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Encyclopedia > Ford Sierra
Ford Sierra
1985 Ford Sierra 2.0L estate
Manufacturer Ford Motor Company
Production 19821993
Predecessor Ford Cortina
Ford Taunus
Successor Ford Mondeo
Class Mid-Size Car (MK2)
Engine(s) 1.3 L I4 SOHC
1.6 L I4 SOHC
2.0 L I4 SOHC
2.0 L I4 DOHC
1.6 L I4 CVH
1.8 L I4 CVH
2.3 L V6 OHV
2.8 L V6 OHV
2.9 L V6 OHV

The Ford Sierra was a large family car built by Ford Europe between 1982 and 1993, originally designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément, . Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 400 KB) Summary 1985 Ford Sierra 2. ... Automakers, also known as carmakers, automobile manufacturers, motor manufacturers, or the automobile industry are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ford Cortina was a medium sized family car sold by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982. ... Ford Taunus was a large family car sold by Ford in Germany. ... The Ford Mondeo is a large family car sold by the Ford Motor Company in various markets throughout the world. ... Car classification is subjective since many vehicles fall into multiple categories. ... A mid-size car, frequently referred to as an intermediate, is an automobile with a size between that of a compact and a full-size or standard-size car. ... The Ford Pinto engine is the unofficial but ubiquitous nickname for a 4 cylinder internal combustion engine built by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. ... The Ford Pinto engine is the unofficial but ubiquitous nickname for a 4 cylinder internal combustion engine built by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. ... The Ford Pinto engine is the unofficial but ubiquitous nickname for a 4 cylinder internal combustion engine built by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. ... // The Ford I4 DOHC engine was a 4-cylinder inline internal combustion engine with twin overhead camshafts, produced by the Ford Motor Company in 2. ... The letters CVH denote a particular type of 4-cylinder internal combustion engine produced by the Ford Motor Company during the 1980s and 1990s. ... The letters CVH denote a particular type of 4-cylinder internal combustion engine produced by the Ford Motor Company during the 1980s and 1990s. ... Left side of a 2. ... Left side of a 2. ... Left side of a 2. ... A Ford Mondeo, a large family car. ... Ford Europe is the European division of the Ford Motor Company that is based in America. ... Robert Bob A. Lutz (born February 12, 1932, in Zurich, Switzerland) is the General Motors Vice Chairman of Product Development and Chairman of GM North America. ... Patrick le Quément (born 4 February 1945 in Marseille) is a French car designer, currently chief designer of Renault. ...


Released on 21 September 1982, it replaced the Ford Cortina/Taunus, and was itself replaced by the Mondeo. (In New Zealand and South Africa, it was initially replaced by the Telstar). Its aerodynamic styling was ahead of its time but more conservative buyers found it unappealing. is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ford Cortina was a medium sized family car sold by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982. ... Ford Taunus was a large family car sold by Ford in Germany. ... The Ford Mondeo is a large family car sold by the Ford Motor Company in various markets throughout the world. ... The Ford Telstar was an automobile sold by the Ford Motor Company in Asia, Australasia and Africa, comparable in size to the European Ford Sierra and the American Ford Tempo. ...


Possibly for this reason, and the early lack of a saloon variant, it never quite achieved the sales volumes of the Cortina or the Taunus, although sales were still strong; a total of 2,700,500 Sierras were made, mainly manufactured in Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom, although Sierras were also assembled in Argentina, Venezuela, South Africa, and New Zealand. A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ...

Contents

Styling

1993 Ford Sierra Sapphire
1993 Ford Sierra Sapphire

The first Ford vehicle to have the bold new "aero" look styling was the 1981 Probe III concept car. The good reception this received encouraged Ford management to go ahead with a production car with styling almost as challenging. This "aero" look influenced Fords worldwide; 1983's new Ford Thunderbird in North America introduced similar rounded, flowing lines, and some other new Fords of the time adopted the look. The aerodynamic features of the Sierra were developed from those first seen in the Escort Mk III — the "Aeroback" bootlid stump was proved to reduce the drag coefficient of the bodyshell significantly, which was a class leading 0.34 at its launch. [citation needed] Image File history File links 93FS18TD1. ... Image File history File links 93FS18TD1. ... The Ford Sierra was a large family car built by Ford Europe between 1982 and 1993, originally designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément, . Released on 21 September 1982, it replaced the Ford Cortina/Taunus, and was itself replaced by the Mondeo. ... 1938 Buick Y-Job, the first Concept car A concept car or show car is a car prototype made to showcase a concept, new styling, technology and more. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ford Thunderbird was a car manufactured in the United States by the Ford Motor Company. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Ford Escort was a compact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1967 through 2003. ... The drag coefficient (Cd, Cx or Cw, depending on the country) is a dimensionless quantity that describes a characteristic amount of aerodynamic drag caused by fluid flow, used in the drag equation. ...


The aerodynamic styling of the Sierra would later be seen in North America's equally revolutionary Ford Taurus. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Ford Taurus is a mid-size, front wheel drive car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in North America. ...


At first, many found the design blob-like and difficult to accept after being used to the sharp-edged, straight-line styling of the Cortina, and it picked up nicknames such as "Jellymould" and "The Salesman's Spaceship" (the latter thanks to its status as a popular fleet car in the United Kingdom). Sales were slow at first. It was later in the Sierra's life that the styling began to pay off; ten years after its introduction, the Sierra's styling was not nearly as outdated as its contemporaries. As other manufacturers adopted similar aerodynamic styling, the Sierra looked more normal.


Early versions suffered from crosswind stability problems, which were addressed in 1985. These shortcomings saw a lot of press attention, and contributed to early slow sales. Other rumours that the car hid major crash damage (in part true, as the new bumper design sprung back after minor impact and couldn't be "read" to interpret major damage) also harmed the car's reputation. This reached near-hysterical heights at one point with UK press erroneously reporting Ford would reintroduce the previous Cortina model out of desperation.


The Sierra was Ford's answer to the similar-sized Vauxhall Cavalier, which had been launched a year earlier with front-wheel drive and a hatchback bodystyle. Unusually in its sector by that time, the Sierra was still rear-wheel drive. It was a strong competitor for other rivals of the early 1980s, including the Talbot Alpine, Renault 18, Peugeot 305 and Morris Ital. The Vauxhall Cavalier was a large family car sold primarily in the UK by Vauxhall Motors, the British subsidiary of General Motors from 1976 to 1995. ... The Simca 1307 was a mid-sized hatchback car, sold by Chrysler in Europe and Talbot between 1975 and 1985. ... The Renault 18 is a large family car produced by French manufacturer Renault between 1978 and 1993. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Peugeot 305 The Peugeot 305 is a small family car produced by the French automaker Peugeot from 1978 to 1989. ... The Morris Ital was launched in June 1980. ...


Throughout its production life, the Sierra competed with newer models; these included the Mark III Vauxhall Cavalier (1988), Austin Montego (1984), Peugeot 405 (1987) and Rover 400 (1990). The Austin Montego is a British mid-size saloon car that was produced by the Austin Rover subsidiary of British Leyland (BL), and its successors, from 1984 until 1994. ... 1990 Peugeot 405 Mi16 1990 Peugeot 405 Mi16 1994 Peugeot 405 The Peugeot 405 is a large family car released by the French automaker Peugeot in 1987 and which continues to be manufactured under license outside France. ... The Rover 400/45 was a mid-size automobile introduced in the 1990s, and produced until 2005 under the name Rover 45. ...


Body styles

Ford Sierra Sapphire, the four-door model that was added to the range in 1987
Ford Sierra Sapphire, the four-door model that was added to the range in 1987
The three-door hatchback offered from the outset was never a big seller. The distinctive grill slats characterise this pre-facelift Sierra
The three-door hatchback offered from the outset was never a big seller. The distinctive grill slats characterise this pre-facelift Sierra

In another departure from tradition, the Sierra was initially unavailable as a saloon. At its launch it was available as a 5-door hatchback and a 5-door estate, and as a 3-door hatchback. During the life of the car, two different styles of 3-door body were used; one with two pillars rear of the door, looking very much like a modified 5-door frame, as used on the high-performance XR4i; and a one-pillar design used on standard-performance 3-door hatchbacks and also at the other end of the scale as the basis for the very high-performance RS Cosworth. At the time of the car's launch, both styles were already envisaged, and a demonstration model with one style on either side was displayed at a Sierra design exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Ford Sierra Car (Picture extracted from Cars - (c) 1986 Ford Motor Company Ltd. ... Ford Sierra Car (Picture extracted from Cars - (c) 1986 Ford Motor Company Ltd. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 452 pixelsFull resolution (1911 × 1080 pixel, file size: 553 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 452 pixelsFull resolution (1911 × 1080 pixel, file size: 553 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Renault Megane hatchback, a proper hatchback which has shown huge success in Europe Peugeot 306 hatchback, with the hatch lifted and the parcel shelf tilted for access Hatchback is a term designating an automobile design, containing a passenger cabin with an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind the vehicle by... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... Cosworth Logo Cosworth is an automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958 specialising in engines for automobile racing. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The Ford Cortina had been manufactured in saloon and estate bodystyles but after the switch to the Sierra, combined with the redesign of the Ford Escort to Mark III level in 1980 and the introduction of the Ford Granada Mark III in 1985, Ford had changed its saloon-based line-up into a hatchback-based one. The Ford Cortina was a medium sized family car sold by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... The Ford Escort was a small family car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1967 through 2003. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The company launched the Ford Orion in 1983 to fill the gap in the saloon range between the late Cortina and the new Sierra. Ford found that customers were more attached to the idea of a saloon than they had expected, and this was further addressed in 1987 by the production of a saloon version of the Sierra. In the UK, this model was called the Ford Sierra Sapphire. This differed from the other Sierra models in having a traditional black grille, which only appeared in right hand drive markets. The 3-door Sierra was dropped in the UK in 1985, although the Cosworth version continued. Production of the 3-door Sierra continued in Europe, including after the Sierra range was given a facelift in 1987. The remodelled 3-door was never offered in the UK. The Ford Orion was a saloon built by the automaker Ford for the European market from July 22, 1983 to 19 September 1993. ... This article concerns rules of the road regarding land vehicles; for sea-going vehicles, see International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. ...


Sierra model range

Initial drivetrain options

October 1982: introduction of the Sierra 5-door hatchback and 5-door estate range in the UK and consisting of:

  • 1300 Base and 1300 L (1294 cc 60 bhp Taunus engine, available in standard or economy tune);
  • 1600 Base, 1600 L and 1600 GL (1593 cc 75 bhp engine, available in standard or economy tune);
  • 2000 L Business, 2000 GL and 2000 Ghia (1993 cc 105 bhp engine);
  • 2300 GL and 2300 Ghia (2294 cc, 114 bhp V6 engine);
  • 2300 Base Diesel, 2300 L Diesel and 2300 GL Diesel (2304 cc, 67 bhp Peugeot Diesel engine);
  • 2800 XR4 (150 bhp 2792 cc 'Cologne' V6)
  • 2800 / 2900 Xr4x4 (150/170 bhp 2792 cc / 2933 cc 'Cologne' V6)
  • 2000 Cosworth (200/220 bhp YB)

1300, 1600 and 2000 engines all have a 4-speed manual gearbox; a 5-speed manual gearbox was optional with 1600 and 2000 engines, and standard with the 1600 Economy engine, the 2300 and 2300 Diesel. An optional 3-speed automatic transmission was available with 1600, 2000 and 2300 engines. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For the bicycle manufacturer, see Cycles Peugeot. ...


Sporting models utilized the 2.8 / 2.9 litre V6 engines coupled to a four wheel drive system (GLS4X4/XR4x4) and, more notably the well known Cosworth model which was powered by a turbocharged 16 valve 4-cylinder engine known as the YB which was based on the Ford 'Pinto' block. The Ford Sierra Cosworth was first introduced in 1985 as a three door hatchback, with a 2litre dohc turbo engine producing 200 bhp. At the time Ford wanted to produce a new faster rally car and could only enter a car if it produced at least 500 road cars (unmodified), hence the Ford Sierra RS500 (only 500 were produced). Built by Cosworth a 2litre dohc turbo but with an extra set of injectors, so instead of the standard four injectors it was built with eight, producing over 330 bhp. . They were very successful in motorsport and are highly tunable road cars.


The NA V6 powered Sierras make excellent trackday cars and the 2.8 Fuel Injected Cologne V6 responds well to turbocharging, making an excellent performance road car. In 1989 Ford introduced the Sierra Sapphire a four door saloon and ended production of the Sierra in 1992. A naturally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... // Fuel injection is a means of metering fuel into an internal combustion engine. ...


Sierras outside Europe

South Africa

In South Africa, the Sierra range featured both the hatchback and wagon. The restyled Sierra range, introduced in 1988, differed from its European equivalent by featuring the traditional black grille of the Sierra Sapphire sedan (known simply in South Africa as the Sapphire) on the hatchback and wagon. (Later, the grille would feature on these models in Europe.)


Versions sold in South Africa were available with 1.6 (Kent) and 2.0 (Cologne) 4-cylinder, 2.3 V6 (Cologne) or 3.0-litre V6 (Essex) petrol engines. While the Cortina MkV in South Africa had retained the old 3.0 V6 Essex engine, the Sierra was initially given the new 2.3 V6 Cologne motor, this being fitted to the top of the line model. However, owing to the low cost of petrol, and the popularity of the old Cortina XR6, a Sierra XR6 was launched, featuring the old Essex, now producing over 100 kW.


As the 2.8/2.9 Cologne was never launched in South Africa, this remained the best normal production engine fitted to the Sierra. Soon the 2.3 GLS gave way to a 3.0 GLX flagship model (producing less power but more torque than the XR6) and that was the end of the Cologne in South Africa, even the station wagon receiving the 3.0 V6 Essex. By 1985, the Sierra had become the largest Ford model, following the demise of the Granada. This article is about the year. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Towards the end of its life, the Essex was given Essex fuel injection and fitted to the Sierra as the 3.0i RS (replacing the XR6) and to the Sapphire sedan as the Sapphire Ghia (replacing the 3.0 GLX). The fuel-injected Essexes put out around 117 kW and were the most powerful Sierra sold in South Africa, excluding the small number of XR8s built for homologation purposes.


Uniquely, the South African market also saw the introduction of a 5.0L XR8 at the end of the Sierra and Sapphire production run between 1986 and 1988. A limited number of 250 were made for the purposes of homolgation, as this model was the premier Ford used in Group N racing.


The 1.6 Kent continued almost unchanged during the 9 year life of the Sierra/Sapphire, while the 2.0 Cologne was revised several times, being fitted to the Sierra 2.0 GL and GLE and later to the stripped down Sierra 2.0 LX and Sapphire 2.0 GL and GLE models. It eventually even received fuel injection in the Sapphire 2.0GLi, boosting the power from 77 kW to 85 kW.


The Sierra was replaced by the Telstar in 1993. Samcor, which assembled Ford models under license after Ford had divested from the country, was already assembling the smaller Laser and Meteor, alongside the Mazda 323, on which they were based, as well as an earlier version of the Mazda 626. Ford's badge engineering of Mazdas proved less successful in South Africa than in other markets, and the Telstar was replaced by the Mondeo in 1998. The South African Motor Corporation, known more commonly as Samcor, was a South African car manufacturer created in 1985 through the merger of Fords South African subsidiary and Anglo-American Motor Corporation, which produced Mazdas for the local market. ... The Ford Laser was a compact car sold by Ford in Asia, Australia, and parts of South America, and Africa. ... The Ford Meteor describes two distinct lines of automobiles from the Ford Motor Company. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mazda Familia. ... The Mazda 626 is an automobile produced by Mazda for the export market. ... Badge engineering is a term that describes the rebadging of one model of car as another. ...


New Zealand

Whereas British buyers rued the absence of a saloon version of the Sierra, in New Zealand, it was the absence of an estate (a "station wagon" there) that customers missed, when Ford New Zealand replaced the Cortina with the Ford Telstar range. This led to Ford importing CKD ("completely knocked down") kits of the Sierra wagon for local assembly in 1984. The wagon was offered in 1.6 (base) and 2.0 litre "L" and "Ghia" models initially, and proved to be a strong seller. In one month in 1987, the facelifted Ford Sierra, by then a single station wagon model, was the country's top-selling car range. Ford New Zealand is the New Zealand subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. ... The Ford Telstar was an automobile sold by the Ford Motor Company in Asia, Australasia and Africa, comparable in size to the European Ford Sierra and the American Ford Tempo. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


However, Ford cancelled the Sierra once Mazda, which developed the Telstar, could offer a station wagon. The Telstar wagon, while popular, never reached the Sierra's heights, especially its competition successes overseas. Further reasons could be customers' knowledge of the Telstar's Japanese roots (European cars being perceived as superior, regardless of the Telstar's more modern mechanicals), and that the equivalent Mazda 626 wagon offered a considerably longer warranty at a similar price. The Mazda 626 is an automobile produced by Mazda for the export market. ...


Relative rejection of the Telstar forced Ford to import completely built-up (CBU) premium models built in Genk, Belgium from 1990: the Sierra 2.0 GLX Wagon, the Sierra Sapphire 2.0 Ghia and the XR4×4 were part of this range. The advertising copy read, "Introducing the new car that needs no introduction." However, a relatively high price did not help – the Wagon began at over NZ$31,000 – and production errors in the launch brochure showed cars with no steering wheels. Furthermore, any marketing boosts Ford could have gained through Group A touring car racing were over with the Escort Cosworth becoming the company's standard-bearer in competition (and the Escort, meanwhile, was absent from the New Zealand market). Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Hasselt Coordinates , , Area 87. ... The Ford Escort was a compact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1967 through 2003. ...


The Sierra was withdrawn from the New Zealand market in 1992, and it would be another five years before its European successor the Mondeo would arrive there.


In Australia, the Sierra RS Cosworth/RS500 was used in the Australian Touring Car Championships from the late 80's and early 90's. Strangely, the Sierra was never actually sold in Australia, due to the Telstar filling that role.


South America

In South America, the Sierra was produced in Argentina and Venezuela. In Argentina, it was offered in two and five-door hatchback and station wagon bodystyles. The facelifted post-1987 model was built in Venezuela, but not in Argentina until 1989, where the range continued with a Merkur XR4Ti-like grille until 1991 for XR4 and 1992 for four door models, when it was replaced by the Volkswagen Santana-based Galaxy. The 1.6 L was offered in GL model only, LX, Ghia, Ghia SX and XR4 were based in a 2.3 engine with some differences. Some Ghia models also featured automatic transmission as an optional. The station wagon was called the Sierra Rural — "Rural" being used for Ford station wagons in Argentina in the same way "Turnier" is used in Germany. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Volkswagen Santana is a sedan version of the Volkswagen Passat, first introduced in 1981, and also known in the Americas as the Quantum (at least in Brazil, only the station wagon version was called Quantum). ... Two different vehicles have been sold as the Ford Versailles: 1955-1964 in France 1992-1996 in Brazil France The Ford Versailles was a car produced by the Ford Motor Company in France between 1955 and 1964, before Fords French factory was sold to Simca, which was subsequently acquired...


GL model was the base model replaced by the LX with same equipment. XR4 was replaced by the 4-doors Ghia SX.


North America

Main article: Merkur XR4Ti
1985 Merkur XR4Ti
1985 Merkur XR4Ti

In the USA, the Ford Sierra and the Ford Scorpio were offered under the failed Merkur brand. The Sierra was imported as a three door only, and called the XR4Ti (similar to sub-model designations in other markets). The Sierra name was not used by Ford in the US; the market had already seen the similar-sounding Oldsmobile Ciera, and the Sierra name was used by General Motors Corporation from the 1970s as a trim level on its pickup trucks. a Merkur XR4Ti at a car show 1985 Merkur XR4Ti The Merkur XR4Ti was a short-lived American-market version of the European Ford Sierra XR4i. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 195 KB) Summary a Merkur XR4Ti at Nopi Nationals 2005 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Merkur Merkur XR4Ti Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 195 KB) Summary a Merkur XR4Ti at Nopi Nationals 2005 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Merkur Merkur XR4Ti Metadata This file contains additional information... The Ford Scorpio is an executive car produced by the Ford Motor Company at its factory in Cologne, Germany between 1985 and 1998. ... Merkur, the German word for Mercury, was an automobile brand which was briefly marketed by Ford Motor Company in the United States and Canada from 1985 to 1989. ... The 1996 Oldsmobile Ciera was a single-year model produced after the demise of the Oldsmobile Cutlass Ciera the previous year. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... This redirect page is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


The car was offered from the start of the Merkur brand in 1985 until 1989. It was equipped with a 2.3 L variant of the SOHC "Pinto" engine, equipped with a turbocharger and fuel injection but no intercooler.


The Merkur brand is claimed to have been a commercial flop. The reasons vary. Safety and emissions regulations in the U.S. forced Ford to make costly modifications, resulting in relatively high prices. Exchange rates also fluctuated too frequently. Moreover, since Merkurs were sold at Lincoln-Mercury dealers, many customers were more attracted towards Mercury models because of their lower prices. Ironically, the XR4Ti outsold all the European XR variants combined, making it the most successful "XR" model. Merkur, the German word for Mercury, was an automobile brand which was briefly marketed by Ford Motor Company in the United States and Canada from 1985 to 1989. ... Lincoln Limousine used by President Calvin Coolidge, c. ... Mercury is an automobile brand name of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 to market semi-luxury cars slotted between entry-level Ford and luxury Lincoln models. ...


Mechanicals

Unlike many of its rivals, the Sierra retained rear wheel drive, albeit with a modern, fully independent rear suspension, departing from the Cortina's live axle. Rear wheel drive was a common form of engine/transmission layout used in automobiles throughout the 20th century. ... An Independent Suspension is an automobile suspension system that allows the wheels on an axle to move independent of each other. ... A live axle is a type of beam axle suspension system that uses the driveshafts that transmit power to the wheels to connect the wheels laterally so that they move together as a unit. ...


In the beginning the Sierra used engines and transmissions from the Taunus / Cortina. The engines were of two types, the SOHC Ford Pinto engine in 1.3, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 L displacements, and the OHV Cologne V6 engine (in 2.3 and 2.8, rarely 2.9 L capacities). Towards the end of the 1980s, the Pinto engine began to be phased out replaced with the Ford I4 DOHC engine (2.0 L) or CVH engine (1.6 L and 1.8 L) first seen in the Escort in 1980. The 2.9 L Cologne engine was available in the Sierra XR4x4 and the rear wheel drive Sierra Ghia. Models with the 2.0 L and Cologne V6 engines had an option of a limited slip differential. Models built until 1989 used the type 9 gearbox that had been used in the Cortina, with the exception of 2WD Cosworth models that used the T5; it was later superseded by the MT75 unit (for DOHC, 4X4 and V6 models). All Sierras had rear drum brakes, except sporting models (2.0iS (some), XR4x4, Sierra Cosworth, other special/sporting models inc 2.0i 4x4) and models with anti-lock brakes. American versions meanwhile were sold only with a 2.3 L four cylinder turbocharged version of the Pinto engine. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... The Ford Pinto engine is the unofficial but ubiquitous nickname for a 4 cylinder internal combustion engine built by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. ... One complete cycle of a four cylinder, four stroke engine. ... Left side of a 2. ... // The Ford I4 DOHC engine was a 4-cylinder inline internal combustion engine with twin overhead camshafts, produced by the Ford Motor Company in 2. ... The letters CVH denote a particular type of 4-cylinder internal combustion engine produced by the Ford Motor Company during the 1980s and 1990s. ... The Ford Escort was a compact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1967 through 2003. ... Left side of a 2. ... In automotive applications, a limited slip differential (LSD) is a modified or derived type of differential gear arrangement that allows for some difference in rotational velocity of the output shafts, but does not allow the difference in speed to increase beyond a preset amount. ... The MT75 is a rear wheel drive gearbox made by the Ford Motor Company. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Vehicle brake. ... An anti-lock braking system (commonly known as ABS, from the German name Antiblockiersystem given to it by its inventors at Bosch) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. ...


The Sierra also had a diesel option on the engine, namely at launch the 2.3L normally aspirated Diesel made by Peugeot. This engine was also used in contemporary Granadas and whilst reliable and economical it made an unrefined, noisy and very slow vehicle, but remained a popular option for Taxi firms. This was later superseded in 1990 by a 1.8L turbocharged powerplant of Ford's own design which offered better response times and slightly more power. This article is about the fuel. ... A naturally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... “Turbo” redirects here. ...


XR4i and other sporting models

In 1983, the high-performance XR4i version was introduced. It utilised the same 2.8 L Cologne engine as used in the Ford Capri 2.8 Injection of that era and sported a restyled version of the 3-door Sierra bodyshell. The double rear spoiler and curious multi-pillared rear windows were considered over-styled by some prospective buyers, and the car never achieved the cult status of the smaller Fiesta XR2 and Escort XR3i. A version of the XR4i with a 2.3 L turbocharged engine was sold in the United States as the Merkur XR4Ti. The XR4Ti was raced in Europe, most noticeably by Andy Rouse who used one to win the 1985 BTCC.In South Africa, there was a 3.0 L V6 version, called the XR6, while a limited run of 250 eight-cylinder XR8s were made in South Africa for saloon car racing homologation in 1984. These were based on the Ford Windsor 302 engine. Ford Capri Mk III 1. ... a Merkur XR4Ti at a car show 1985 Merkur XR4Ti The Merkur XR4Ti was a short-lived American-market version of the European Ford Sierra XR4i. ... The Windsor engine is a 90-degree small-block V8 from Ford Motor Company. ...


In 1985 the XR4i was replaced by the XR4x4, which was based on the five-door hatchback, had four wheel drive and was powered by the same 2.8 L V6 engine. By the end of its production in 1990, 23,540 had been produced. From 1990 to 1993 the XR4x4 was available with both the revised 2.9EFi and 2.0 DOHC EFi engines. The XR4i also made a reappearance (as a badging exercise) in 5-door form but with the DOHC 2.0 engine instead of the V6.


In 1989, Ford nodded towards its past and created the Sierra 2.0i 2000E, a model name used with limited success on the Mk3 Cortina. The Sierra 2000E had two-tone metallic paint, alloys and leather/wood interior and was offered in saloon form. It was not a great sales success and was only a limited run.


In Argentina the XR4 model (without injection) starts at 1986 until 1991, It was equipped with the Taunus 2.3 engine. At the 89's all Sierra models has a small facelift. The direct rival was the Renault Fuego 2.2

1986 Ford Sierra RS Cosworth
1986 Ford Sierra RS Cosworth

In July 1986, a special version called the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth was launched, using a 204 hp (DIN) 2.0 L DOHC engine developed by Cosworth, with a Garret T3 turbocharger and intercooler. It was designed by Ford's Special Vehicle Engineering (SVE) group and made in Ford's Genk factory in Belgium. It was based on a three-door Sierra with the dashboard from the Merkur XR4Ti. The car was available in only white, black or Ford's 'Moonstone Blue' and only 5545 were made. 1986 Ford Sierra RS Cosworth at Bristol Car Show, The Downs, Bristol, England. ... 1986 Ford Sierra RS Cosworth at Bristol Car Show, The Downs, Bristol, England. ... Cosworth Logo Cosworth is an automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958 specialising in engines for automobile racing. ... A double overhead cam (also called a dual overhead cam, DOHC, or twincam) engine is a type of internal combustion engine where the camshafts that operate the intake and exhaust valves are mounted above the cylinders, and where there are separate camshafts for inlet and exhaust valves. ... “Turbo” redirects here. ... An intercooler, or charge air cooler, is an air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat exchange device used on turbocharged and supercharged internal combustion engines to improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through isochoric cooling. ... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and...


In 1987, a 224 bhp Sierra Cosworth, the RS500, was sold alongside the 204 hp version. Only 500 were produced as the minimum number of road-going cars required to meet with newly introduced homologation racing rules, allowing it to compete in certain motor racing competitions. The car was modified by the Tickford Engineering Company in conjunction with Ford. Revisions included uprated brakes and modified front and rear spoilers (a second smaller rear spoiler was added beneath the large "whale-tail"), a modified front bumper to allow extra cooling for a larger intercooler, as well as various engine upgrades including a larger turbocharger. Racing versions of the Cosworth were highly successful in European and World touring car racing throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s', and the RS500 helped Ford to win the manufacturer's title in the 1987 World Touring Car Championship. Tickford is a automobile tuning company most famous for the 140mph Tickford Turbo Capri. ...


In 1988, a new Cosworth was produced which was based on the Sierra Sapphire saloon. 13,140 were produced until it was replaced in 1990 by a four wheel drive version, the Sierra Sapphire RS Cosworth 4x4, of which 12,250 were built. Its replacement came in the form of the Escort RS Cosworth which appeared in 1992, which used a shortened and developed version of the Sierra platform and running gear but clothed with an Escort-esque bodyshell and the return of the whale-tail spoiler. The Ford Escort was a compact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1967 through 2003. ...


Currently, because of the RWD layout, the Sierra has became a good and cheap option to use as a drift-car.


Turbocharged versions

The 2.0 L Ford Sierra was an attractive base to a serious street car tuning project, as a turbocharged 2.0 L engine could produce well over 400 hp (300 kW) with a street-legal setup. Turbocharger Cut-away A turbocharger is a device used in internal-combustion engines to increase the power output of the engine by increasing the mass of oxygen and fuel entering the engine. ...


In Finland, tax laws made the 1.3 L-engined Sierra an attractive business car in the mid 1980s. A number of these underpowered engines were turbocharged by local Ford dealers in order to gain 2.0 L engine power with 1.3 L tax fees to the owner of the vehicle. The 1.6 L and 2.0 L OHC engines were also turbocharged. Some of these "Stockmann Turbo" Sierras, called so after a major dealer that made the conversions, are still running today. Overhead cam (OHC) piston engines place the camshaft above the cylinder heads and drive the valves or lifters directly instead of using pushrods. ...


Turbocharged versions of the Sierra were also available as post-production models from companies like Janspeed and, most notably, from Turbo Technics. The XR4x4 2.8 was available with a range of aftermarket kits pushing power from 150 bhp to 200/230/250 bhp. The 2.9 got a twin-turbo setup, available in 225/250/280 bhp variants. Even the DOHC version got a single turbo kit, of which only a small number were made. Turbo Technics even sold their own pre-prepared Sierra known as the Minker; only a handful were ever produced, as they cost significantly more than Ford's own RS Cosworth.


Changes during production life

In 1987, the Sierra was given some minor styling revisions (the windows were slightly enlarged, while the front fascia was tweaked), and a saloon (Ford Sierra Sapphire) version was introduced. A pickup truck version was also introduced in 1988 to replace the Cortina-based P100 imported from South Africa. It kept the P100 name. Some detail styling changes were made in 1990, when the dashboard styling was freshened up, the front fascia featuring white lense indicators, the rear fascia given smoked rear lamp lenses, improved steering wheel design and front grille was added to suit growing demands. A further revision to the interior trim (dash and door trimmings) and bumpers appeared for the 1992 line up. UK production of the Sierra ceased, with right hand drive production moving to Belgium. The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ...


By the early 1990s, however, it had become clear that the Sierra had fallen out of step technologically against modern Japanese rivals which offered multi-valve engines, multi-link rear suspension and front wheel drive. All of these features would appear on the Sierra's long awaited replacement, the Mondeo, which was unveiled at the end of 1992 and launched the following March. Front wheel drive is the most common form of engine/transmission layout used in modern passenger cars, where the engine drives the front wheels. ... The Ford Mondeo is a large family car sold by the Ford Motor Company in various markets throughout the world. ...


As of 2007, 14 years after the Sierra's demise, numerous examples of the car are still in circulation. Along with the Cosworth and XR range (that have held a cult following for a number of years), the Sierra is starting to move into the collectable/classic scene, especially the Mk1 versions. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Cosworth Logo Cosworth is an automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958 specialising in engines for automobile racing. ...


Sierra UK

The first British buyers took delivery of the Sierra during October of 1982, one year after the launch of the second generation Vauxhall Cavalier that was already proving very popular with buyers. Although the Sierra was available as a hatchback like the Cavalier, it inherited the Cortina's rear-wheel drive layout, a perhaps surprising decision for Ford to make at a time when rear-wheel drive cars in its sector were gradually being phased out in favour of new cars with front-wheel drive. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Vauxhall Cavalier was a large family car sold primarily in the UK by Vauxhall Motors, the British subsidiary of General Motors from 1976 to 1995. ... The Ford Cortina was a medium sized family car sold by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982. ... “Ford” redirects here. ...


The initial reaction to the Sierra from the British motoring public was one of shock, as it was quite unlike anything else on the road at the time, and was worlds away from the ultra-conventional Cortina that had been Britain's most popular car for the previous 10 years. The Ford Cortina was a medium sized family car sold by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982. ...


But buyers soon got used to the Sierra's aerodynamic design (which earned it the nicknames "Jellymould" and "Salesman's Spaceship") and it was Britain's third most popular new car for 1983, and the most popular in its sector. It was overtaken by the Vauxhall Cavalier in 1984 and again in 1985, but regained top spot in 1986 and held it until Vauxhall reclaimed top spot with the third generation Cavalier in 1990. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The Vauxhall Cavalier was a large family car sold primarily in the UK by Vauxhall Motors, the British subsidiary of General Motors from 1976 to 1995. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Sierra never sold quite as well as the Cortina, but it was still a hugely popular car which attracted six-figure volume sales year after year, with the fleet market being particularly attracted to it.


Some people[attribution needed] say that the lack of a saloon version (not just the car's unconventional styling) slowed down sales in its first few months on sale, but buyers looking for a full-sized family saloon finally got what they wanted in February 1987 when the facelifted Sierra went on sale and the updated range included the Sierra Sapphire saloon. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Production ceased at the beginning of 1993 on the launch of the entirely new Mondeo, but the Sierra remained hugely popular as a second hand buy, and as of 2007 - 14 years after its demise - the car is still a frequent sight on British roads. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ford Mondeo is a large family car sold by the Ford Motor Company in various markets throughout the world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


External links

<- Previous Ford car timeline, European market, 1980s-present  v  d  e 
Type 1980s 1990s 2000s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
City car Ka I Ka II
Supermini Fiesta I Fiesta II Fiesta III Fiesta IV Fiesta V Fiesta VI Fiesta VII
Small family car Escort III / Orion I Escort IV / Orion II Escort V / Orion III Escort Vb Escort VI Focus I Focus II
Large family car Cortina V Sierra I Sierra II Mondeo I Mondeo II Mondeo III Mondeo IV
Executive car Granada II Scorpio I / Granada III Scorpio II
Coupé Capri Puma
Probe Cougar
Crossover SUV Kuga
Mini MPV Fusion
Compact MPV C-MAX
Large MPV S-MAX
Galaxy I Galaxy II

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