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Encyclopedia > Forbidden City
Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City
State Party China
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 439
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)
Extensions 2004
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the mid-Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost five centuries, it served as the home of the Emperor and his household, and the ceremonial and political centre of Chinese government. The phrase Forbidden City can refer to: The Imperial palace in Beijing. ... Gugong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the Chinese name for the Forbidden City in Beijing. ... The Mukden Palace (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Shenyang Gugong (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Shenyang Imperial Palace, is the former imperial palace of the early Qing Dynasty (1616 - 1910) of China. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 115 KB) Description: The Forbidden City or Forbidden Palace (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: zǐ jìn chéng; literally Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient City of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Peking redirects here. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ...


Built from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms[1] and covers 720,000 square metres. The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture,[2] and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987,[2] and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world. East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Since 1924, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artefacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum's former collection is now located in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War. Overview of the National Palace Museum. ... This article is about the city. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...

Contents

Name

The Gate of Divine Might, the northern gate. The lower tablet reads "The Palace Museum" (故宫博物院)
The Gate of Divine Might, the northern gate. The lower tablet reads "The Palace Museum" ()

The common English name, "the Forbidden City," is a translation of the Chinese name Zijin Cheng (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zǐjinchéng; literally "Purple Forbidden City"). Another English name of similar origin is "Forbidden Palace".[3] In the Manchu language it is called Dabkūri dorgi hoton (Manchu: ), which literally means the "Layered Inner City." Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City Gate... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City Gate... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The name "Zijin Cheng" is a name imbued with significance on many levels. Zi, or "Purple", refers to the North Star, which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, and in traditional Chinese astrology was the abode of the Celestial Emperor. The surrounding celestial region, the Ziwei Enclosure (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zǐwēiyuán), was the realm of the Celestial Emperor and his family. The Forbidden City, as the residence of the terrestrial emperor, was its earthly counterpart. Jin, or "Forbidden", referred to the fact that no-one could enter or leave the palace without the emperor's permission. Cheng means a walled city.[4] For other uses, see North Star (disambiguation). ... Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ... The Outer Planes are the outermost planes of existence in the standard cosmology of the Dungeons and Dragons role-playing game. ... Three enclosures (三垣, pinyin: Sān Yuán) are Purple Forbidden enclosure (紫微垣), Supreme Palace enclosure (太微垣), and Heavenly Market enclosure (天市垣) in Chinese constellation. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Qing dynasty wall of Xian, showing elaborate wall towers Chinese city walls (Chinese: ; pinyin: chéngqiáng; literally city wall) refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times. ...


Today, the site is most commonly known in Chinese as Gugong (), which means the "Former Palace."[5] The museum which is based in these buildings is known as the "Palace Museum" (Chinese: 故宫博物院; pinyin: Gùgōng Bówùyùan). Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


History

Main article: History of the Forbidden City
The Forbidden City as depicted in a Ming Dynasty painting
The Forbidden City as depicted in a Ming Dynasty painting

The site of the Forbidden City was part of the Imperial city during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. Upon the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor moved the capital from Beijing in the north to Nanjing in the south, and ordered that the Mongol palaces be razed. When his son Zhu Di became the Yongle Emperor, he moved the capital to Beijing, and construction began in 1406 of what would become the Forbidden City.[4] The History of the Forbidden City spans some six centuries. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (583 × 879 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ankunft in der Verbotenen Stadt - Malerei der frühen Ming-Zeit. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (583 × 879 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ankunft in der Verbotenen Stadt - Malerei der frühen Ming-Zeit. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the Khan) is the ancient Mongol name[1] for the city at the present location of Beijing, the current capital of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... izzy lewis loves the weewee in her pooter. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ...


Construction lasted 15 years, and required more than a million workers.[6] Material used include whole logs of precious Phoebe zhennan wood (Chinese: 楠木; pinyin: nánmù) found in the jungles of south-western China, and large blocks of marble from quarries near Beijing. [7] The floors of major halls were paved with "golden bricks" (Chinese: ; pinyin: jīnzhuān), specially baked paving bricks from Suzhou.[6] Binomial name S. Lee & F.N. Wei Phoebe zhennan is a species of plant in the Lauraceae family. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is about the city in Jiangsu. ...


From 1420 to 1644, the Forbidden City was the seat of the Ming Dynasty. In April 1644, it was captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed himself emperor of the Shun Dynasty.[8] He soon fled before the combined armies of former Ming general Wu Sangui and Manchu forces, setting fire to parts of the Forbidden City in the process.[9] By October, the Manchus had achieved supremacy in northern China, and a ceremony was held at the Forbidden City to proclaim the young Shunzhi Emperor as ruler of all China under the Qing Dynasty.[10] The Qing rulers changed the names of the principal buildings, to emphasise "Harmony" rather than "Supremacy",[11] made the name plates bilingual (Chinese and Manchu),[12] and introduced Shamanist elements to the palace.[13] Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li Hóngjī (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself Chuǎng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... Shun Dynasty was a pseudo imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Belgian and Dutch street name plates on the border Name plate on a bridge in Krakow, Poland A name plate is an item that displays someone’s name. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...


In 1860, during the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces took control of the Forbidden City and occupied it until the end of the war.[14] In 1900 Empress Dowager Cixi fled from the Forbidden City during the Boxer Rebellion, leaving it to be occupied by forces of the treaty powers until the following year. There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50...


In 1912, Puyi, the last Emperor of China, abdicated. Puyi sold many treasures to finance his expensive lifestyle, while others were stolen by palace eunuchs. Under an agreement with the new Republic of China government, Puyi remained in the Inner Court, while the Outer Court was given over to public use,[15] until he was evicted after a coup in 1924.[16] The Palace Museum was then established in the Forbidden City.[17] In 1933, the Japanese invasion of China forced the evacuation of the national treasures in the Forbidden City.[18] Part of the collection was returned at the end of World War II,[19] but the other part was evacuated to Taiwan in 1947 under orders by Chiang Kai-shek, whose Kuomintang was losing the Chinese Civil War. This relatively small but high quality collection was kept in storage for many years since the KMT still hoped to return to the mainland. Finally, in 1965, they again became public, at the core of the National Palace Museum in Taipei.[20] Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Forbidddden City (紫禁城, pinyin: Zǐjìn Chéng, literal meaning: Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient City of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and the Qing dynasties. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Overview of the National Palace Museum. ... This article is about the city. ...

The East Glorious Gate under renovation as part of the 19-year restoration process.
The East Glorious Gate under renovation as part of the 19-year restoration process.

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, some damage was done to the Forbidden City as the country was swept up in revolutionary zeal.[21] During the Cultural Revolution, however, further destruction was prevented when Premier Zhou Enlai sent an army battalion to guard the city.[22] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949...


The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO as the "Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties",[23] due to its significant place in the development of Chinese architecture and culture. It is currently administered by the Palace Museum, which is currently carrying out a sixteen-year restoration project to repair and restore all buildings in the Forbidden City to their pre-1912 state.[24] A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD. Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries. ...


In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial.[25] A Starbucks store,[26] which opened in 2000,[27] sparked objections [28] and eventually closed on July 13, 2007. Chinese media also took notice of a pair of souvenir shops that refused to admit Chinese citizens in order to price-gouge foreign customers in 2006.[29] For other meanings of the name Starbuck, see Starbuck. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Price gouging is a term of variable, but nearly always pejorative, meaning, referring to a sellers asking a price that is much higher than what is seen as fair under the circumstances. ...


Description

Plan of the Forbidden City. Labels in red will be used to reference locations throughout the article. - - - Approximate dividing line between Inner (north) and Outer (south) Courts. A. Meridian Gate B. Gate of Divine Might C. West Glorious Gate D. East Glorious Gate E. Corner towers F. Gate of Supreme Harmony G. Hall of Supreme Harmony H. Hall of Military Eminence J. Hall of Literary Glory K. Southern Three Places L. Palace of Heavenly Purity M. Imperial garden N. Hall of Mental Cultivation O. Palace of Tranquil Longevity
Plan of the Forbidden City. Labels in red will be used to reference locations throughout the article.
- - - Approximate dividing line between Inner (north) and Outer (south) Courts.
A. Meridian Gate
B. Gate of Divine Might
C. West Glorious Gate
D. East Glorious Gate
E. Corner towers
F. Gate of Supreme Harmony
G. Hall of Supreme Harmony
H. Hall of Military Eminence
J. Hall of Literary Glory
K. Southern Three Places
L. Palace of Heavenly Purity
M. Imperial garden
N. Hall of Mental Cultivation
O. Palace of Tranquil Longevity

The Forbidden City is the world's largest surviving palace complex and covers 72 ha. It is a rectangle 961 metres from north to south and 753 metres from east to west. It consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms.[1] The Forbidden City was designed to be the centre of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (605 × 719 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (605 × 719 pixel, file size: 134 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Meridian Gate, viewed from the south The Meridian Gate (Traditional Chinese: 午門; Simplified Chinese: 午门; pinyin: WÇ”mén) is the southern (and largest) gate of the Forbidden City. ... The Gate of Divine Might or Gate of Divine Prowess (Chinese: 神武門; pinyin: ; literally Divine Military Might/Prowess Gate) is the northern gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... The Gate of Supreme Harmony (center right). ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Amba hÅ«waliyambure deyen) is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. ... The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (乾清宫) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... The Imperial City (Chinese: 北京皇城; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng Huángchéng) is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties. ...


The Forbidden City remains important in the civic scheme of Beijing. The central north-south axis remains the central axis of Beijing. This axis extends to the south through Tiananmen gate to Tiananmen Square, the ceremonial centre of the People's Republic of China. To the north, it extends through the Bell and Drum Towers to Yongdingmen.[30] Interestingly, this axis is not exactly aligned north-south, but is tilted by slightly more than two degrees. Researchers now believe that the axis was designed in the Yuan Dynasty to be aligned with Xanadu, the other capital of the empire.[31] For the 1989 protest, see Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... The Drum tower, viewed from the Bell tower Gulou, the drum tower of Beijing, is situated at the northern end of the central axis of the Inner City to the north of Di’ anmen Street. ... New built Yongdingmen Yongdingmen (Chinese: 永定門; Manchu: Enteheme toktoho duka) was the former front gate of the outer section of Beijings old city wall. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... This article is about the summer capital of Kublai Khans empire. ...


Walls and gates

Meridian Gate, the front entrance to the Forbidden City, with two protruding wings.
Meridian Gate, the front entrance to the Forbidden City, with two protruding wings.
The northwest corner tower
The northwest corner tower

The Forbidden City is surrounded by a 7.9-metre high city wall[32] and a six-metre deep, 52-metre wide moat. The walls are 8.62 metres wide at the base, tapering to 6.66 metres at the top.[33] These walls served as both defensive walls and retaining walls for the palace. They were constructed with a rammed earth core, and surfaced with three layers of specially baked bricks on both sides, with the interstices filled with mortar.[34] Download high resolution version (940x220, 45 KB)Meridian Gate in the Forbidden City, Bejing. ... Download high resolution version (940x220, 45 KB)Meridian Gate in the Forbidden City, Bejing. ... Meridian Gate, viewed from the south The Meridian Gate (Traditional Chinese: 午門; Simplified Chinese: 午门; pinyin: WÇ”mén) is the southern (and largest) gate of the Forbidden City. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 643 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 643 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City ... Qing dynasty wall of Xian, showing elaborate wall towers Chinese city walls (Chinese: ; pinyin: chéngqiáng; literally city wall) refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... Structure in the foreground is called a mud box, a type of retaining wall built to hold flood waters in check. ... Rammed earth walls form part of the entrance building for the Eden Project in Cornwall, England. ...


At the four corners of the wall sit towers ("E") with intricate roofs boasting 72 ridges, reproducing the Pavilion of Prince Teng and the Yellow Crane Pavilion as they appeared in Song Dynasty paintings.[35] These towers are the most visible parts of the palace to commoners outside the walls, and much folklore is attached to them. According to one legend, artisans could not put a corner tower back together after it was dismantled for renovations in the early Qing Dynasty, and it was only rebuilt after the intervention of carpenter-immortal Lu Ban.[32] The modern Pavilion of Prince Teng. ... Yellow Crane Tower is a poem written by Mao Zedong in 1927. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Lu Ban (Chinese: 鲁班; Pinyin: LÇ” Bān, ?-?) was a famous architect of ancient China. ...


The wall is pierced by a gate on each side. At the southern end is the main Meridian Gate ("A").[36] To the north is the Gate of Divine Might ("B"), which faces Jingshan Park. The east and west gates are called the "East Glorious Gate" ("D") and "West Glorious Gate" ("C"). All gates in the Forbidden City are decorated with a nine-by-nine array of golden door nails, except for the East Glorious Gate, which has only eight rows.[37] Meridian Gate, viewed from the south The Meridian Gate (Traditional Chinese: 午門; Simplified Chinese: 午门; pinyin: WÇ”mén) is the southern (and largest) gate of the Forbidden City. ... The Gate of Divine Might or Gate of Divine Prowess (Chinese: 神武門; pinyin: ; literally Divine Military Might/Prowess Gate) is the northern gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ...


The Meridian Gate has two protruding wings forming three sides of a square (Wumen, or Meridian Gate, Square) before it.[34] The gate has five gateways. The central gateway is part of the Imperial Way, a stone flagged path that forms the central axis of the Forbidden City and the ancient city of Beijing itself, and leads all the way from the Gate of China in the south to Jingshan in the north. Only the Emperor may walk or ride on the Imperial Way, except for the Empress on the occasion of her wedding, and successful students after the Imperial Examination.[37] The Gate of China in Beijing (Chinese: 中华门; pinyin: ) is a historical ceremonial gateway in Beijing, China, located near the centre of todays Tiananmen Square. ... The Jingshan Park in Beijing Jingshan Hill (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Prospect Hill) is an artificial hill in Beijing, China. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ...


Outer Court

The Hall of Supreme Harmony
The Hall of Supreme Harmony
The throne in the Hall of Preserving Harmony.
The throne in the Hall of Preserving Harmony.
The Hall of Central Harmony (foreground) and the Hall of Preserving Harmony
The Hall of Central Harmony (foreground) and the Hall of Preserving Harmony

Traditionally, the Forbidden City is divided into two parts. The Outer Court () or Front Court () includes the southern sections, and was used for ceremonial purposes. The Inner Court () or Back Palace () includes the northern sections, and was the residence of the Emperor and his family, and was used for day-to-day affairs of state. (The approximate dividing line shown as red dash in the plan above). Generally, the Forbidden City has three vertical axes. The most important buildings are situated on the central north-south axis.[37] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2285x1714, 1192 KB) Photographer: Saad Akhtar from New Delhi, India Title: Forbidden City Taken on: 2004-11-24 03:13:10 Original source: Flickr. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2285x1714, 1192 KB) Photographer: Saad Akhtar from New Delhi, India Title: Forbidden City Taken on: 2004-11-24 03:13:10 Original source: Flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 508 KB)Photo taken by myself, Feb/2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 508 KB)Photo taken by myself, Feb/2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 127 KB) Description: The Forbidden City or Forbidden Palace (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: zǐ jìn chéng; literally Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient City of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 127 KB) Description: The Forbidden City or Forbidden Palace (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: zǐ jìn chéng; literally Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient City of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and...


Entering from the Meridian Gate, one encounters a large square, pierced by the meandering Inner Golden Water River, which is crossed by five bridges. Beyond the square stands the Gate of Supreme Harmony ("F"). Behind that is the Hall of Supreme Harmony Square.[38] A three-tiered white marble terrace rises from this square. Three halls stand on top of this terrace, the focus of the palace complex. From the south, these are the Hall of Supreme Harmony (殿), the Hall of Central Harmony (殿), and the Hall of Preserving Harmony (殿).[39] The Gate of Supreme Harmony (center right). ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Amba hÅ«waliyambure deyen) is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. ... Hall of Central Harmony (foreground) with Hall of Preserving Harmony The Hall of Central Harmony is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City, along with the Hall of Supreme Harmony and Hall of Preserving Harmony. ... Hall of Preserving Harmony (background) with Hall of Central Harmony The throne in the Hall of Preserving Harmony The Hall of Preserving Harmony is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City, along with the Hall of Supreme Harmony and Hall of Central Harmony. ...


The Hall of Supreme Harmony ("G") is the largest, and rises some 30 metres above the level of the surrounding square. It is the ceremonial centre of imperial power, and the largest surviving wooden structure in China. It is nine bays wide and five bays deep, the numbers nine and five being symbolically connected to the majesty of the Emperor.[40] Set into the ceiling at the centre of the hall is an intricate caisson decorated with a coiled dragon, from the mouth of which issues a chandelier-like set of metal balls, called the "Xuanyuan Mirror".[41] In the Ming Dynasty, the Emperor held court here to discuss affairs of state. During the Qing Dynasty, as Emperors held court far more frequently, the Hall of Supreme Harmony was only used for ceremonial purposes, such as coronations, investitures, and imperial weddings.[42] A round caisson in the imperial garden at the Forbidden City The Caisson (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally algae well) in East Asian architecture is an archiectural feature typically found in the ceiling of temples and palaces, usually at the centre and directly above the main throne, seat, or religious figure. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ...


The Hall of Central Harmony is a smaller, square hall, used by the Emperor to prepare and rest before and during ceremonies.[43] Behind it, the Hall of Preserving Harmony, was used for rehearsing ceremonies, and was also the site of the final stage of the Imperial examination.[44] All three halls feature imperial thrones, the largest and most elaborate one being that in the Hall of Supreme Harmony.[45] The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Amba hūwaliyambure deyen) is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. ...


At the centre of the ramps leading up to the terraces from the northern and southern sides are ceremonial ramps, part of the Imperial Way, featuring elaborate and symbolic bas-relief carvings. The northern ramp, behind the Hall of Preserving Harmony, is carved from a single piece of stone 16.57 metres long, 3.07 metres wide, and 1.7 metres thick. It weighs some 200 tonnes and is the largest such carving in China.[6] The southern ramp, in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, is even longer, but is made from two stone slabs joined together — the joint was ingeniously hidden using overlapping bas-relief carvings, and was only discovered when weathering widened the gap in the 20th century.[46] Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Amba hÅ«waliyambure deyen) is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. ...


In the south west and south east of the Outer Court are the halls of Military Eminence ("H") and Literary Glory ("J"). The former was used at various times for the Emperor to receive ministers and hold court, and later housed the Palace's own printing house. The latter was used for ceremonial lectures by highly regarded Confucian scholars, and later became the office of the Grand Secretariat. A copy of the Siku Quanshu was stored there. To the north-east are the Southern Three Places () ("K"), which was the residence of the Crown Prince.[38] Siku quanshu (Traditional Chinese: 四庫全書; Simplified Chinese: 四库全书; pinyin: si4ku4 quan2shu1), or encyclopedia of the four archives, is the largest collection of Chinese philopsophers, historians, and poets in Chinese History. ...


Inner Court

The Inner Court is separated from the Outer Court by an oblong courtyard lying orthogonal to the City's main axis. It is the home of the Emperor and his family. In the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor lived and worked almost exclusively in the Inner Court, with the Outer Court used only for ceremonial purposes.[47]

The Palace of Heavenly Purity.
The Palace of Heavenly Purity.

At the centre of the Inner Court is another set of three halls ("L"). From the south, these are the Palace of Heavenly Purity(), Hall of Union, and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. Smaller than the Outer Court halls, the three halls of the Inner Court were the official residences of the Emperor and the Empress. The Emperor, representing Yang and the Heavens, would occupy the Palace of Heavenly Purity. The Empress, representing Yin and the Earth, would occupy the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. In between them was the Hall of Union, where the Yin and Yang mixed to produce harmony.[48] Image File history File links Verbotenen Stadt (Peking) Fotografiert von Jintan, 2004. ... Image File history File links Verbotenen Stadt (Peking) Fotografiert von Jintan, 2004. ... The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (乾清宫) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... The Hall of Union is a building in the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China. ... The Palace of Earthly Tranquility is the northernmost of the three main halls of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City, the other two halls being the Palace of Heavenly Purity and the Hall of Union. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena...

The throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity
The throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity

The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a double-eaved building, and set on a single-level white marble platform. It is connected to the Gate of Heavenly Purity to its south by a raised walkway. In the Ming Dynasty, it was the residence of the Emperor. However, beginning from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor lived instead at the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation to the west, out of respect to the memory of the Kangxi Emperor.[32] The Palace of Heavenly Purity then became the Emperor's audience hall.[49] A caisson is set into the roof, featuring a coiled dragon. Above the throne hangs a tablet reading "Justice and Honour" (Chinese: 正大光明; pinyin: zhèngdàguāngmíng).[50] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 241 KB) Description: File links The following pages link to this file: Forbidden City ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 241 KB) Description: File links The following pages link to this file: Forbidden City ... The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (乾清宫) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (乾清宫) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


The Palace of Earthly Tranquility() is a double-eaved building, 9 bays wide and 3 bays deep. In the Ming Dynasty, it was the residence of the Empress. In the Qing Dynasty, large portions of the Palace were converted for Shamanist worship by the new Manchu rulers. From the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the Empress moved out of the Palace. However, two rooms in the Palace of Earthly Harmony were retained for use on the Emperor's wedding night.[51] The Palace of Earthly Tranquility is the northernmost of the three main halls of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City, the other two halls being the Palace of Heavenly Purity and the Hall of Union. ...


Between these two palaces is the Hall of Union, which is square in shape with a pyramidal roof. Stored here are the twenty-five Imperial Seals of the Qing Dynasty, as well as other ceremonial items.[52] The Hall of Union is a building in the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China. ... A Baiwen name seal; Read up-down-right-left; Ye Hao Min Ying (lit. ...

The Nine Dragons Screen in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity
The Nine Dragons Screen in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity

Behind these three halls lies the Imperial Garden ("M"). Relatively small, and compact in design, the garden nevertheless contains several elaborate landscaping features.[53] To the north of the garden is the Gate of Divine Might, the north gate of the palace. Image File history File links NineDragons01. ... Image File history File links NineDragons01. ...


Distributed to the east and west of the three main halls are a series of self-contained courtyards and minor palaces, where the Emperor's concubines and children lived. Directly to the west is the Hall of Mental Cultivation ("N"). Originally a minor palace, this became the de facto residence and office of the Emperor starting from Yongzheng. In the last decades of the Qing Dynasty, empresses dowager, including Cixi, held court from the eastern partition of the hall. Located around the Hall of Mental Cultivation are the offices of the Grand Council and other key government bodies.[54] Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a powerful and charismatic figure who was the de facto ruler... The Grand Council or Junjichu (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: JÅ«njÄ«chù; Manchu: coohai nashÅ«n i ba; literally, Office of Military Secrets) was an important policy-making body in the Qing Empire. ...


The north-eastern section of the Inner Court is taken up by the Palace of Tranquil Longevity ("O"), a complex built by the Qianlong Emperor in anticipation of his retirement. It mirrors the set-up of the Forbidden City proper and features an "outer court", an "inner court", and gardens and temples. The entrance to the Palace of Tranquil Longevity is marked by a glazed-tile Nine Dragons Screen.[55] The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ...


Religion

Religion was an important part of life for the imperial court. In the Qing Dynasty, the Palace of Earthly Harmony became a place of Manchu Shamanist ceremony. At the same time, the native Chinese Taoist religion continued to have an important role throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. There were two Taoist shrines, one in the imperial garden and another in the central area of the Inner Court.[56] Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ...


A prevalent form of religion in the Qing Dynasty palace was Tibetan Buddhism, or Lamaism. A number of temples and shrines were scattered throughout the Inner Court. Buddhist iconography also proliferated in the interior decorations of many buildings.[57] Of these, the Pavilion of the Rain of Flowers is one of the most important. It housed a large number of Buddhist statues, icons, and mandalas, placed in ritualistic arrangements.[58] Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... For the film, see Mandala (film). ...


Surroundings

See also: Imperial City (Beijing)
Location of the Forbidden City in the old city of Beijing.
Location of the Forbidden City in the old city of Beijing.
Beihai - the White Dagoba is in the distance.
Beihai - the White Dagoba is in the distance.

The Forbidden City is surrounded on three sides by imperial gardens. To the north is Jingshan Park, also known as Coal Hill, an artificial hill created from the soil excavated to build the moat and from nearby lakes.[59] The Imperial City (Chinese: 北京皇城; Pinyin: Běijīng Huángchéng) is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 570 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (591 × 622 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 2nd Ring Road... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 570 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (591 × 622 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 2nd Ring Road... Image File history File linksMetadata Beihai_park_-_bridge_to_white_pagoda. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Beihai_park_-_bridge_to_white_pagoda. ...


To the west lies Zhongnanhai, a former garden centred on two connected lakes, which now serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council of the People's Republic of China. To the north-west lies Beihai Park, also centred on a lake connected to the southern two, and a popular park. An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The bridge to the White Pagoda. ...


To the south of the Forbidden City were two important shrines — the Imperial Shrine of Family (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tàimiào) and the Imperial Shrine of State (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tàishèjì), where the Emperor would venerate the spirits of his ancestors and the spirit of the nation, respectively. Today, these are the Beijing Labouring People's Cultural Hall[60] and Zhongshan Park (commemorating Sun Yat-sen) respectively.[61] Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For the metro station of “Zhongshan Park”, see Shanghai Zhongshan Park. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the...


To the south, two nearly identical gatehouses stand along the main axis. They are the Upright Gate (Chinese: ; pinyin: Duānmén) and the more famous Tiananmen Gate, which is decorated with a portrait of Mao Zedong in the centre and two placards to the left and right: "Long Live the People's Republic of China" and "Long live the Great Unity of the World's Peoples". The Tiananmen Gate connects the Forbidden City precinct with the modern, symbolic centre of the Chinese state, Tiananmen Square. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Tiānānmén/Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: 天安门, Traditional Chinese: 天安門; or the Gate of Heavenly Peace) is the principal entrance to the Imperial Palace Grounds, commonly called the Forbidden City, in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... Mao redirects here. ...


While development is now tightly controlled in the vicinity of the Forbidden City, throughout the past century uncontrolled and sometimes politically motivated demolition and reconstruction has changed the character of the areas surrounding the Forbidden City. Since 2000, the Beijing municipal government has worked to evict governmental and military institutions occupying some historical buildings, and has established a park around the remaining parts of the Imperial City wall. In 2004, an ordinance relating to building height and planning restriction was renewed to establish the Imperial City area and the northern city area as a buffer zone for the Forbidden City.[62] In 2005, the Imperial City and Beihai (as an extension item to the Summer Palace) were included in the shortlist for the next World Heritage Site in Beijing.[63] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The bridge to the White Pagoda. ... The Summer Palace in Beijing. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Peking redirects here. ...


Symbolism

The design of the Forbidden City, from its overall layout to the smallest detail, was meticulously planned to reflect philosophical and religious principles, and above all to symbolise the majesty of Imperial power. Some noted examples of symbolic designs include: Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ...

  • Yellow is the colour of the Emperor. Thus almost all roofs in the Forbidden City bear yellow glazed tiles. There are only two exceptions. The library at the Pavilion of Literary Profundity () had black tiles because black was associated with water, and thus fire-prevention. Similarly, the Crown Prince's residences have green tiles because green was associated with wood, and thus growth.[40]
The ten statuettes on the roof ridge of the Hall of Supreme Harmony.
The ten statuettes on the roof ridge of the Hall of Supreme Harmony.
  • The main halls of the Outer and Inner courts are all arranged in groups of three — the shape of the Qian triagram, representing Heaven. The residences of the Inner Court on the other hand are arranged in groups of six — the shape of the Kun triagram, representing the Earth.[52]
  • The sloping ridges of building roofs are decorated with a line of statuettes. The number of statuettes represents the status of the building — a minor building might have 3 or 5. The Hall of Supreme Harmony has 10, the only building in the country to be permitted this in Imperial times. As a result, its 10th statuette (called a "Hangshi", or "ranked tenth" Chinese: 行什; pinyin: Hángshí),[32] is also unique in pre-modern buildings.[64]
  • The layout of buildings follows ancient customs laid down in the Classic of Rites. Thus, ancestral temples are in front of the palace. Storage areas are placed in the front part of the palace complex, and residences in the back.[65]

A yellow Tulip. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Download high resolution version (900x400, 50 KB)Imperial roof decoration Ceramic figures decorating the Hall of Supreme Harmony at the Imperial Palace Museum. ... Download high resolution version (900x400, 50 KB)Imperial roof decoration Ceramic figures decorating the Hall of Supreme Harmony at the Imperial Palace Museum. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Classic of Rites The Classic of Rites (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was one of the Five Classics of the Confucian canon. ...

Collections

Equestrian painting of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796) by Giuseppe Castiglione.
Equestrian painting of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796) by Giuseppe Castiglione.

The collections of the Palace Museum are based on the Qing imperial collection. According to the results of a 1925 audit,[66] some 1.17 million items were stored in the Forbidden City. In addition, the imperial libraries housed one of the country's largest collections of ancient books and various documents, including government documents of the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Gate of Divine Might, the northern gate. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 972 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City User... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 972 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City User... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


From 1933, the threat of Japanese invasion forced the evacuation of the most important parts of the Museum's collection. After the end of World War II, this collection was returned to Nanjing. However, with the Communists' victory imminent in the Chinese Civil War, the Nationalist government decided to ship the pick of this collection to Taiwan. Of the 13,427 boxes of evacuated artefacts , 2,972 boxes are now housed in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Almost ten thousand boxes were returned to Beijing, but 2,221 boxes remain today in storage under the charge of the Nanjing Museum.[20] The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Nanjing Museum (Pinyin: Nánjīng Bówuyuán, Simplified Chinese: 南京博物院) is located in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province on East Zhongshan Road, about 3km from the Xinjiekou traffic circle to the east, just inside Zhongshan Gate. ...


After 1949, the Museum conducted a new audit as well as a thorough search of the Forbidden City, uncovering a number of important items. In addition, the government moved items from other museums around the country to replenish the Palace Museum's collection. It also purchased and received donations from the public.[67] Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Ceramic

The Palace Museum holds 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain. These include imperial collections from the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty, as well as pieces commissioned by the Palace, and, sometimes, by the Emperor personally. The Palace Museum holds about 320,000 pieces of porcelain from the imperial collection. The rest are almost all held in the National Palace Museum in Taipei and the Nanjing Museum.[68] This article is about ceramic materials. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou...

Paintings

The Palace Museum holds close to 50,000 items of paintings. Of these, more than 400 date from before the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). This is the largest such collection in China.[69] The collection is based on the palace collection in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The personal interest of Emperors such as Qianlong meant that almost all surviving paintings from the Yuan Dynasty and before were held by the palace. However, a significant portion of this collection was lost over the years. After his abdication, Puyi transferred paintings out of the palace, and many of these were subsequently lost or destroyed. In 1948, the pick of the remaining collection were moved to Taiwan. The collection has subsequently been replenished, through donations, purchases, and transfers from other museums. Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...

Bronzeware
A gilded lion in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity.
A gilded lion in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity.

The Palace Museum's bronze collection dates from the early Shang Dynasty (founded c. 1766 BC). Of the almost 10,000 pieces held, about 1600 are inscribed items from the pre-Qin period (to 221 BC). A significant part of the collection is ceremonial bronzeware from the imperial court.[70] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo taken January 18, 2003 by Allen Timothy Chang Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo taken January 18, 2003 by Allen Timothy Chang Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Categories: Fictional dogs | Stub ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the...

Timepieces

The Palace Museum has one of the largest collections of mechanical timepieces of the 18th and 19th centuries in the world, with more than 1000 pieces. The collection contains both Chinese- and foreign-made pieces. Chinese pieces came from the palace's own workships, Guangzhou (Canton) and Suzhou (Suchow). Foreign pieces came from countries including Britain, France, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. Of these, the largest portion come from Britain.[71] Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the city in Jiangsu. ...

Jade
The Jade Cabbage, formerly at the Forbidden City and now at the National Palace Museum, Taipei.
The Jade Cabbage, formerly at the Forbidden City and now at the National Palace Museum, Taipei.

Jade has a unique place in Chinese culture.[72] The Museum's collection, mostly derived from the imperial collection, includes some 30,000 pieces. The pre-Yuan Dynasty part of the collection includes several pieces famed throughout history, as well as artefacts from more recent archaeological discoveries. The earliest pieces date from the Neolithic period. Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty pieces, on the other hand, include both items for palace use, as well as tribute items from around the Empire and beyond.[73] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 886 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): National Palace Museum... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 886 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): National Palace Museum... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Overview of the National Palace Museum. ... This article is about the city. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...

Palace artefacts

In addition to works of art, a large proportion of the Museum's collection consists of the artefacts of the imperial court. This includes items used by the imperial family and the palace in daily life, as well as various ceremonial and bureaucratic items important to government administration. This comprehensive collection preserves the daily life and ceremonial protocols of the imperial era.[74]


Influence

Glazed building decoration
Glazed building decoration
Architecture

The Forbidden City, the culmination of the two-thousand-year development of classical Chinese and East Asian architecture, has been influential in the subsequent development of Chinese architecture, as well as providing inspiration for many modern constructions. Some specific examples of its influences include: The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD. Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries. ...

  • Emperor Gia Long of Vietnam built a palace and fortress that was intended to be a smaller copy of the Chinese Forbidden City in the 1800s. Its ruins are in Huế. In English it is called the "Imperial City". The name of the inner palace complex in Vietnamese is translated literally as "Purple Forbidden City", which is the same as the Chinese name for the Forbidden City in Beijing.
  • The 5th Avenue Theatre in Seattle, Washington was designed to incorporate elements of classical Chinese architecture and interior decoration. The ceiling of the auditorium features a dragon panel and chandelier reminiscent of the dragon caisson and Xuanyuan mirror found in the Forbidden City.[75]
Depiction in art, film and literature

The Forbidden City has served as the scene to many works of fiction. In recent years, it has been depicted in films and television series. Some notable examples include: Gia Long (1762-1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh, was an emperor of Annam. ... Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... The Imperial City in Huế is a walled fortress and palace in the former capital of Vietnam. ... The 5th Avenue Theatre // Since 1926, the magnificent 5th Avenue Theatre, located in Seattle, Washington, in the United States, has captivated audiences with music, drama and laughter. ... Seattle redirects here. ... A round caisson in the imperial garden at the Forbidden City The Caisson (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally algae well) in East Asian architecture is an archiectural feature typically found in the ceiling of temples and palaces, usually at the centre and directly above the main throne, seat, or religious figure. ...

  • The Last Emperor (1987), a biographical film about Puyi, was the first feature film ever authorised by the government of the People's Republic of China to be filmed in the Forbidden City.
  • Kingdom Hearts 2 used the Forbidden City as the site for a climactic battle within the "Land of the Dragons", inhabited by the character Mulan.[76]
As performance venue

The Forbidden City has also served as a performance venue. However, its use for this purpose is strictly limited, due to the heavy impact of equipment and performance on the ancient structures. Almost all performances said to be "in the Forbidden City" are held outside the palace walls. For the rapper, see Last Emperor. ... A biographical film or biopic is a film about a particular person or group of people, based on events that actually happened. ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... Macro Polo was a television miniseries originally broadcast by NBC in 1982. ... This article is about the television network. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Kingdom Hearts II is an RPG video game sequel to 2002 Kingdom Hearts. ... This article is about the film Mulan. For the legendary person, see Hua Mulan. ...

  • Giacomo Puccini's opera, Turandot, about the story of a Chinese princess, was performed at the Imperial Shrine just outside the Forbidden City for the first time in 1998.[77]
  • In 2004, the French musician Jean Michel Jarre performed a live concert in front of the Forbidden City, accompanied by 260 musicians, as part of the "Year of France in China" festivities.[78]

Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... 30 Seconds to Mars (or Thirty Seconds to Mars) is an alternative rock band from Los Angeles, California, featuring Jared Leto, Shannon Leto, Tomo Milicevic, and Tim Kelleher. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b "故宫到底有多少间房:最多时两万 现时八千七百多 (How many rooms in the Forbidden City: more than 20,000 at one time, now more than 8700)", Singtao Net, 2006-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. (Chinese) 
  2. ^ a b UNESCO World Heritage List: Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  3. ^ See, e.g., Gan, Guo-hui (April, 1990). "Perspective of urban land use in Beijing". GeoJournal 20 (4): 359-364. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  4. ^ a b p 18, Yu, Zhuoyun (1984). Palaces of the Forbidden City. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-53721-7. 
  5. ^ "Gugong" in a generic sense also refers to all former palaces, another prominent example being the former Imperial Palaces (Mukden Palace) in Shenyang; see Gugong (disambiguation).
  6. ^ a b c p 15, Yang, Xiagui; Li, Shaobai (photography); Chen, Huang (translation) (2003). The Invisible Palace. Beijing: Foreign Language Press. ISBN 7-119-03432-4. 
  7. ^ China Central Television, The Palace Museum. (2005). Gugong: "I. Building the Forbidden City" [Documentary]. China: CCTV.
  8. ^ p 69, Yang (2003)
  9. ^ p 3734, Wu, Han (1980). 朝鲜李朝实录中的中国史料 (Chinese historical material in the Annals of the Joseon Yi Dynasty). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. CN / D829.312. 
  10. ^ Guo, Muoruo. "甲申三百年祭 (Commemorating 300th anniversary of the Jia-Sheng Year)", New China Daily, 1944-03-20. (Chinese) 
  11. ^ China Central Television, The Palace Museum. (2005). Gugong: "II. Ridgeline of a Prosperous Age" [Documentary]. China: CCTV.
  12. ^ "故宫外朝宫殿为何无满文? (Why is there no Manchu on the halls of the Outer Court?)", People Net, 2006-06-16. Retrieved on 2007-07-12. (Chinese) 
  13. ^ Zhou Suqin. 坤宁宫 (Palace of Earthly Tranquility) (Chinese). The Palace Museum. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  14. ^ China Central Television, The Palace Museum. (2005). Gugong: "XI. Flight of the National Treasures" [Documentary]. China: CCTV.
  15. ^ p 137, Yang (2003)
  16. ^ Yan, Chongnian (2004). "国民—战犯—公民 (National - War criminal - Citizen)", 正说清朝十二帝 (True Stories of the Twelve Qing Emperors) (in Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 710104445X. 
  17. ^ Cao Kun. "故宫X档案: 开院门票 掏五毛钱可劲逛 (Forbidden City X-Files: Opening admission 50 cents)", Beijing Legal Evening, People Net, 2005-10-06. Retrieved on 2007-07-25. (Chinese) 
  18. ^ See map of the evacuation routes at: National Palace Museum - Tradition & Continuity. National Palace Museum. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  19. ^ National Palace Museum - Tradition & Continuity. National Palace Museum. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  20. ^ a b "三大院长南京说文物 (Three museum directors talk artefacts in Nanjing)", Jiangnan Times, People Net, 2003-10-19. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. (Chinese) 
  21. ^ Chen, Jie. "故宫曾有多种可怕改造方案 (Several horrifying reconstruction proposals had been made for the Forbidden City)", Yangcheng Evening News, Eastday, 2006-02-04. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. (Chinese) 
  22. ^ Xie, Yinming; Qu, Wanlin. "“文化大革命”中谁保护了故宫 (Who protected the Forbidden City in the Cultural Revolution?)", CPC Documents, People Net, 2006-11-07. Retrieved on 2007-07-25. (Chinese) 
  23. ^ The Forbidden City was listed as the "Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties". In 2004, Mukden Palace in Shenyang was added as an extension item to the property, which then became known as "Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang": UNESCO World Heritage List: Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  24. ^ Palace Museum. Forbidden City resotration project website. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  25. ^ "闾丘露薇:星巴克怎么进的故宫?(Luqiu Luwei: How did Starbucks get into the Forbidden City)", People Net, 2007-01-16. Retrieved on 2007-07-25. (Chinese) ; see also the original blog post here (in Chinese).
  26. ^ Starbucks Corporation. Starbucks Store Locator -- Store detail. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  27. ^ Mellissa Allison. "Starbucks closes Forbidden City store", The Seattle Times, 2007-07-13. Retrieved on 2007-07-14. 
  28. ^ Reuters. "Starbucks brews storm in China's Forbidden City", CNN, 2000-12-11. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. 
  29. ^ "Two stores inside Forbidden City refuse entry to Chinese nationals", Xinhua Net, 2006-08-23. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. (Chinese) 
  30. ^ "北京确立城市发展脉络 重塑7.8公里中轴线 (Beijing to establish civic development network; Recreating 7.8km central axis)", People Net, 2006-05-30. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. (Chinese) 
  31. ^ Pan, Feng. "探秘北京中轴线 (Exploring the mystery of Beijing's Central Axis)", Science Times, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2005-03-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. (Chinese) 
  32. ^ a b c d China Central Television, The Palace Museum. (2005). Gugong: "II. Ridgeline of a Prosperous Age" [Documentary]. China: CCTV.
  33. ^ p 25, Yang (2003)
  34. ^ a b p 32, Yu (1984)
  35. ^ p 33, Yu (1984)
  36. ^ Technically, Tiananmen Gate is not part of the Forbidden City; it is a gate of the Imperial City.
  37. ^ a b c p 25, Yu (1984)
  38. ^ a b p 49, Yu (1984)
  39. ^ p 48, Yu (1984)
  40. ^ a b The Palace Museum. Yin, Yang and the Five Elements in the Forbidden City (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  41. ^ p 253, Yu (1984)
  42. ^ The Palace Museum. 太和殿 (Hall of Supreme Harmony) (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  43. ^ The Palace Museum. 中和殿 (Hall of Central Harmony) (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  44. ^ The Palace Museum. 保和殿 (Hall of Preserving Harmony) (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  45. ^ p 70, Yu (1984)
  46. ^ For an explanation and illustration of the joint, see p 213, Yu (1984)
  47. ^ p 73, Yu (1984)
  48. ^ p 75, Yu (1984)
  49. ^ p 78, Yu (1984)
  50. ^ p 51, Yang (2003)
  51. ^ pp 80-83, Yu (1984)
  52. ^ a b China Central Television, The Palace Museum. (2005). Gugong: "III. Rites under Heaven " [Documentary]. China: CCTV.
  53. ^ p 121, Yu (1984)
  54. ^ p 87, Yu (1984)
  55. ^ p 115, Yu (1984)
  56. ^ p 176, Yu (1984)
  57. ^ p 177, Yu (1984)
  58. ^ pp 189-193, Yu (1984)
  59. ^ p 20, Yu (1984)
  60. ^ Working People's Cultural Palace. China.org.cn. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  61. ^ Zhongshan Park. China.org.cn. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  62. ^ "Forbidden City Buffer Zone Plan submitted to World Heritage conference", Xinhua Net, 2005-07-16. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. (Chinese) 
  63. ^ Li, Yang. "Beijing confirms 7 World Heritage alternate items; Large scale reconstruction of Imperial City halted", Xinhua Net, 2005-06-04. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. (Chinese) 
  64. ^ The Palace Museum. Hall of Supreme Harmony (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  65. ^ The Palace Museum. Rites and the palace planning scheme (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  66. ^ Wen, Lianxi (ed.) (1925). 故宫物品点查报告 [Palace items auditing report]. Beijing: Caretaker Committee of the Qing Dynasty Imperial Family. Reprint (2004): Xianzhuang Book Company. ISBN 7-80106-238-8. 
  67. ^ "北京故宫与台北故宫 谁的文物藏品多?[Beijing Palace Museum and Taipei Palace Museum: which collection is bigger?]", Guangming Daily, Xinhua Net, 2005-01-16. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. (Chinese) 
  68. ^ The Palace Museum. Collection highlights - Ceramics (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  69. ^ The Palace Museum. Collection highlights - Paintings (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  70. ^ The Palace Museum. Collection highlights - Bronzeware (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  71. ^ The Palace Museum. Collection highlights - Timepieces (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  72. ^ Laufer, Berthold (1912). Jade: A Study in Chinese Archeology & Religion. Gloucestor MA: Reprint (1989): Peter Smith Pub Inc. ISBN 978-0844652146. 
  73. ^ The Palace Museum. Collection highlights - Jade (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  74. ^ The Palace Museum. Collection highlights - Palace artefacts (Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  75. ^ The 5th Avenue Theater. Our Historic Theater - 5th Avenue Theater. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  76. ^ Anoop, Gantayat. Square Enix 2005: Kingdom Hearts II Playtest. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  77. ^ Turandot at the Forbidden City, Beijing 1998. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.; note some inconsistency in the description of the venue on the official site: it claims that the venue, the People's Cultural Palace, was the "Hall of Heavenly Purity". In fact, the Working People's Cultural Palace was the Temple to the Emperor's Ancestors: China.org: Working People's Cultural Palace.
  78. ^ Jean Michel Jarre lights up China. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  79. ^ Jonathan, Cohen. "30 Seconds To Mars Visits China For New Video", Billboard.com, 2006-11-15. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mukden Palace (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Shenyang Gugong (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Shenyang Imperial Palace, is the former imperial palace of the early Qing Dynasty (1616 - 1910) of China. ... This article is about a city. ... Gugong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the Chinese name for the Forbidden City in Beijing. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Guo Moruo (Chinese: 郭沫若; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuo Mo-jo, courtesy name Dǐng Táng 鼎堂) (November 16, 1892 - June 12, 1978) was a Chinese author, poet, historian, archaeologist, and government official. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yan Chongnian (Chinese: 阎崇年; Pinyin: Yán Chóngnián; born April 1934) is a Chinese historian, expert in the history of the Qing Dynasty. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mukden Palace (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Shenyang Gugong (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Shenyang Imperial Palace, is the former imperial palace of the early Qing Dynasty (1616 - 1910) of China. ... This article is about a city. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese: 中国科学院; pinyin: Zhōngguó Kēxuéyuàn), formerly known as Academia Sinica (not to be confused with Taiwans Academia Sinica currently headquartered in Taipei which shares the same root), is the national academy for the natural sciences of the Peoples Republic of... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Imperial City (Chinese: 北京皇城; Pinyin: Běijīng Huángchéng) is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (乾清宫) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Aisin-Gioro, Puyi (1964). From Emperor to citizen : the autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi. Beijing: Foreign Language Press. ISBN 0-192-82099-0. 
  • Ho; Bronson (2004). Splendors of China's Forbidden City. London: Merrell Publishers. ISBN 1-85894-258-6. 
  • Huang, Ray (1981). 1587, A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02518-1. 
  • Yang, Xiagui; Li, Shaobai (photography); Chen, Huang (translation) (2003). The Invisible Palace. Beijing: Foreign Language Press. ISBN 7-119-03432-4. 
  • Yu, Zhuoyun (1984). Palaces of the Forbidden City. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-53721-7. 

See also

Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... Chinese Palaces are some of the most elaborate facilities that have been ever constructed. ... Overview of the National Palace Museum. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Forbidden City
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Palace Museum, Beijing
  • Palace Museum official site
  • National Palace Museum (Taipei) official site
  • World heritage virtual tour via immersive panoramas
  • Satellite photograph of the Forbidden City
  • Forbidden City, A Photographic Tour

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing by the 1st millennium BC, and the capital of the State of Yan, one of the powers of the Warring States Period, was established at Ji (T: è–Š / S: è“Ÿ), near modern Beijing. ... The Imperial City (Chinese: 北京皇城; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng Huángchéng) is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties. ... Fortifications of Beijing city The city wall of Beijing was a fortification built around 1435. ... New built Yongdingmen Yongdingmen (Chinese: 永定門; Manchu: Enteheme toktoho duka) was the former front gate of the outer section of Beijings old city wall. ... The Qianmen in Beijing The Qianmen (Simplified Chinese: 前门; Traditional Chinese: 前門; pinyin: Qiánmén; literally Front Gate) is the common name for the gateway known formally as Zhengyangmen (Simplified Chinese: 正阳门; Traditional Chinese: 正陽門; pinyin: Zhèngyángmén). ... The Gate of China in Beijing (Chinese: 中华门; pinyin: ) is a historical ceremonial gateway in Beijing, China, located near the centre of todays Tiananmen Square. ... The Tiananmen The Gate of Heavenly Peace is the front entrance into the Imperial City A close-up of the rooftop The Tiananmen or Tiananmen (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānānmén; Manchu: Abkai elhe obure duka), is the main entrance to the Imperial City, the... Deshengmen from the 2nd Ring Road (Northern segment, taken in July of 2004) The Deshengmen (Simplified Chinese: 德胜门; Traditional Chinese: 德勝門; pinyin: Déshèngmén) is one of the few surviving city gates in Beijing, located at the northern tip of the 2nd Ring Road. ... Meridian Gate, viewed from the south The Meridian Gate (Traditional Chinese: 午門; Simplified Chinese: 午门; pinyin: WÇ”mén) is the southern (and largest) gate of the Forbidden City. ... The Gate of Supreme Harmony (center right). ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Amba hÅ«waliyambure deyen) is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. ... Hall of Central Harmony (foreground) with Hall of Preserving Harmony The Hall of Central Harmony is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City, along with the Hall of Supreme Harmony and Hall of Preserving Harmony. ... Hall of Preserving Harmony (background) with Hall of Central Harmony The throne in the Hall of Preserving Harmony The Hall of Preserving Harmony is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City, along with the Hall of Supreme Harmony and Hall of Central Harmony. ... The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (乾清宫) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... The Hall of Union is a building in the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China. ... The Palace of Earthly Tranquility is the northernmost of the three main halls of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City, the other two halls being the Palace of Heavenly Purity and the Hall of Union. ... The Gate of Divine Might or Gate of Divine Prowess (Chinese: 神武門; pinyin: ; literally Divine Military Might/Prowess Gate) is the northern gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The bridge to the White Pagoda. ... The Jingshan Park in Beijing Jingshan Hill (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Prospect Hill) is an artificial hill in Beijing, China. ... The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Abkai mukdehun) is a complex of Taoist buildings situated in southeastern urban Beijing, in Xuanwu District. ... The Yonghe Temple (雍和宮), also known as the Palace of Peace and Harmony Lama Temple, the Yonghe Lamasery, or - popularly - the Lama Temple is a temple and monastery of the Geluk School of Tibetan Buddhism located in the northeastern part of Beijing, China. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Forbidden City Introduction (1268 words)
The Forbidden City or Forbidden Palace is located at the exact center of the ancient city of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and the Qing Dynasties.
The Forbidden City has the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world, and was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 as the "Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties".
Forbidden Gardens in Katy, Texas, is a fascinating outdoor museum replicating some of China's major historic scenes.
Forbidden City (2182 words)
Known as the Outer Court, the southern portion of the Forbidden City centres on the halls of Supreme Harmony, Central Harmony and Preserving Harmony.
Mirroring this arrangement is the Inner Court at the northern end of the Forbidden City, with the Palace of Heavenly Purity, the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquillity straddling the central axis, surrounded by the Six Palaces of the East and West and the Imperial Garden to the north.
As the heart of the Forbidden City, the so-called Golden Carriage Palace, used to be the place where emperors received high officials and practiced their rule over the nation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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