FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Forced disappearance

A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from public view, either by murder or by simple sequestration. The victim is first kidnapped, then illegally detained in concentration camps, often tortured, and finally executed and their corpse hidden. In Spanish and Portuguese, "disappeared people" are called desaparecidos, a term which specifically refers to the mostly South American victims of state terrorism during the 1970s and the 1980s, in particular concerning Operation Condor. INXS (pronounced In Excess) is an Australian rock group. ... Disappear was a single by INXS, the second single taken from their album X. It peaked at number 8 on the US billboard top 100. ... Look up disappear, disappearance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... Sequestration, the act of removing, separating or seizing anything from the possession of its owner, particularly in law, of the taking possession of property under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state. ... Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick, Canada is an institution that is part of Corrections Canada. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Participating countries of the Operation Condor; in pink those with partial participation (i. ...


According to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which entered into force on July 1, 2002, when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, "forced disappearances" qualify as a crime against humanity, which thus cannot be subject to statute of limitation. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... A statute of limitations is a statute in a common law legal system setting forth the maximum period of time, after certain events, that legal proceedings based on those events may begin. ...


Typically, a murder will be surreptitious, with the body disposed of in such a way as to never be found. The person simply vanishes. The party committing the murder has deniability, as there is no body to show that the victim is actually dead. Furthermore, the perpetrators of disappearance often go to great lengths to obscure or eliminate all mention of the disappeared, by altering the historical record and encouraging the silence of surviving relatives. In Chile and Argentina, for example, the infamous "death flights" were used during Operation Condor by the military juntas to dispose of the victims' bodies at sea. Since the bodies couldn't be found decades later, those responsible for human right violations claimed that the statute of limitations impeded any trial. However, in Chile, judge Juan Guzmán Tapia would create, by jurisprudence, the felony of "permanent sequestration": he argued that since the bodies couldn't be found, the statute of limitations couldn't be applied since the sequestration continued and was still in effect. Juan Guzmán thus ensured the possibility of bringing to trial some of the Chilean military men involved, even though the amnesty law of 1978 continues to apply, since the democratic government has not yet abrogated it. In politics and espionage, deniability is the ability of a powerful player or actor to avoid blowback by secretly arranging for an action to be taken on their behalf by a third party. ... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... A statute of limitations is a statute in a common law legal system that sets forth the maximum period of time, after certain events, that legal proceedings based on those events may be initiated. ... Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia was born on April 22, 1939 in Salvador, in a Chilean diplomat family, which acclaimed Augusto Pinochets coup détat in 1973. ... Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ...

Contents

Linguistic considerations

In the case of forced disappearance the word "disappear", which is normally an intransitive verb, becomes transitive. Therefore, victims are referred to as the "disappeared". They have been "disappeared" by whomever, and those responsible are charged with "disappearing" him or her. Some people uncomfortable with the passive use of this term prefer to say that someone "was made to disappear". Both phrases are usually considered doublespeak euphemisms. The Spanish verb desaparecer, like its English translation disappear, is grammatically intransitive, but it is used in this sense to imply causativity (so desaparecidos are people who were "made to disappear"). An intransitive verb is a verb that has only one argument, that is, a verb with valency equal to one. ... A transitive verb is a verb that requires both a subject and one or more objects. ... Doublespeak is language deliberately constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning, often resulting in a communication bypass. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An intransitive verb is a verb that has only one argument, that is, a verb with valency equal to one. ...


Well known incidents

The term desaparecidos specifically refers to South America's "Dirty War", particularly in Chile, Argentina and Uruguay, which cooperated together, along with other dictatorships, in Operation Condor. However, the term may be used in other contexts. NGOs such as Amnesty International or Human Rights Watch recense in their annual report the number of forced disappearances cases. Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Turkey; see also lead years Dirty War (in Spanish: ) refers to the state-sponsored violence... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Participating countries of the Operation Condor; in pink those with partial participation (i. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Founded in the UK in 1961, AI compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Islamic Republic of Iran

Following the Iran student riots in 1999, more than 70 students disappeared. In addition, to an estimated 1200-1400 detained, the "whereabouts and condition" of five students named by Human Rights Watch remained unknown[1]. The United Nations has also reported other disappearances[2]. Dissident writers have been the target of disappearances[3]. Ahmad Batebi, A symbol of Irans reformist movement appeared on the cover of The Economist magazine. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Balochistan, Pakistan

The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) published a report in January 2006 expressing concern over "widespread instances of 'disappearance' [and] of torture inflicted on people held in custody[.]"[4] In its report, the HRCP stated that among the most disturbing accounts of disappearances was that of 18 labour leaders of Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) on December 9, 2005, from Karachi. The report recommended that all places of irregular detention be immediately closed down.


Nazi Germany

During World War II, Nazi Germany set up secret police forces including branches of the Gestapo in occupied countries, which they used to hunt down known or suspected dissidents or partisans. This tactic was given the name Nacht und Nebel (Night and Fog) to describe those who disappeared after being arrested by Nazi forces without any warning. The Nazis also applied this policy against political opponents within Germany. Most victims were killed on the spot or sent to concentration camps, with the full expectation that they would be killed. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Northern Ireland's "Troubles"

In "The Troubles" of Northern Ireland dozens of people on all sides were disappeared, the most infamous case being that of mother of ten, Jean McConville, who was abducted, tortured and murdered by the Provisional IRA in 1972. She had been accused of being an informer. Her body was discovered by accident in 2003. Another well known case is that of Columba McVeigh, a seventeen year old Catholic who was murdered by the IRA in 1975 on suspicion of being an informer [1]. Cases of this nature are being investigated by the Independent Commission for the Location of Victims' Remains. For the UK post-rock band, see Troubles (band) The Troubles is a term used to describe the latest installment of periodic communal violence involving Republican and Loyalist paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the late... Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official languages English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, BSL, NISL, ISL Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Ian Paisley  - Deputy First Minister... Jean McConville was a Belfast mother of 10 who was abducted from her home and killed by the Provisional IRA in 1972. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... It has been suggested that Chivatos be merged into this article or section. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Independent Commission for the Location of Victims Remains (ICLVR) was established by treaty between between the United Kingdom Government and the Government of Ireland, made on 27th April 1999 in connection with the affairs of Northern Ireland [1]. A number of people, referred to colloquially as The Disappeared, have...


Operation Condor and Argentina's Dirty War

Main articles: Operation Condor and Dirty War
Pictures of disappeared during a Mother's demonstration at Plaza de Mayo.

During Argentina's "Dirty War" and operation Condor, political dissidents were forced to jump out of airplanes far out over the Atlantic Ocean, leaving no trace of their passing. Without any dead bodies, the government could deny they had been killed. People murdered in this way (and in others) are today referred to as "the disappeared" (los desaparecidos), and this is where the modern use of the term derives. An activist group called "Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo", formed by mothers of those victims of the dictatorship, were the inspiration for a song by Irish rock band U2, Mothers of the Disappeared (see also the Valech Report for Chile). Rubén Blades also composed a song called "Desaperecidos" in honor of those political dissidents. The Mexican rock group Maná covered the song in their album "Maná: Unplugged." Boris Weisfeiler is thought to have disappeared near Colonia Dignidad, a German colony founded by Nazi Paul Schäfer in Chile which was used as a detention center by the DINA, the secret police. For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Participating countries of the Operation Condor; in pink those with partial participation (i. ... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Turkey; see also lead years Dirty War (in Spanish: ) refers to the state-sponsored violence... Image File history File links Que_digan_dónde_estan. ... Image File history File links Que_digan_dónde_estan. ... A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or structure. ... The white shawl of the Mothers, painted on the floor in May Square, Buenos Aires. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Mothers of the Disappeared is a song on U2s 1987 album The Joshua Tree. ... Monsignor Valech delivers the report to President Lagos The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study published on November 29, 2004 that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochets military regime. ... Rubén Blades. ... Maná is a three-time Grammy Award and five-time Latin Grammy Award-winning Mexican rock band from Guadalajara whose career has spanned almost three decades. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony, now known as Villa Baviera, Bavaria Village), is a settlement located in an isolated area in the Maule Region of southern Chile, near the village of Parral. ... Paul Schäfer Paul Schäfer Schneider (born December 4, 1921) is the founder and former leader of a sect and agricultural commune of German immigrants called Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony)—later renamed Villa Baviera—located in central Chile, about 340 km south of Santiago. ... DINAs emblem Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (Spanish: National Intelligence Directorate) or DINA was the Chilean secret police in the government of Augusto Pinochet. ...


Between 1976 and 1983, in Argentina, it is thought that up to 30,000 dissidents (9,000 according to the official report by the CONADEP [2]), and people connected to them, were subject to forced disappearance under the military junta that was in power. From bits and pieces of information collected from military officers involved in the so-called "Dirty War", many victims were sedated and dumped from airplanes into the Río de la Plata (today these are called vuelos de la muerte, death flights). Other people were held in torture and detention centres; the most notorious one was the Navy's Mechanics Training School (ESMA) in the Núñez district of Buenos Aires. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons, CONADEP) was an Argentine organism created by President Raúl Alfonsín on December 15, 1983, shortly after his inauguration to investigate the fate of the desaparecidos and other human rights violations (see... Río de la Plata in relation to Uruguay and Argentina A satellite view of the estuary The Río de la Plata (Spanish: Silver River) — which is often referred to in English-speaking countries as the River Plate (as in the Battle of the River Plate), or sometimes as... A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from public view, either by murder or by simple sequestration. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


Many women gave birth in captivity, and their children were given illegally in adoption to families of military or police personnel, or their friends, while their mothers were killed soon after. The task of locating these children and restoring their lost identity has been going on ever since the restoration of democracy in 1983, and has been key in unveiling the atrocities committed by some people otherwise protected by the laws that mandated an end to the trials of former military government officials, or by the pardon granted by President Carlos Menem in 1999, since appropriating children from their mothers is a crime that lies outside the scope of military procedures, and thus also outside any kind of amnesty law or pardon that implies orders in a military context. Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent (or parents) other than the birth parents. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Soviet Union

Before
After
Vanished commissar: Nikolai Yezhov retouched

The damnatio memoriae method of disappearance was practiced in the Soviet Union. When an important political figure was convicted, e.g., during the Great Purge, artists would retouch them out of photographs; books, records, and histories would be recalled, rewritten, or redacted; pictures, busts, and statues would be taken down; people would be discouraged from talking about them; and the government would never mention them again. It was as if the disappeared had never existed, in a manner similar to that employed by the Ministry of Truth in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Notable examples range from prominent Russian revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution, but disagreed with Bolsheviks, to some of the most devoted Stalinists (e.g., Nikolai Yezhov) who fell into disfavor. Image File history File links The_Commissar_Vanishes_1. ... Image File history File links The_Commissar_Vanishes_2. ... Commissar is the English translation of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ... Damnatio memoriae is the Latin phrase literally meaning damnation of memory, in the sense of removed from the remembrance. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into photo manipulation. ... The term recall has a number of meanings: Product recall A recall election Recall to employment after a layoff Recall from memory. ... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... Nineteen Eighty-Four (commonly written as 1984) is a dystopian novel by the English writer George Orwell, published in 1949. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Yezhov along Moscow-Volga channel. ...


The real disappearance was a special clause of conviction, "without the right to correspondence". It turned out that in many this phrase covered the execution of the convicted, while the sentence stated, e.g., "10 years of labor camps without the right to correspondence". In cases of tens of thousands people their actual fate had became known only after the destalinization of 1950s. Without the right of correspondence, WRC (Russian: , abbreviated as БПП in official documents) was a clause in a sentence of many political convicts. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ...


United States' War on Terror

Various press reports, including allegations by Pulitzer Prize winning journalist Dana Priest, accuse the United States of disappearing over one-hundred suspected terrorists to black sites throughout Eastern Europe or to foreign countries known to torture suspects for information as part of the United States' War on Terrorism. The practice, sometimes known as extraordinary rendition, has been subject to intense scrutiny by the world press and some European governments. Irene Khan of Amnesty International criticized the practice in a 2005 speech in front of the Foreign Press Association: Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another, and Torture by proxy is used by some critics to describe extraordinary rendition by the United States, with regard to the alleged transfer of suspected terrorists to countries known... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Extrajudicial prisoners of the United States. ... Dana Priest is an author and a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist. ... The salt pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility that is officially denied by the US government. ... This article is about U.S. actions after September 11, 2001. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another, and Torture by proxy is used by some critics to describe extraordinary rendition by the United States, with regard to the alleged transfer of suspected terrorists to countries known...

"Guantanamo has become the gulag of our times, entrenching the notion that people can be detained without any recourse to the law. If Guantanamo evokes images of Soviet repression, "ghost detainees" – or the incommunicado detention of unregistered detainees - bring back the practice of "disappearances" so popular with Latin American dictators in the past." [3]

In September 2006 the Bush administration announced it had moved 14 secretly held "detainees" from CIA prisons at undisclosed locations to the Guantanamo Bay military prison. However, no data were provided as to how many were detained overall, and how many remained. [4] Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: The word Gulag has also come to signify not only the administration of the...


Not only suspected terrorists are forced to disappear, but also US citizens and even US soldiers are said to be held in black sites[citation needed]. It is said they are held there for political reasons. Also reasons as knowing too much classified information have been mentioned[citation needed]. This may be supposed to have started in the late 1930's with US citizens who had been labeled as communists or spies[citation needed]. There is a big difference between the 1930's up through the McCarthy period and today, however. In the earlier witch-hunts, people lost their jobs or were otherwise publicly hounded overseas - for example, entertainer Charlie Chaplin and physicist David Bohm left the U.S. Both ended in England, the latter relocating in stages, via Brazil and Israel. J. Robert Oppenheimer lost his job in the bomb projects. Today's forced disappearances are hardly public at all. The person is "disappeared" to an undisclosed location, often without announcement. Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ... “Charles Chaplin” redirects here. ... David Bohm. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ...


Afghanistantan

In the second half of march 2007 Rahmahtullah Hanefi, a collaborator of the Italian health NGO Emergency was kidnapped by Afghanistan secret service. Hanefi played a key role in the liberation of the Italian journalist Daniele Mastrogiacomo, detained by the Talibans. Afghanistan leader Karzai refuses to give any explanation of Hanefi's detention, and Italian Government doesn't want to make pressure to his alliate Karzai. Look up Emergency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate threat to human life or serious damage to property. ...


Algeria

During the Algerian Civil War, which began in 1992 as Islamist guerrillas attacked the military government which had annulled an Islamist electoral victory, thousands of people were forcibly disappeared. Disappearances continued up to the late 1990s, but thereafter dropped of sharply with the decline in violence from c:a 1997. Some of the disappeared were kidnapped or killed by the guerrillas, but others are presumed to have been taken by state security services. This latter group has become the most controversial. Their exact numbers remain disputed, but the government has acknowledged a figure of just over 6000 disappeared, now presumed dead. Opposition sources claim the real number is closer to 17,000. (The war claimed a total toll of 150-200,000 deaths). In 2005, a controversial amnesty law was approved in a referendum, among other things granting financial compensation to families of disappeared, but also effectively ended the police investigations into the crimes.[5] Combatants Algerian government Islamic Armed Movement (MIA) Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) others. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... The Islamic Salvation Front (تحرير الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ) (French: Front Islamique du Salut) is an outlawed Islamist political party in Algeria. ... The Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation was a referendum proposed on September 29, 2005 by Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, in an attempt to bring closure to the Algerian Civil War. ...


Western Sahara

Further information: Human rights in Western Sahara and Years of Lead // Morocco sees Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces, and has been claiming it since its independence in 1956. ... The Years of lead was a period in the history of Morocco marked by state violence against dissidents and democracy activists. ...


Since Morocco invaded Western Sahara in 1975, somewhere around 1,500[citation needed] suspected Polisario-sympathizers and other independence activists have been abducted. In several cases, whole families were taken in retaliation for Sahrawis joining the Polisario forces in Tindouf, Algeria[citation needed]. The disappeared were subjected to severe torture[citation needed], and held in secret detention camps such as Tazmamart[citation needed] where many died due to poor conditions or lack of medical treatment. In the early 90s, hundreds of Sahrawis were released[citation needed] and others proclaimed dead after the signing of a cease-fire between Morocco and the Polisario, but approximately 500 remain unaccounted for[citation needed]. Many of the released prisoners have since been re-arrested for protesting their detention. The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Peoples Liberation Front of Saguia el-Hamra and Rio de Oro) is an army and political movement in the Western Sahara, comprising... Tindouf, also written Tinduf, (Arabic: تندوف) is a city and wilaya in the west of Algeria, population 30,000. ... A secret government detention camp in Morocco, which held inmates connected to the two coups against king Hassan II in the seventies, Sahrawi nationalists and other political offenders. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ...


In February 2007 Morocco has signed an international convention protecting people from forced disappearance [6][7].


Egypt

In 2004, EOHR reported that it had been following 59 cases of disappearance within the country since 1992. Domestic human rights organizations provided names to the UN Working Group on Enforced and Involuntary Disappearances; the government did not respond to the EOHR report.


Reda Helal

AKA Reda Mohammed Helal The deputy editor of Al Ahram newspaper (at the time he disappeared on Monday 11th August 2003), and a founding member of CPS Cairo Peace Society (CPS), a Copenhagen Declaration support group; Reda Helal was disappeared on his way back from the newspaper's office to his home in Kasr El Aini hospital street in downtown Cairo. This street is one of the most secure streets in the Egyptian capital - as it is the location of the Arab League headquarters, Egyptian Foreign Ministry,American Embassy, and the Egyptian Museum there is a huge number of police officials and secret service spies distributed in it. Helal's family presented a complaint about his kidnapping on Monday 11th August 2003 to Sayyeda Zeinab police station. Human rights groups and activists and a number of journalists pointed the incident to the government. Reda Helal was an Egyptian journalist, who was deputy editor of Al-Ahram newspaper until Monday 11 August 2003, when he disappeared from the public sight. ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The headquarters of the Arab League are located near the central business district of Cairo, Egypt. ... American Embassy may refer to any one of a number of embassies maintained by the United States. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ...


Disappearances in human rights law

In international human rights law, disappearances at the hand of the state have been codified as enforced or forced disappearances. For example, the Rome Statute establishing the International Criminal Court defines enforced disappearance as a crime against humanity, and the practice is specifically addressed by the OAS's Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International Criminal Court (ICC). ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States of America. ...


The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 20, 2006, also states that the widespread or systematic practice of enforced disappearances constitutes a crime against humanity. Crucially, it gives victims' families the right to seek reparations and to demand the truth about the disappearance of their loved ones. Initial signatories to the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance: signatories in green, non-members in grey The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance is an international human rights instrument of the United Nations and intended to prevent forced disappearance. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Disappearances work on two levels: not only do they effectively silence those opposition members who have disappeared, they also sow uncertainty and terror in the wider community in general, thus silencing other opposition voices, current and potential alike. Disappearances entail the violation of a series of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms. For the disappeared person, these include the right to liberty, the right to personal security and humane treatment (including freedom from torture), the right to a fair trial, to legal counsel, and to equal protection under the law, the right of presumption of innocence, et cetera. The families, who often spend the rest of their lives in searches for remains of the disappeared, also become victims of the disappearance's effects. This politics-related article is a stub. ... Terror is a pronounced state of fear, an overwhelming sense of imminent danger. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Look up counsel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ...


Metaphorical use

The idea of forced disappearance, along with the transitive verb "disappeared", have entered the popular lexicon of the United States, and are now routinely extended to political or social commentary. Upper mid-level government officials who are unpopular, or who have spoken publicly against their superiors are frequently disappeared (e.g., former FEMA Director Michael D. Brown or former Secretary of the Treasury Paul O'Neill). Embarrassing documents that are supposedly lost in transit or otherwise unavailable are also said to have been disappeared. New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA is a government agency in the United States which is organized under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate. ... Michael Brownie Brown For other people of the same name, see Michael Brown (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Paul H. ONeill Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bushs first Administration. ...


Film

Imagining Argentina is a 2003 film directed and written by Christopher Hampton. ... Christopher Hampton (born January 26, 1946) is a British playwright, screen writer and film director. ... The Official Story (Spanish: La Historia Oficial) is a 1985 Argentinean film directed by Luis Puenzo and written by Puenzo and Aída Bortnik. ... Missing film poster Missing is a 1982 film directed by Costa-Gavras, starring Jack Lemmon, Sissy Spacek, Melanie Mayron, John Shea and Charles Cioffi. ... Constantinos Gavras (born February 12, 1933, Loutra-Iraias, Greece), better known as Costa-Gavras, is a Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. ...

Literature

This article is about the comic book series. ... Nineteen Eighty-Four (commonly written as 1984) is a dystopian novel by the English writer George Orwell, published in 1949. ... A Tale of Two Cities (1859) is a historical novel by Charles Dickens. ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ...

Popular Music

Desaparecidos means literally the disappeared in Spanish, and is a reference to people who were arrested, often illegally, by various South American military governments and then vanished. ... Voice of America is a 1984 album by Little Steven & the Disciples of Soul. ... Steven Van Zandt (born November 22, 1950) is an American musician, songwriter, arranger, record producer, actor, and radio disc jockey, who frequently goes by the stage names Little Steven or Miami Steve. ... ...Nothing Like the Sun is a 1987 album by Sting. ... For professional wrestler Steve Borden, see Sting (wrestler). ... Mothers of the Disappeared is a song on U2s 1987 album The Joshua Tree. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ...

External links

Yezhov along Moscow-Volga channel. ... Iwata HP-C plus An airbrush is a small, air-operated tool that sprays various media including ink and dye, but most often paint by a process of atomization. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Forced disappearance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1669 words)
Forced disappearances have occurred due to US activities concerning the so-called "War on terror", causing at least a hundred Ghost detainees to be detained in various fl sites.
The disappeared were subjected to severe torture, and held in secret detention camps such as Tazmamart where many died due to poor conditions or lack of medical treatment.
Disappearances work on two levels: not only do they effectively silence those opposition members who have disappeared, they also sow uncertainty and terror in the wider community in general, thus silencing other opposition voices, current and potential alike.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m