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Encyclopedia > Foreign policy of the Clinton Administration
Clinton embraces British Prime Minister Tony Blair.
Jiang Zemin and Bill Clinton.
Clinton plays the saxophone presented to him by Russian President Boris Yeltsin at a private dinner in Russia, January 13, 1994
Clinton with Jacques Chirac outside Élysée Palace.

The Foreign policy of the Clinton Administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President of the United States Bill Clinton during his Administration. Clinton's main foreign policy advisors were Secretaries of State Warren Christopher and Madeleine Albright and National Security Advisors Anthony Lake and Sandy Berger. Blair embraces like-minded U.S. President Bill Clinton, a fellow leader of the Third Way in politics. ... Blair embraces like-minded U.S. President Bill Clinton, a fellow leader of the Third Way in politics. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... http://www. ... http://www. ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Image File history File links Clintonchirac. ... Image File history File links Clintonchirac. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) has served as the Gaullist President of France since he was first elected in 1995. ... The entrance to the Élysée Palace. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the office in the United States. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 Headed by President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Clinton Administation was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Lake (left) meets with Bill Clinton and Leon Panetta at the White House in 1994. ... Samuel R. Sandy Berger (born October 28, 1945) served as the 19th United States National Security Advisor under President Bill Clinton from 1997 to 2001. ...


President Clinton assumed office shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War, but nevertheless was forced to confront numerous international conflicts. Shortly after taking office, Clinton had to decide whether the United States, as a world superpower, should play a role in the conflicts and violence occurring in Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Haiti. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ...


Initially, Clinton was reluctant[1] to become involved militarily in international conflicts. However, Clinton came to believe[2] that the United States had a stake in the protection of human rights and the promotion of the political and economic stability of remote countries. As Commander in Chief, Clinton ordered armed forces to these regions to end fighting, maintain peace, and protect innocent civilians, and few American lives were lost in military action. Clinton also spent much of his foreign policy effort on trying to end the conflicts in Northern Ireland and the Middle East, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in particular. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land...

Contents

Africa

Just weeks before Clinton took office, President George H. W. Bush had deployed American soldiers to Somalia, a coastal nation on the Horn of Africa, where people were suffering and dying from starvation and civil war. The soldiers were sent to guard food and other relief supplies from being stolen by warring factions. After soldiers faced fire from armed clans and 19 soldiers were killed in 1993 in the Battle of Mogadishu, the mission quickly lost popularity with the American people. Fearing anarchy resulting in the starvation of Somalia’s civilians and to help U.S. Forces defend themselves,[3] Clinton increased troop presence in the country. Demands for withdrawal, however, grew louder and Clinton ordered troops out of the country in March 1994.[4] This left Somalia in a state of anarchy, with warlords battling for control, even 10 years later. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000+ Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians 1,000+ killed 3,000+ wounded Task Force Ranger achieved...


In April 1994, a genocide erupted in Rwanda between Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups. Over the next few months, an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Rwandans, mainly Tutsi, were killed. A few weeks after the killings began, millions had fled the country for safety, spawning the growth of refugee camps in neighboring countries. President Clinton brilliantly managed a public relations exercise aimed at minimizing public awareness of the atrocities thus enabling the policy of non-intervention in non-strategic conflicts to be pursued unchallenged. All use by US government officials of the explosive word "Genocide" was forbidden and the US put pressure on the United Nations to back Belgian demands for a complete withdrawal of UNAMIR soldiers despite the resistance of the force commander on the ground, the Canadian General Roméo Dallaire and the willingness of Ghana and Ethiopia to provide troops to replace the Belgian contingent. As thousands more died of disease and starvation in these refugee camps, Clinton ordered airdrops of food and supplies for refugees. In July, he sent 200 non-combatant troops to the Rwanda capital of Kigali to manage the airport and distribution of relief supplies. These troops were subsequently withdrawn by October 1994. Clinton and the United Nations faced criticism for a weak response to the massacre. When Clinton traveled to Africa in 1998, he apologized for the international community’s failure to respond to the massacres.[5] The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass extermination of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda was a relief mission instituted by the United Nations to aid the implementation of the Arusha Accords, signed August 4, 1993 in order to ease tensions between the Hutu-dominated Rwandese government and the Tutsi rebels (for the most part centered in the... Lieutenant-General Roméo Alain Dallaire, OC, CMM, GOQ, MSC, CD, B.Sc, LL.D (h. ... Kigali, population 330,000 (1997), is the capital of Rwanda. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In August 1998 terrorists bombed the United States embassies in the capitals of two East African countries, Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. About 250 people were killed, and more than 5,500 were injured. After intelligence linked the bombings to Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi Arabian living in Afghanistan who was suspected of terrorist activity, Clinton ordered missile attacks on sites in Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation for the bombings at the U.S. embassies and to deter future terrorist attacks.[6] The Clinton administration maintained that the sites–a pharmaceutical factory at Khartoum (the capital of Sudan) and several alleged terrorist camps in Afghanistan–were involved in terrorist activities.[7] Categories: Africa geography stubs | Capitals in Africa | Kenya ... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Nickname: The Triangular City Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban Over 1 Million For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ...


The Balkans

Bill Clinton Boulevard in Prishtina, Kosovo in 2003

Much of the focus of Clinton's foreign policy during his first term was the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (often referred to simply as Bosnia), a nation in southeastern Europe that declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1992 (see Wars of Yugoslav Succession). This declaration was the catalyst of a war between Bosnian Serbs, who wanted Bosnia to remain in the Yugoslav federation, and Bosnian Muslims and Croats. The Bosnian Serbs, who were supported by Serbia, were better equipped than the Muslims and the Croats and controlled much of the countryside. They besieged cities, including the capital of Sarajevo, causing widespread suffering. Clinton proposed bombing Serb supply lines and lifting an embargo that prevented the shipment of military arms to the former Yugoslavia but European nations were opposed to such a move. In 1994 Clinton opposed an effort by Republicans in Congress to lift the arms embargo, as it were, because the U.S. allies in Western Europe were still resistant to that policy.[8] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1892 × 2904 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this picture in June 2003 in Prishtina, Kosovo. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1892 × 2904 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this picture in June 2003 in Prishtina, Kosovo. ... The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia that went on in the 1990s. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... Nickname: Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ...


Clinton continued to pressure Western European countries throughout 1994 to take strong measures against the Serbs. But in November, as the Serbs seemed on the verge of defeating the Muslims and Croats in several strongholds, Clinton changed course and called for conciliation with the Serbs.[9] In November 1995 Clinton hosted peace talks between the warring parties in Dayton, Ohio. The parties reached a peace agreement known as the Dayton Accords, leaving Bosnia as a single state made up of two separate entities with a central government. Nickname: Motto: Birthplace of Aviation Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Montgomery Founded April 1, 1796 Incorporated 1805 Government  - Mayor Rhine L. McLin Area  - City  56. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... The Dayton Agreement or Dayton Accords is the name given to the agreement at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio to end the war in the former Yugoslavia that had gone on for the previous three years, in particular the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


In the spring of 1998, ethnic tension in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY)–the state formed from the former Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro–heightened when Serb forces moved into the southern province of Kosovo. More than 90 percent of the citizens of Kosovo were Muslim and ethnic Albanians, many of whom wanted independence from the FRY. The Serbs, however, had considered the region sacred territory. Serb forces were mobilized into the province to quail Albanian rebels. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ...


After attempting a peace settlement, Clinton, who strongly supported the Albanians, threatened the Serbs with possible military strikes. In March, military forces from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), headed by the United States, began launching missiles and bombs on military installations in Kosovo and Serbia. This action was not approved by the U.N. Security Council, and strongly opposed by Russia and China. NATO air strikes devastated Serbia, and many key targets were destroyed beyond repair. It was the first time in NATO’s history that its forces had attacked a European country, and the first time in which air power alone won a battle. In June 1999 NATO and FRY military leaders approved an international peace plan for Kosovo, and the attacks were suspended after a Serb surrender. NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ...


Haiti

A September 1991 military coup, led by Lieutenant General Raoul Cédras, had ousted the country’s elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Aristide escaped to the United States. In 1993 thousands of Haitians tried to flee to the United States as well, but more than half were sent back to Haiti by the United States Coast Guard. Although Clinton had criticized former president George Bush for returning Haitian refugees to their country, he continued part of Bush’s policy because he feared that accepting refugees might encourage many more to flee to the United States and slow the formation of a democratic government in the country.[10] A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Raoul Cédras (born 1949) was a Lieutenant General in the Haitian army who ruled Haiti from 1991 to 1994 after a coup which ousted elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ...


In 1994 Clinton publicly demanded that the Haitian government step aside and restore democratic rule. Congress was united in opposition to American intervention.[11] However, Clinton deployed a large military force to the country in September 1994. Just before the troops reached Haiti, Clinton sent a delegation led by former President Jimmy Carter to urge Cédras to step down and leave the country. Cédras agreed and surrendered the government to Aristide. Cédras and his top lieutenants left the country in October, and just days later, American forces escorted Aristide into the capital. The democratic government was restored without a military fight. James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ...


The Middle East

Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat shake hands at the signing of the Oslo Accords on 1993-09-13.

Clinton was also deeply involved in the Middle East to negotiate peace agreements between Arabs, including the Palestinians and Israelis. Secret negotiations mediated by Clinton between Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Chairman Yasser Arafat led to a historic declaration of peace in September 1993, called the Oslo Accords. Clinton personally arranged for the peace accord to be signed at the White House on September 13, 1993. The agreement allowed a limited Palestinian self-rule in the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip. In July 1994 Clinton helped coordinate a historic compromise between longtime enemies Israel and Jordan to end their state of war. With this agreement between Jordan’s King Hussein and Israel’s Rabin, Jordan became only the second Arab state (after Egypt) to normalize relations with Israel. US government photo. ... US government photo. ... For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ‎;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ...


The 1993 and 1995 peace agreements between Israel and Palestine, however, did not end the conflict in the Middle East. As the peace process came to a stall, Clinton invited Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat to peace talks on the Wye River in October 1998. The two leaders signed yet another agreement, known as the Wye River Memorandum, which called for Israel to transfer more territory in the West Bank to the Palestinians. In return, the Palestinians agreed to take steps to curb terrorism. They also agreed to a timetable to negotiate a final resolution of the Palestinian fight for an independent state.   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... The Wye River is a branch of the Chesapeake Bay, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. ... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ...


After an abrupt outbreak of violence sparked by the agreement,[12] however, Netanyahu refused to cede any West Bank territory and placed new demands upon Palestine. This move led to a backlash against Netanyahu’s government in Israel.[13] As a result, in May 1999 Israelis elected Ehud Barak, the leader of a political coalition that favored resuming the peace process, to replace Netanyahu as prime minister. Clinton continued to work passionately[14] on negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. Throughout his last year in office, Clinton came close to arranging a final peace settlement but failed, according to Clinton, as a result of Arafat’s reluctance.[15] Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz,[1] then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ...


Clinton was also confronted with problems in Iraq. In 1991, three years before Clinton became president, the United States participated in the Persian Gulf War to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation. In 1991 the warring parties signed a cease-fire agreement requiring Iraq to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction and allow inspectors from the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) to monitor the country’s adherence to the agreement. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was a United Nations organisation performing arms inspections in Iraq after the Gulf War. ...


On June 26, 1993, Clinton ordered an attack on the Iraqi Intelligence Service's (IIS) principal command and control complex in Baghdad, publicly announced as retaliation for the alleged assassination attempt by the IIS on ex-president George Bush while he was visiting Kuwait in April of that year. Fourteen cruise missiles were launched from the USS Peterson, nine were launched from the USS Chancellorsville. 16 of the missiles hit the target, three struck a residential area, killing nine civilians and wounding 12. Four of the missiles were unaccounted for.[16] This strike was in violation of international law, although that point is contentious.[17]


The UNSCOM team faced resistance from Iraq, which blocked inspections and hid deadly germ agents and warheads.[18] Clinton threatened military action several times when Iraqi president Saddam Hussein attempted to stall the UNSCOM inspections.[19] In December 1998 Clinton ordered four days of concentrated air attacks against military installations in Iraq. After the bombing, Hussein blocked any further UN inspections. For several years afterward, U.S. air assaults continued to target defense installations in Iraq, in response to what the Clinton administration claimed were “provocations” by the Iraqi military,[20] including antiaircraft fire and radar locks on American planes and missiles. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ...


Sanctions on Iraq that were imposed after the Gulf War remained in place under Clinton. UNICEF estimated that 500,000 children had died as a result by 1999. [4] UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


In regards to Iran, on May 6, 1995, Clinton signed Executive Order 12957 which implemented tight oil and trade sanctions on Iran and made it illegal for American coporations or their foreign subsidiaries to participate in any contract "for the financing of the development of petroleum resources located in Iran." On May 6, 1995, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12959 which banned almost all trade between U.S. businesses and the Iranian government with the exception of informational materials.[21] A year before, the President declared that Iran was a 'state sponsor of terrorism' and a 'rogue state', marking the first time that an American President used that term.[22] In 1996, the Clinton administration agreed to comepenstate towards the Iranian government to pay for the death of 248 Iranians in a 1988 incident in which a plane carrying the passengers was reportedly shot down by an American military plane. In Clinton's second term as President, beginning in 1997, the administration began to take a softer approach towards Iran, particularly after the election of reformist Mohammad Khatami as the President of Iran. That year, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and President Clinton mandated what could be considered an apology to the Iranian people for the 1953 CIA coup that overthrew the democratically elected Prime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, and replaced him with the Shah, thus leading to the 1979 Islamic Revolution two decades later. Albright and Clinton also acknowledged that the U.S.-backed government of the Shah "oppressed political opponents." In the months that followed, an Iranian professional wrestling team was allowed entry into the U.S. to face American pros, and a significant increase in cultural and academic overtures were made between the two countries. In fact, in 1998, Iran and the United States faced each other in a game at the FIFA World Cup that year (Iran beat the US by 2-1). Khatami also encouraged Americans to travel to Iran for vacational purposes, citing the city of Esfahan, a popular location for tourists where, according to CNN, several "well-preserved" sites often "surprise" tourists. In a well-publicized 1997 interview, Khatami refused to fully apologize for the '79 hostage crisis in which 52 American diplomats were held hostage for 444 days yet did offer to open up a dialogue with the American people. Clinton actually offered to open up an official dialogue with the Iranian government and renew diplomatic relations with the country after 20 years of no such relations. However, Ayatollah Ali Khameini refused to accept the offer for dialogue unless the U.S. formally withdrew its support for Israel, lifted the '95 sanctions imposed on the country, stopped accusing Tehran of attempting to develop nuclear weaponry, and officially ended its policy of considering Iran a "rogue state that sponsors terrorism." Although Clinton did privately weigh the idea of revoking the executive orders he signed in the spring of 1995, the administration refused to comply with Iran's other demands. Eventually, President Clinton did ease restrictions on export of food and medical equipment to Iran. Albright announced in 2000 that the U.S. would begin to "enable Americans to purchase and import carpets and food products such as dried fruits, nuts, and caviar from Iran" and also was confident that Iran would provide cooperation with the United States in the battle against narcotis and international drug abuse. In 1995, the State Department warned U.S. citizens against traveling in Iran due to that government's rampant anti-Americanism yet five years later Albright decided to repeal this warning. By the time Clinton left office in January 2001, it was clear that relations between Iran and the United States had significantly cooled despite the fact that President Khatami and President Clinton failed to initiate an official diplomatic dialogue between the nations, something which has not existed since the 1979 hostage crisis. Some conservatives claim that Clinton overreached in his overtures to Iran and these same critics point to what they purportedly suggest was the President's willingness to offer blueprints for techonolgical development in the field of uranium enrichment and related activities in exchange for a vow from the Iranian government not to pursue the creation of nuclear weapons. Critics believe Clinton's plan backfired and that it was a weak policy that strengthened Iran and set the stage for a potential confrontation with Iran a decade later in the George W. Bush administration. May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... Isfahan or Esfahan can refer to either a city or a province in Iran: Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronounciation of the citys name. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


North Korea

North Korea's feared aim to create nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles was a serious problem for the Clinton Administration. In 1994, North Korea, a signatory of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, refused to allow international inspectors to review two nuclear waste sites. The inspectors wanted to see if North Korea was in violation of the treaty since they were suspected of reprocessing spent fuel into plutonium, which could be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.[23] Despite diplomatic pressure and repeated warnings by Clinton,[24] North Korea refused to allow the inspections and even raised the prospect of war with South Korea, an ally of the United States. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Polish missile wz. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


After private diplomacy by former president Jimmy Carter, the Clinton administration reached a breakthrough with North Korea in October 1994 when North Korea agreed to shut down the nuclear plants that could produce materials for weapons if the United States would help North Korea build plants that generated electricity with light-water nuclear reactors. These reactors would be more efficient and their waste could not easily be used for nuclear weaponry.[25] The United States also agreed to supply fuel oil for electricity until the new plants were built, and North Korea agreed to allow inspection of the old waste sites when construction began on the new plants.[25] This 1994 Agreed Framework, as it was known, kept the Yongbyon plutonium enrichment plant closed and under international inspection until 2002, after which North Korea broke off from the treaty and restarted plutonium production. In October of 2006, North Korea tested their first nuclear weapon. The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea (DPRK) and the United States. ...


Mexico

Clinton faced yet another foreign crisis in early 1995, when the value of the peso, the currency of Mexico, began to fall sharply and threatened the collapse of the Mexican economy. Clinton believed the collapse of Mexico’s economy would have a negative impact on the United States because of their close economic ties. He proposed a plan that would have helped Mexico ease out of financial crisis, but the new Republican-controlled Congress, fearing that voters would not favor aid money to Mexico, rejected the plan. In response, Clinton drafted a $20 billion loan package for Mexico to restore international confidence in the Mexican economy. The loan was approved and Mexico completed its loan payments to the United States in January 1997, three years ahead of schedule. However, issues such as drug smuggling and U.S. immigration policies continued to strain relations between the United States and Mexico during Clinton's terms in office. ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ... Mexico has a free market and export-oriented economy. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Map of the world with countries colored according to their immigrant population as a percentage of total population: Although human migration has existed throughout human history, immigration in the modern sense refers to movement of people from one nation-state to another. ...


Cuba

After negotiations with representatives of the Cuban government, Clinton revealed in May 1995 a controversial policy reversing the decades-old policy of automatically granting asylum to Cuban refugees. Some 20,000 Cuban refugees detained at Guantánamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba were to be admitted to the United States over a period of three months. In order to prevent a mass exodus of refugees to the United States, all future refugees would be returned to Cuba. The influx of refugees into Guantanamo Bay overwhelmed the facilities, necessitating Operations Safe Haven and Safe Passage involving Panama. Clinton also implemented the wet foot/dry foot policy for Cuban refugees. This policy meant that Cuban refugees caught at sea were returned to Cuba (wet foot), while Cuban refugees that made it to dry land (dry foot) were allowed to stay in the U.S. This changed the refugees tactics from slow rafts to speed boats. Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... Operations Safe Haven and Safe Passage (Sept. ... The wet feet, dry feet policy (sometimes called the wet-foot, dry-foot Policy) is the name given to a consequence of the 1995 revision of the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966 that says, essentially, that anyone who fled Cuba and got into the United States would be allowed to...


Relations between the United States and Cuba deteriorated in February 1996 when Cuba shot down two American civilian planes. Cuba accused the planes of violating Cuban airspace. Clinton tightened sanctions against Cuba and suspended charter flights from the United States to Cuba, hoping this would cripple Cuba’s tourism industry.


In their response to the incident, the U.S. Congress passed the Helms-Burton Act in March 1996. Some parts of the bill strengthened an embargo against imports of Cuban products. Title III, however, made the bill controversial because it allowed American citizens whose property was seized during and after the 1959 Cuban Revolution to sue in American courts foreign companies that later invested in those properties. Title III sparked an immediate uproar from countries such as Mexico, Canada, and members of the European Union because they believed that they would be penalized for doing business with Cuba. In response, Clinton repeatedly suspended Title III of the legislation (the act gave the president the right to exercise this option every six months). The Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad) Act of 1996 (better known as the Helms-Burton Act) is a United States federal law which strengthens and continues the United States embargo against Cuba. ... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of Fulgencio Batistas dictatorial government on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ...


Clinton softened his Cuban policy in 1998 and 1999. In March 1998, at the urging of Pope John Paul II, Clinton lifted restrictions and allowed humanitarian charter flights to resume. He also took steps to increase educational, religious, and humanitarian contacts in Cuba. The U.S. government decided to allow Cuban citizens to receive more money from American friends and family members and to buy more American food and medicine. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as...


Northern Ireland

Clinton also sought to end the conflict in Northern Ireland by arranging a peace agreement between the nationalist and unionist factions. In 1998 former Senator George Mitchell–whom Clinton had appointed to assist in peace talks–brokered an accord that became known as the Good Friday Agreement. It called for the British Parliament to devolve legislative and executive authority of the province to a new Northern Ireland Assembly, whose Executive would include members of both communities. Years of stalemate have followed the agreement, mainly due to the refusal of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), a nationalist paramilitary group, to decommission its weapons for some years and after that the refusal of the Democratic Unionist Party to push the process forward. Mitchell returned to the region and arranged yet another blueprint for a further peace settlement that resulted in a December 1999 formation of the power-sharing government agreed the previous year, which was to be followed by steps toward the IRA’s disarmament. That agreement eventually faltered as well, although Clinton continued peace talks to prevent the peace process from collapsing completely. In 2005 the IRA decommissioned all of its arms and, in 2007, Sinn Féin expressed a willingness to support the reformed Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). Power is to be restored to the Assembly in May 2007, marking renewed promise for the fulfillment of the Good Friday Agreement. For the UK post-rock band, see Troubles (band) The Troubles is a term used to describe the latest installment of periodic communal violence involving Republican and Loyalist paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the late... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Unionism, in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and order of government of the Act of Union 1800 which had merged both countries in 1801 to form the United Kingdom. ... There have been several well-known people named George Mitchell, including: George Mitchell (musician) George J. Mitchell (politician) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish name: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA) is an Irish Republican left-wing paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern Ireland... DUP redirects here. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


Vietnam

In 1994, the Clinton administration announced that it was lifting the trade embargo on Vietnam, citing progress in the search for American soldiers listed as missing in action and the remains of those killed in action. On July 10, 1995, Clinton announced that his administration was restoring full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, citing the continued progress in determining the whereabouts of MIA's and locating the remains of soldiers killed in the Vietnam War. Clinton nonetheless stressed that the search for Americans would continue, especially for the soldiers listed as "discrepancies;" namely 55 American soldiers believed to still be alive when they went missing. On November 16, 2000, Clinton arrived in Hanoi with his wife, Senator-elect Hillary Rodham Clinton and daughter Chelsea shortly before his second term in office ended.[26] The next day Clinton spoke to the Vietnamese people publicly about both the conflict as well as the promise renewed relations meant. MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300(2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Hillary Rodham Clinton (born Hillary Diane Rodham on October 26, 1947) is the Biggest loser/retard these united states have seen from New York. ...


Counterterrorism and Osama bin Laden

On February 26, 1993—thirty-six days after Clinton took office, terrorists who the CIA would later reveal were working under the direction of Osama bin Laden detonated a timed car bomb in the parking garage below Tower One of the World Trade Center in New York City. (See World Trade Center bombing) Clinton responded by ordering his National Security Council, under the direction of Anthony Lake, and the FBI to find and punish those responsible. The FBI was able to quickly identify the vehicle used in the bomb from a remnant found in the rubble: a Ryder rental van, which had been reported stolen in Jersey City, New Jersey the day before. The truck was rented by Mohammed Salameh, whom the FBI immediately detained. Similar evidence led to the arrests of other plotters behind the attack, including Nidal Ayyad, Mahmoud Abouhalima, Ahmad Ajaj, and Ramzi Yousef—who was identified as the key player in the bombing. All men were tried and convicted for the bombing and other terrorists activities.[27] February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... This article is about the former World Trade Center (Twin Towers) in New York City. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... In the World Trade Center bombing (July 15th, 1993) a car bomb was detonated by Middle Eastern terrorists in the underground parking garage below Tower One of the World Trade Center in New York City. ... The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... Lake (left) meets with Bill Clinton and Leon Panetta at the White House in 1994. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Location of Jersey City within New Jersey. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Mohammed A. Salameh (born September 1, 1967) is a convicted perpertrator of the 1993 World Trade Center Bombing. ... Ahmed Mohammad Ajaj (Arabic: أحمد محمد عجاج; also transliterated Ahmad Mohammad Ajaj; born 1966) was convicted of participating in the World Trade Center bombing in 1993. ... Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef) (Arabic: رمزي يوسف ), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim (Arabic: عبد الباسط كريم) and also known by dozens of aliases,[1] is a Kuwaiti of Pakistani descent who was one of the planners of the 1993 World Trade Center...


The 9/11 Commission concluded that, while the United States government responded adequately to the attack, the "successful use of the legal system" to respond to the bombing "had the side effect of obscuring the need to examine the character and extent of the new threat facing the United States." The quick trial and conviction of the suspects, according to the commission, caused the nation to "underestimate" bin Laden and his network.[27] The Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response...


Weeks after the World Trade Center bombing, the CIA uncovered an Iraqi plot to assassinate former President Bush that had been planned while he was in office. Clinton responded with cruise missile strikes against Iraq.[28]


In his 1995 State of the Union address, Clinton proposed "comprehensive legislation to strengthen our hand in combating terrorists, whether they strike at home or abroad."[29] He sent legislation to Congress to extend federal criminal jurisdiction, make it easier to deport terrorists, and act against terrorist fund-raising.[30] Following the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Clinton amended that legislation to increase wiretap and electronic surveillance authority for the FBI, require explosives to be equipped with traceable taggants, and appropriate more funds to the FBI, CIA, and local police.[31] The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. government office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Downtown Oklahoma City The State Capitol of Oklahoma From The South Motto: Nickname: Capital of the New Century Founded 1889 Incorporated County Oklahoma County Cleveland County Canadian County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Mick Cornett Area  - Total  - Water 1,608. ...


In June 1995, Clinton issued Presidential Decision Directive 39, which stated that the United States "should deter, defeat and respond vigorously to all terrorist attacks on our territory and against our citizens." Furthermore, it called terrorism both a "matter of national security" and a crime.[32] The implementation of his proposals led to a substantial increase in counter-terrorism funds for the FBI and CIA. June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with a length of 30 days. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


In 1996, the CIA established a special unit of officers to analyze intelligence received about bin Laden and plan operations against him, coined the "Bin Ladin unit." It was this unit that first realized bin Laden was more than just a terrorist financier, but a leader of a global network with operations based in Afghanistan. Given these findings, the NSC encouraged the Department of State to "pay more attention" to Afghanistan and its governing unit, the Taliban, which had received funding from bin Laden. The State Department requested the Taliban to expel bin Laden from the country, noting that he was a sponsor of terrorism and publicly urged Muslims to kill Americans. The Taliban responded that they did not know his whereabouts and, even if they did, he was "not a threat to the United States." The CIA's counter-terrorism division quickly began drafting plans to capture and remove bin Laden from the country. However, Marine General Anthony Zinni and some in the State Department protested the move, saying that the United States should focus instead on ending the Afghan civil war and the Taliban's human rights abuses.[33] For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ... Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17, 1943) is a retired general in the United States Marine Corps and a former Commander in Chief of U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM). ...


In 1998, Clinton appointed Richard Clarke—who until then served in a drugs and counter-terrorism division of the CIA—to lead an interagency comprehensive counter-terrorism operation, the Counter-terrorism Security Group (CSG). The goal of the CSG was to "detect, deter, and defend against" terrorist attacks. Additionally, Clinton appointed Clarke to sit on the cabinet-level Principals Committee when it met on terrorism issues.[27] Richard A. Clarke (born 1951) provided national security advice to four U.S. presidents: Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, consulting on issues of intelligence and terrorism, from 1973 to 2003. ...


Clinton’s Counter-terrorism Center began drafting a plan to ambush bin Laden’s compound in Kandahar. The CIA mapped the compound and identified the houses of bin Laden’s wives and the location where he most likely slept. The plan was relatively simple, at least on paper. Tribals would “subdue” the guards, enter the compound, take bin Laden to a desert outside Kandahar, and hand him over to another group of tribals. This second group would carry him to a desert landing strip—which had already been tested—where a CIA plane would take him to New York for arraignment. When they completed a draft plan, they ran through two rehearsals in the United States.[34] Confident that the plan would work, the Counter-terrorism Center of the CIA sought the approval of the White House. While they acknowledged that the plan was risky, they stated that there was “a risk in not acting” because “sooner or later, bin Laden will attack U.S. interests, perhaps using WMD.”[35] This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Clarke reviewed the plans for Sandy Berger, the National Security Director, and told him that it was in the “very early stages of development” and stressed the importance of only targeting bin Laden, not the entire compound. The NSC told the CIA to begin preparing the necessary legal documents to execute the raid.[36] Samuel R. Sandy Berger (born October 28, 1945) served as the 19th United States National Security Advisor under President Bill Clinton from 1997 to 2001. ...


The senior management of the CIA was skeptical of the plan, and despite objections, canceled the operation, fearing that the risk to their operatives and financial costs were too high. It is unclear whether or not Clinton was aware of the plan.


As the Counter-terrorism Center continued to track bin Laden, they learned in 1998 that the Saudi government had bin Laden cells within the country that were planning attacks on U.S. forces. CIA Director George Tenet, encouraged by the Saudi’s show of force against bin Laden, asked them to assist in the fight against bin Laden. Clinton named Tenet as his informal “personal representative” to work with Saudi Arabia on terrorism. The Saudis promised Tenet that they would do everything they could to convince the Taliban to release bin Laden for trial in America or elsewhere. The Saudi intelligence chief, Prince Turki bin Faisal, hold various meetings with Taliban chief Mullah Omar and other leaders and received assurance that bin Laden would be removed. Omar, however, reneged on that promise.[27] George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. ... Prince Turki bin Faisal al Saud (born February 15, 1945) is the former Saudi Head of Intelligence, Saudi Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ireland and as of July 2005, the Saudi ambassador to the United States. ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ...


On August 7, 1998, bin Laden struck again, this time with simultaneous bombings on the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (see above) The CIA, having confirmed bin Laden was behind the attack, informed Clinton that terrorist leaders were planning to meet at a camp near Khowst, to plan future attacks. According to Tenet, “several hundred,” including bin Laden, would attend. On August 20, Clinton ordered the military to fire cruise missiles at the camp and a Pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, where bin Laden was suspected of manufacturing biological weapons. While the military hit their targets, bin Laden was not killed. The CIA estimated that they had missed bin Laden by “a few hours.”[33] August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... Khost, sometimes spelt Khowst, is a town in Afghanistan, located at 33. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time of the attacks, Clinton was embroiled in the Lewinsky scandal (see below). This led many Republicans in Congress to accuse the president of “wagging the dog”—launching a military attack simply to distract the public from his personal problems. Clinton and his principals, however, insist that the decision was made solely on the basis of national security.[27]


After the attacks failed, Clinton moved his focus to diplomatic pressure. On the advice of the State Department, Clinton encouraged Pakistan, whose military intelligence agency was a patron of the Taliban, to pressure the Taliban to remove bin Laden. After numerous meetings with Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, the Pakistani’s would still not cooperate.[27] Sharif eventually agreed to allow the Unites States to train Pakistani special forces to find bin Laden. When Sharif was ousted by Pervez Musharraf, the plan was abandoned.[37] Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) was born on December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... (PA – 6920) General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف); born August 11, 1943) is the President, the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army and the fourth Pakistani General to govern the country in the wake of a coup. ...


After encouragement by Richard Clarke, Clinton issued an executive order in July 1999 declaring the Taliban regime as a state sponsor of terrorism.[38] This was followed in October 1999 by a UN resolution sponsored by the United States placing economic and travel sanctions on the Taliban.[39] The Taliban, however, stood by bin Laden, and the United States proposed yet another UN resolution, this time imposing an embargo an arms shipments to the Taliban.[40] The move was meant to weaken the Taliban in their fight against the Northern Alliance in their civil strife. However, the resolution did little to limit the illegal flow of arms from Pakistan.[27] The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ...


In August 1999, Clinton signed a Memorandum of Notification ordering the CIA to develop another plan to capture bin Laden, and giving the CIA the authority to order bin Laden be killed.[41]


Near the end of 1999, the Clinton administration, working with the government of Jordan, detected and thwarted a planned terrorist attack to detonate bombs at various New Year millennium celebrations around the world. The CIA confirmed that bin Laden was behind the plot, which was disrupted just days before the New Year.[33] While many credited Clinton’s new CSG for playing a role in the foiling of these plots, critics claim it was “mostly luck.”[42]


The CIA informed Clinton that they feared the thwarted attacks were just part of a larger series of attacks planned for the new year. Clinton asked Clarke and the CSG to draft plans to “deter and disrupt” al Qaeda attacks.[27]


On October 12, 2000, terrorists attacked U.S. Navy Destroyer, the USS Cole off the coast of Yemen. There was no clear indication during the last months of Clinton’s term of who was responsible.[27] The CIA reported that they had “no definitive answer on [the] crucial question of outside direction of the attack—how and by whom. Clinton did not think it would be wise to launch an attack based on a “preliminary judgment,” stating that he would have taken further action had he received definitive intelligence. The CIA was eventually able to confirm bin Laden’s involvement with certainty a week after the Bush administration took office.[33] October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... The second USS Cole (DDG 67) is an Arleigh Burke class Aegis-equipped guided missile destroyer homeported in NS Norfolk, Virginia. ...


As Clinton’s second term drew to a close, the CSG drafted a comprehensive policy paper entitled “Strategy for Eliminating the Threat from the Jihadist Networks of al Qida: Status and Prospects.” The paper outlined a method to “roll back” al Qaeda over “a period of three to five years.” Clarke stated that while “continued anti-al Qida operations at the current level will prevent some attacks, [it] will not seriously attrit their ability to plan and conduct attacks." This policy paper was forwarded to the incoming Bush administration.[33]


Fox News interview with Chris Wallace

Clinton's interview with Chris Wallace

In the years since September 11, 2001, Clinton has been subject to criticism[citation needed] that he failed to capture Osama bin Laden as President. In a September 24, 2006, interview with Fox News' Chris Wallace on Fox News Sunday, Clinton challenged his critics. According to Clinton, he faced criticism from various conservatives during his administration for being too obsessed with bin Laden. Clinton also noted that his administration created the first comprehensive anti-terrorist operation, led by Richard Clarke—whom Clinton accuses the Bush Administration of demoting.[43] Clinton also said he worked hard to try to kill Bin Laden.[44] Clinton acknowledged that, following the bombing on the USS Cole, his administration prepared battle plans to execute a military operation in Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban and search for bin Laden. The plans were never implemented because, according to Clinton, the CIA and FBI refused to certify that bin Laden was responsible for the bombing until after he left office and the military was unable to receive basing rights in Uzbekistan.[45] In relation to Afghanistan, Clinton said "We do have a government that thinks Afghanistan is one-seventh as important as Iraq".[45] Clinton also said that his administration left the plans and a comprehensive anti-terror strategy with the new Bush Administration in January 2001.[43] Image File history File links Was564328. ... Image File history File links Was564328. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... FOX News Sunday is public affairs magazine on Fox, airing on Sunday mornings. ... Richard A. Clarke (born 1951) provided national security advice to four U.S. presidents: Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, consulting on issues of intelligence and terrorism, from 1973 to 2003. ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ...


Other issues

In 1996 Clinton signed the United States onto the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a landmark international agreement that prohibited all signatory nations from testing nuclear weapons. The following year, he sent the treaty to the Senate for ratification and they rejected it in October 1999. International reaction to the Senate’s action was uniformly negative, and the rejection was a political setback for Clinton, who had lobbied actively for its approval. Despite the rejection of the treaty, Clinton promised that the United States would continue to maintain a policy of not testing nuclear weapons, which had been in place since 1992. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina...


Throughout the 1990s, the Congress refused to appropriate funds for the United States to pay its dues to the United Nations. By 1999 the United States owed the UN at least $1 billion in back dues. That same year Clinton reached a compromise with Republicans in Congress to submit more than $800 million in back dues. Republicans in the House of Representatives had insisted that UN debt repayments be accompanied by restrictions on U.S. funding for international groups that lobbied for abortion rights in foreign countries.[46] Clinton had vetoed similar measures in the past, but he agreed to the restrictions when faced with the prospect that the United States would lose its vote in the UN General Assembly for nonpayment of dues. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ...


References

  1. ^ Presidential Press Conference - 1993-04-23
  2. ^ Presidential Remarks - 1993-09-23
  3. ^ White House Press Briefing on Somalia - 1993-10-07
  4. ^ Overview of the US intervention in Somalia
  5. ^ Speech by President to Survivors Rwanda - 1998-03-25
  6. ^ U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan - CNN
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Remarks by President on Larry King Live
  9. ^ Press Briefing by Ambassador Albright on US U.N. Relations
  10. ^ Presidential Town Hall Meeting - 1993-02-10
  11. ^ The U.S. Congress and Multilateral Humanitarian Intervention (PDF)
  12. ^ A History of the Israel-Palestine Conflict
  13. ^ Israeli Elections 1999 -- Character, Political Culture, and Centrism
  14. ^ Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2004. ISBN 0-375-41457-6
  15. ^ President Clinton's Statement on Death of Yasser Arafat
  16. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/strike_930626.htm
  17. ^ http://www.courts.fsnet.co.uk/intllawessay.htm
  18. ^ Chronolgy of Iraq - Royal United Services Institute
  19. ^ Remarks by President on UN Security Council Resolution on Iraq - 1997-11-12
  20. ^ Remarks by President on Iraq - 1998-12-19
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ [3]
  23. ^ North Korea's Nuclear Program (PDF)
  24. ^ Remarks by President on CNN Telecast of a Global Forum with Clinton, 1994-05-03
  25. ^ a b Press Briefing by Ambassador Gallucci on Korea
  26. ^ John King and Kelly Wallace, The Associated Press and Reuters. "Tumultuous crowd welcomes Clinton to Hanoi", CNN, 2000-11-17. Retrieved on 2006-10-23. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington: July 2004.
  28. ^ Cruise Missile Strike - 26 June 1993: Operation Southern Watch (GlobalSecurity.org )
  29. ^ President Clinton, "Address Before a Joint Session of Congress on the State of the Union," January 24, 1995
  30. ^ President Clinton, "Message to Congress Transmitting Proposed Legislation to Combat Terrorism," February 9, 1995
  31. ^ President Clinton, "Message to Congress Transmitting Proposed Legislation to Combat Terrorism," May 3, 1995
  32. ^ Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-39, "US Policy on Counter-terrorism," June 21, 1995.
  33. ^ a b c d e Clarke, Richard. Against All Enemies. September 2004. New York: The Free Press.
  34. ^ Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars. January 2005. New York: Penguin Group.
  35. ^ CIA Memo, to Tenet, “Information Paper on Usama bin Ladin,” February 12, 1998.
  36. ^ National Security Council note, Simon to Berger. February 27, 1998. Declassified by 9/11 Commission.
  37. ^ Department of State memo, Sheehan to Albright, “S/CT Update on Critical Issues.” July 9, 1999.
  38. ^ Executive Order 13129 on Transactions with the Taliban, July 6, 1999.
  39. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 1267, October, 15, 1999.
  40. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 1333, December, 19, 2000.
  41. ^ Executive Order 13099 on Middle East Peace and Terrorists, August 22, 1999.
  42. ^ Foiling millennium attack was mostly luck – MSNBC
  43. ^ a b "foxnews.com". 
  44. ^ "abcnews.go.com". 
  45. ^ a b "cnn.com". 
  46. ^ Online News Hour - Paying U.N. Dues

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ...

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