recent years have been largely defined by the United States suspicions regarding North Koreas nuclear programs, and North Koreas perception of an imminent U.S. attack. ... The relationship between Japan and the United States of America is one of very close economic and military cooperation, as well as great cultural proliferation. ... Template:Foreign relations of the United States This page is about the relations between the nations of the United States of America and Russia. ... Turkey-United States relations evolved from Turkeys entrance into World War II on the Allied side shortly before the war ended and it becoming a charter member of the United Nations. ... The term Anglo-American relations refers to bilateral relations between the United Kingdom and the United States. ... // Hugo Chávez era Since Hugo Chávez was elected President of Venezuela, the long-standing close diplomatic relationship between Venezuela and the United States have progressively worsened. ...

References

  1. ^ The estimated GDP of all countries recognized by formally recognized by the United States for which data is available is here; the military expenditures for said countries is available here; and the political details are available on the main United States page here here.
  2. ^ Glantz, Aaron (August 25 2006). "Bush and Saddam Should Both Stand Trial, Says Nuremberg Prosecutor". OneWorld.net.
  3. ^ Bernton, Hal (August 18 2006). "Iraq war bashed at hearing for soldier who wouldn't go". The Seattle Times.
  4. ^ "Transnational Issues". April 20, 2006. CIA World factbook. Accessed April 30, 2006.
  5. ^ Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de, George W. Downs (Spring 2004). "Why Gun-Barrel Democracy Doesn't Work". Hoover Digest 2. Also see this page.
  6. ^ Meernik, James (1996). "United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy". Journal of Peace Research 33 (4): 391-402. p. 391
  7. ^ a b c Tures, John A.. "Operation Exporting Freedom: The Quest for Democratization via United States Military Operations". Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations.PDF file.
  8. ^ Lowenthal, Abraham (1991). The United States and Latin American Democracy: Learning from History. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. In Exporting Democracy, Themes and Issues, edited by Abraham Lowenthal p. 243-265.
  9. ^ Penceny, Mark (1999). Democracy at the Point of Bayonets. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01883-6. p. 183
  10. ^ a b Hermann, Margaret G., Charles W. Kegley, Jr.. "The U.S. Use of Military Intervention to Promote Democracy: Evaluating the Record". International Interactions 24 (2): 91-114.
  11. ^ a b Lowenthal, Abraham F. (March 1, 1991). Exporting Democracy : The United States and Latin America. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4132-1. p. 1, 4, 5.
  12. ^ Lafeber, Walter (1993). Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30964-9.
  13. ^ Factors included (1) limits on executive power, (2) clear rules for the transition of power, (3) universal adult suffrage, and (4) competitive elections.
  14. ^ Pei, Samia Amin, Seth Garz (March 17 2004). "Why Nation-Building Fails in Mid-Course". International Herald Tribune.
  15. ^ Penceny, p. 186.
  16. ^ Muravchik, Joshua (1991). Exporting Democracy: Fulfilling America's Destiny. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute Press. ISBN 0-8447-3734-8. p. 91-118.
  17. ^ Przeworski, Adam, Michael M. Alvarez, Jose Antonio Cheibub (1996). "What Makes Democracy Endure". Journal of Democracy 7 (1): 39-55.
  18. ^ Penceny, p. 193
  19. ^ Penceny, p. 2
  20. ^ Review: Shifter, Michael (Winter 2001). "Democracy at the Point of Bayonets". Latin American Politics and Society.
  21. ^ Penceny, p. 1.
  22. ^ Loenthal, p. 6. Quoting Karl, Terry, "Imposing Consent? Electorism vs. Democratization in El Salvador," in Drake, Paul W., Eduardo Silva (eds.) (1986). Elections and Democratization in Latin America, 1980-1985. La Jolla, California: Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies. ISBN 9997023889. p. 9-36
  23. ^ General Smedley Darlington Butler, Common Sense, 1935

Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of suffrage to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or social status. ...

External links

The Cabot Intercultural Center of The Fletcher School at Tufts University The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, also called simply The Fletcher School, is the oldest graduate school of international relations in the United States. ... The News International (ISSN 1563-9479) is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan, published simultaneously from Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore. ...

Further reading

History of exporting democracy

  • Barro, Robert J. (Spring 2002). "Democracy in Afghanistan: Don't Hold Your Breath". Hoover Digest (2).*
  • Carothers, Thomas (January/Februrary 2003). "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror". Foreign Affairs: 84.*
  • Diamond, Larry (2004). "The Long Haul". Hoover Digest (2).*
  • Forsythe, David P. (2000). "U.S. Foreign Policy and Enlarging the Democratic Community". Human Rights Quarterly 22 (4): 988-1010.*
  • Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Lene Siljeholm, Havard Hegre (April 13-18 2004). "Democratic Jihad? Military Intervention and Democracy". Paper presented at the workshop on Resources, Governance Structure and Civil War, Uppsala, Sweden. Finds that democratizatioin is unpredictable in the long-term.
  • Hay, William Anthony (April 28 2006). "Can Democracy Be Imposed from the Outside?". Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI). Alternative link. International history of exporting democracy. In the United States after idealism fails, the goal becomes a realist focus on stability and the protection of American interests.
  • Hermann, Margaret G., Charles W. Kegley, Jr.. "The U.S. Use of Military Intervention to Promote Democracy: Evaluating the Record". International Interactions 24 (2): 91-114. Uses Herbert K. Tillema, Foreign Overt Military Interventions, 1945-1991: OMILIST Codebook, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; 1997.
  • Krasner, Stephen D. (November 26 2003). "We Don't Know How To Build Democracy". Los Angeles Times.*
  • Lawson, Chappell, Strom C. Tucker (2003). "Democracy? In Iraq?". Hoover Digest 3 (3). This study points to 19 cases of US intervention "in the last century," including Afghanistan, Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cambodia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Germany, Grenada, Haiti, Japan, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, the Philippines, Somalia, South Korea, and South Vietnam. In half of these cases democratic institutions remained, in the other half they did not. To determine the success of Iraq becoming a democracy, this study uses data compiled by Freedom House measuring democracy in 186 countires, during four years, the years 1996 through 2000.
  • Lowenthal, Abraham F. (March 1, 1991). Exporting Democracy : The United States and Latin America. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4132-1.
  • Meernik, James (1996). "United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy". Journal of Peace Research 33 (4): 391-402.
  • Pei, Samia Amin, Seth Garz (March 17 2004). "Why Nation-Building Fails in Mid-Course". International Herald Tribune. The study finds that democracies built by the US begin to unravel in the decade after US forces depart, because political elites begin to change the law to fit their own interests. This study points to 14 cases of US intervention in the twentieth century.
  • Peceny, Mark (1999). Democracy at the Point of Bayonets. University Park:Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01883-6. This book finds that when the U.S. interventions later supported elections, the democracy was more likely to succeed. This study points to 25 cases of US intervention between 1898 and 1992.
    • Review: Shifter, Michael (Winter 2001). "Democracy at the Point of Bayonets". Latin American Politics and Society.
  • Smith, Tony, Richard C. Leone (1995). America's Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04466-X.
  • Tures, John A.. "Operation Exporting Freedom: The Quest for Democratization via United States Military Operations". Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations.PDF file. This study points to 30 US interventions between 1945 and 1991. Also uses Herbert K. Tillema, Foreign Overt Military Interventions, 1945-1991: OMILIST Codebook, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; 1997.
  • Tures, John A.. "To Protect Democracy (Not Practice It): Explanations of Dyadic Democratic Intervention (DDI) The Use of Liberal Ends to Justify Illiberal Means". OJPCR: The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution.

This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ...

Warnings

These studies warn that liberal states are likely to wield "illiberal methods" in promoting democracy in other countries.

  • Doyle, Michael W. (December 1986). "Liberalism and World Politics". American Political Science Review 80 (4): 1151-1161.
  • Machiavelli, Niccolo, Max Lerner, ed. Luigi Ricci and Christian Detmold, trans. (1950). The Prince and the Discourses. New York: Modern Library.
  • Nils Petter Gleditsch, "Democracy and Peace," in Gomien, Donna (1995). Broadening the Frontiers of Human Rights. Oslo, Norway: Scandinavian University Press. ISBN 82-00-41097-8. p. 287-306.
* When citing this article Tures states:
"Some articles...focus exclusively on the role that internal factors play in post-military operation transitions....limiting the analysis to domestic matters ignores the fact that the American military was present and that it influenced a country’s government."
United States Foreign Policy Flag of the United States
Presidential: Proclamation of NeutralityMonroe DoctrineRoosevelt CorollaryTruman DoctrineEisenhower DoctrineKennedy DoctrineJohnson DoctrineNixon DoctrineCarter DoctrineReagan DoctrineClinton DoctrineBush Doctrine

Other: Lodge CorollaryContainmentDomino theoryRollbackStimson DoctrineKirkpatrick DoctrineWeinberger DoctrinePowell DoctrineRumsfeld DoctrineWolfowitz Doctrine Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... United States Presidential doctrines are key goals, attitudes, or stances for U.S. foreign affairs outlined by many United States Presidents which were subsequently dubbed their doctrines during the 20th century. ... It has been suggested that Neutrality Proclamation be merged into this article or section. ... U.S. President James Monroe. ... The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was a substantial alteration (called an amendment) of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. ... Truman delivering the Truman Doctrine on March 12, 1947. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to Congress on January 5, 1957 stated the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... The Reagan Doctrine was an important Cold War strategy by the United States to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. ... The Clinton Doctrine is not a clear statement in the way that many other doctrines were. ... The Bush Doctrine was officially enunciated on September 20, 2002, in a policy document issued by the Bush administration and titled The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. It originated from a set of foreign policies adopted by the President of the United States George W. Bush... The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the US Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in practical power... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it attempted to stop what it called the Domino Effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based Communism, rather than European-American-based Capitalism. ... The domino theory was a 20th Century foreign policy theory that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Stimson Doctrine is a policy of the United States government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932 to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes effected by force. ... The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was a political doctrine expounded by United States Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick in the early 1980s which attempted to justify U.S. support for right-wing, anti-Communist dictatorships in the Third World in the context of the Cold War. ... The Weinberger Doctrine was a list of points governing when the United States could commit troops in military engagements. ... General Colin Powell made famous the so-called Powell Doctrine as part of the run up to the 1990-1991 Gulf War. ... The Rumsfeld Doctrine (named after its originator Donald Rumsfeld) is primarily concerned with the transformation of the United States Military. ... Wolfowitz Doctrine is a pseudo-name given to the 1992 Defense Planning Guidance authored by Paul Wolfowitz and I. Lewis Libby. ...


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