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Encyclopedia > Force de frappe
The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine
The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine

Contents

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... ...

a Pluton missile mobile launcher
a Pluton missile mobile launcher

The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i.e. Deterrence) is the designation of what used to be a triad of air, sea and land based French Nuclear Forces, part of the Military of France. France has the fourth largest nuclear force in the world, after the United States, China, and Russia. Image File history File links Photograph © by Antoine Misner http://www. ... Image File history File links Photograph © by Antoine Misner http://www. ... The Pluton missile was a short-range nuclear ballistic system launched from a Transport-Erector-Launcher platform (TEL) mounted on an AMX-30 tank chassis. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... // Organisation The titular head of the French armed forces is the President of the Republic, in his role as Chef des Armées — the President is thus Commander-in-Chief of French Forces. ...


History

It was conceived in the 1960s by the Général de Gaulle, mainly as a means to ensure the safety of France vs. the USSR and its independence from NATO, which was considered to be dominated by the USA to an unacceptable degree. In particular, the risk that the United States could fail to come to the aid of its Western European allies should the USSR invade them was considered significant: the U.S., already embroiled in a foreign war in Vietnam (ironically an ex-French colony), could hesitate rather than risk retaliation on its own homeland in order to save its European allies. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( (help· info)) (November 22, 1890-November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on...


Initially, the Force de frappe consisted of gravity bombs; the Dassault Mirage IV strategic bomber was designed so as to carry the bombs over the targets in the former Eastern bloc. Later, the land element contained the Pluton and the Hadès, mobile tactical and strategic missiles of limited range, designed to be launched at approaching Russian armies from the East. The Pluton missile was retired in 1993 and its successor the Hadès was produced in limited numbers in the 1990s and placed in storage in 1992 (the last missile was dismantled on June 23, 1997). The bomber version of the Mirage IV was retired in 1996. The Dassault Mirage IV is a French jet-propelled supersonic strategic bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. ... The Pluton missile was a short-range nuclear ballistic system launched from a Transport-Erector-Launcher platform (TEL) mounted on an AMX-30 tank chassis. ... The Hadès system was a short-range ballistic tactical nuclear weapon system designed by France as a last warning before use of strategic nuclear weapons, in the perspective of a Soviet invasion of Western Europe. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII in Roman) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... 1992 (MCMXCII in Roman) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII in Roman) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Since it was deemed that a full-scale Soviet invasion of Europe was unlikely to be stopped by conventional forces, these weapons were meant as a "warning shot" which would tell the enemy that further advance would trigger a full-scale nuclear attack on its main cities. This "worse-case" doctrine is called Stratégie du faible au fort ("Weak-to-strong strategy"); the idea behind is that a full-scale nuclear war would be lost by both opponents, and that a stronger opponent, having more to lose, would therefore refrain from proceeding further (like "being the best boxer in a gunfight" —see MAD). The principle was summarised by De Gaulle himself: A warning shot (in nautical terms, often a shot across the bow) is a harmless artillery shot intended to call attention. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...

Dans dix ans, nous aurons de quoi tuer 80 millions de Russes. Eh bien je crois qu'on n'attaque pas volontiers des gens qui ont de quoi tuer 80 millions de Russes, même si on a soi-même de quoi tuer 800 millions de Français, à supposer qu'il y eût 800 millions de Français.
(translation:)
Within ten years we shall have whatever is necessary to kill 80 million Russians. Well I reckon one does not light-heartly attack people who are able to kill 80 million Russians, even if one can kill 800 million French, that is if there were 800 million French.

Present state

Land-based component

France does not have active IRBMs anymore, the only IRBM base at the Plateau d'Albion (Vaucluse region) having been deactivated in 1996. An intermediate-range ballistic missile, or IRBM, is a ballistic missile with a range of 2750-5500 km or 1719-3437 miles. ...


The other two long range elements of the triad are still operative.


Sea-based component

Comparison of different nuclear systems: left, the SNLE (Redoutable type) with the M4 missile; right, the SNLE-NG (Triomphant type) with the present M45 missile and the future M51 missile.
Enlarge
Comparison of different nuclear systems: left, the SNLE (Redoutable type) with the M4 missile; right, the SNLE-NG (Triomphant type) with the present M45 missile and the future M51 missile.

The French navy includes a nuclear strategic branch, the Force Océanique Stratégique, composed of a fleet of nuclear ballistic submarines made up of one Redoutable-class unit (the Inflexible) and three SSBNs of the Triomphant-class (the Triomphant, the Téméraire, the Vigilant). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1417x1413, 213 KB) fr: Missiles M45 et M51 dans des coques de SNLE (type Redoutable, à gauche) et de SNLE-NG (type Triomphant, à droite). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1417x1413, 213 KB) fr: Missiles M45 et M51 dans des coques de SNLE (type Redoutable, à gauche) et de SNLE-NG (type Triomphant, à droite). ... The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile (SSBN) class, Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur dEngins (SNLE), of the Marine Nationale , the oceanic part (Force Océanique Stratégique, FOST) of the Force de frappe. ... The M-4 is the current Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) deployed on the French nuclear Triomphant Class submarines. ... The Triomphant class of strategic missile submarines of the French Navy are currently being introduced into service to provide the sea based component of the French nuclear deterrent or Force de frappe, with the M45 SLBM. They are replacing the Redoutable-class boats. ... The M45 SLBM is the French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile. ... The M51 SLBM is the future French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile, designed to replace the M45 SLBM. In French terminology the MSBS - Mer-Sol-Balistique-Strategique (Sea-ground-Strategic ballistic missile) Each missile carries six independently targetable TN-76 thermonuclear warheads. ... The French Navy (Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military and is the second-largest Western European navy (the largest being the United Kingdoms Royal Navy). ... The Force Océanique Stratégique (FOST, Strategic Oceanic Force) are the strategic submarine forces of the French Navy. ... It has been proposed below that SSBN be renamed and moved to Ballistic missile submarine. ... The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile (SSBN) class, Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur dEngins (SNLE), of the Marine Nationale , the oceanic part (Force Océanique Stratégique, FOST) of the Force de frappe. ... LInflexible S616 is the 6th and last of the Redoutable class SNLE (Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur dEngins, Nuclear Vehicle-Launching Submarine) of the FOST, the submarine nuclear deterrent component of the French Navy. ... The Triomphant class of strategic missile submarines of the French Navy are currently being introduced into service to provide the sea based component of the French nuclear deterrent or Force de frappe, with the M45 SLBM. They are replacing the Redoutable-class boats. ...


One additional Triomphant class, the Terrible, is under construction, commissioning being due for 2008.


Air-based component

The air force has 60 Mirage 2000 NK2 long range fighter bombers carrying ASMP medium-range attack missiles with nuclear warheads. They replaced the initial Mirage IV. A Mirage 2000 of the Indian Air Force The Mirage 2000 is a French-built multi-role fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation. ... The Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (abbreviated ASMP) is a French air-launched missile with a nuclear warhead. ... The Dassault Mirage IV is a French jet-propelled supersonic strategic bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. ...


See also

French nuclear armament
Strategic missiles

missile M1 | missile M2 | missile M3 | missile M4 | missile M45 | missile M51 | missile M5
Pre-strategic missiles
Pluton | Hadès | ASMP
Nuclear warheads
AN 11 Bomb | AN 22 Bomb | AN 52 Bomb | MR 31 | MR 41 | MR 50 CTC | AN 51 CTC | AN 52 CTC | TN 60 | TN 61 | TN 70 | TN 71 | TN 80 | TN 81 | TN 90 |TN 75 | TNO
Related subjects
French nuclear deterrence | FOST The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... There are currently seven states that have successfully exploded nuclear weapons. ... France is said to have an arsenal of 350 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 2002 [1]. The weapons are part of the national Force de frappe. ... The M-4 was a French Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) deployed on the nuclear Redoutable class submarines (except the Redoutable herself, which was not reffited) They entered service on the 1 May 1985. ... The M45 SLBM is the French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile. ... The M51 SLBM is the future French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile, designed to replace the M45 SLBM. In French terminology the MSBS - Mer-Sol-Balistique-Strategique (Sea-ground-Strategic ballistic missile) Each missile carries six independently targetable TN-76 thermonuclear warheads. ... The Pluton missile was a short-range nuclear ballistic system launched from a Transport-Erector-Launcher platform (TEL) mounted on an AMX-30 tank chassis. ... The Hadès system was a short-range ballistic tactical nuclear weapon system designed by France as a last warning before use of strategic nuclear weapons, in the perspective of a Soviet invasion of Western Europe. ... The Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (abbreviated ASMP) is a French air-launched missile with a nuclear warhead. ... The AN-52 was a French tactical nuclear weapon carried by fighter bomber aircraft. ... The TN 75 is a French-built thermonuclear warhead used on Frances M45 submarine-launched ballistic missiles, carried by Le Triomphant class submarines. ... The Force Océanique Stratégique (FOST, Strategic Oceanic Force) are the strategic submarine forces of the French Navy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Charles De Gaulle and the Force de Frappe (1676 words)
Charles De Gaulle and the Force de Frappe
Ironically, as important as the perceived decline in the defensibility of France due to the U.S. policy of flexible response was the actual decline in the defensibility of France due to the French withdrawal from NATO in early March 1966.
De Gaulle and the French military believed that because the two world superpowers were at an impasse, that it made it more important for France to have nuclear weapons in order to still have a voice on the global stage.
Force de frappe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (595 words)
It was conceived in the 1960s by the Général de Gaulle, mainly as a means to ensure the safety of France vs. the USSR and its independence from NATO, which was considered to be dominated by the USA to an unacceptable degree.
Initially, the Force de frappe consisted of gravity bombs; the Dassault Mirage IV strategic bomber was designed so as to carry the bombs over the targets in the former Eastern bloc.
Since it was deemed that a full-scale Soviet invasion of Europe was unlikely to be stopped by conventional forces, these weapons were meant as a "warning shot" which would tell the enemy that further advance would trigger a full-scale nuclear attack on its main cities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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