FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Foramen Vesalii
Foramen Vesalii of Sphenoid
Sphenoid bone. Upper surface. (foramen Vesalii labeled at left, fourth from bottom.)
Base of the skull. Upper surface. (Sphenoid is yellow, and foramen Vesalii is labeled at bottom of sphenoid.)
Latin '
Gray's subject #35 150
Precursor {{{Precursor}}}
MeSH [1]
Dorlands/Elsevier f_12/12373813

In the base of the skull, in the great wings of the sphenoid bone, medial to the foramen ovale, a small aperture, the foramen Vesalii, may occasionally be seen (it is often absent) opposite the root of the pterygoid process. When present, it opens below near the scaphoid fossa. Vesalius was the first to describe and illustrate the foramen that bears his name (foramen Vesalii meaning 'foramen of Vesalius'). The foramen Vesalii is sometimes referred to as the foramen venosum, the sphenoidal emissary foramen, or the canaliculus sphenoidalis. Figure 1 : Sphenoid bone, upper surface. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (719x1057, 150 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Embryology is the branch of developmental biology that studies embryos and their development. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... Figure 1 : Sphenoid bone, upper surface. ... Two structures in the human body are called foramen ovale, meaning circular hole. ... Andreas Vesalius (portrait from the Fabrica). ...



If at all present, the foramen Vesalii gives passage to a small vein (vein of Vesalius) that connects the pterygoid plexus with the cavernous sinus. The importance of this passage lies in the fact that an infected thrombus from an extracranial source may reach the cavernous sinus.[1] The mean area of the foramen is small, which may suggest that it plays a minor role in the dynamics of blood circulation in the venous system of the head.[2] The cavernous sinus is a large channel of venous blood creating a sinus cavity bordered by the sphenoid bone and the temporal bone of the skull. ... A thrombus or blood clot is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...

Morphology and morphometry

The foramen Vesalii varies in size in different individuals, and is not always present on both sides of of the sphenoid bone (one on each great wing of the sphenoid). In a study conducted under 100 skulls, the foramen Vesalii was only present in 17% of the cases, and it was always single.[2]

In another study, the differences between the right and the left side as well as the differences between the male and the female sex were noted. Out of the 70 sides observed (35 skulls total), the foramen Vesalii was present in 32.85% of the cases (20.0% right side, 12.85% left side). The incidence of bilateral and unilateral foramen Vesalii was 22.85% (8 out of 35 skulls) and 20% (7 out of 35 skulls) respectively. Regarding the differences between the male and the female sex, no remarkable differences were observed, although the occurrence of the foramen was more in females compared to males (found in 13 sides in females and in 10 sides in males).[1]
The skulls with one foramen Vesalii were most frequent; those with two followed it and those with 3 foramen Vesalii were least frequent (this was one of the conlusions in another study).[3] Lang (1983) reported that the foramen Vesalii was present in about 40% of his material. It was found on the right side in 49% of the cases and in 36% of the cases on the left. [4]

In the newborn, the foramen is about 1.0 mm in length, in the adults at the right side about 2 mm and at the left side 1.4 mm. The width increases from 1.0 to 1.14 mm at the right side and from 1.0 to 1.3 mm at the left side.[5]


Though the foramen Vesalii is small and variable, it is consistently symmetrical. In a study in which 50 high-resolution CT scans of the base of the skull were reviewed, the significance of asymmetry was investigated. In a large number of cases, the foramen was remarkably symmetric, and where there was asymmetry, it signified abnormality in four of the six cases. Abnormal causes of asymmetry included invasion by nasopharyngeal melanoma, angiofibroma, carotid-cavernous fistula with drainage through the emissary veins, and neurofibromatosis. Thus, for the usually symmetric foramen Vesalii, asymmetry is more likely the result of a pathologic process than a normal variant.[6] Ginsberg, Pruett, Chen and Elster did not find that asymmetry indicated disease in a study under 123 CT studies.[7] CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. ... The emissary veins are valveless veins which normally drain the intracranial venous sinuses to veins on the outside of the skull. ... Neurofibromatosis is a autosomal dominant genetic disorder. ...


  1. ^ a b Gupta N, Ray B, Ghosh S (2005). "Anatomic characteristics of foramen vesalius". Kathmandu University Medical Journal 3 (10): 155-8. PMID 16415612.
  2. ^ a b Reymond J, Charuta A, Wysocki J (2005). "The morphology and morphometry of the foramina of the greater wing of the human sphenoid bone". Folia Morphologica Warszaw 64 (3): 188-93. PMID 16228954.
  3. ^ Kodama K, Inoue K, Nagashima M, Matsumura G, Watanabe S, Kodama G (1997). "Studies on the foramen vesalius in the Japanese juvenile and adult skulls". The Hokkaido Journal of Medical Science 72 (6): 667-74. PMID 9465318.
  4. ^ "Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus V: Skeletal Systems: Cranium - Sphenoid Bone." Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation. URL accessed on 2006-04-09.
  5. ^ Lang J, Maier R, Schafhauser O (1984). "Postnatal enlargement of the foramina rotundum, ovale et spinosum and their topographical changes". Anatomischer Anzeiger 156 (5): 351-87. PMID 6486466.
  6. ^ Lanzieri CF, Duchesneau PM, Rosenbloom SA, Smith AS, Rosenbaum AE (1988). "The significance of asymmetry of the foramen of Vesalius". Americal Journal of Neuroradiology 9 (6): 1201-4. PMID 3143245.
  7. ^ Ginsberg LE, Pruett SW, Chen MY, Elster AD (February 1994). "Skull-base foramina of the middle cranial fossa: reassessment of normal variation with high-resolution CT". Americal Journal of Neuroradiology 15 (2): 283-91. PMID 8192074.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ...

See also

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. The following is a list of holes, or foramina, in the base of the skull and what goes through each of them. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Cranial bones - edit

occipital bone: Foramen magnum | Squama occipitalis (Inion | Nuchal lines | Planum occipitale | Planum nuchale | Internal occipital protuberance | Sagittal sulcus | Internal occipital crest) | Lateral parts (Hypoglossal canal | Condyloid fossa | Condyloid canal | Jugular process | Jugular tubercle) | Basilar part (Pharyngeal tubercle) A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... The occipital bone [Fig. ... In anatomy, the foramen magum is the large hole through the occipital bone in the base of the skull, through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) exits the skull vault. ... The inion is the most prominent projection of the occipital bone at the lower rear part of the skull. ... The hypoglossal canal is a bony canal in the occipital bone of the skull that transmits the hypoglossal nerve from its point of entry near the medulla oblongata to its exit from the base of the skull near the jugular foramen. ... Behind either condyle of the lateral parts of occipital bone is a depression, the condyloid fossa (or condylar fossa), which receives the posterior margin of the superior facet of the atlas when the head is bent backward; the floor of this fossa is sometimes perforated by the condyloid canal, through... In the lateral parts of occipital bone, behind either condyle is a depression, the condyloid fossa, which receives the posterior margin of the superior facet of the atlas when the head is bent backward; the floor of this fossa is sometimes perforated by the condyloid canal (or condylar canal), through... The basilar part of the occipital bone extends forward and upward from the foramen magnum, and presents in front an area more or less quadrilateral in outline. ...

parietal bone: Parietal eminence | Temporal line | Parietal foramen The parietal bones (os parietale) are bones in the human skull and form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. ...

frontal bone: Squama frontalis (Frontal suture | Frontal eminence | Superciliary arches | Glabella | Supraorbital foramen | Zygomatic process | Sagittal sulcus | Frontal crest | Foramen cecum) | Pars orbitalis (Frontal sinus | Frontonasal duct) The frontal bone (os frontale, TA: A02. ... The frontal suture (sutura frontalis) is a dense connective tissue structure that divides the two halves of the frontal bone of the skull in infants and children. ... The glabella is the space between the eyebrows and above the nose. ... The orbital or horizontal part of the frontal bone (pars orbitalis) consists of two thin triangular plates, the orbital plates, which form the vaults of the orbits, and are separated from one another by a median gap, the ethmoidal notch. ... ...

temporal bone: Squama temporalis (Articular tubercle | Suprameatal triangle | Mandibular fossa | Petrotympanic fissure) | Mastoid portion (Mastoid foramen | Mastoid process | Mastoid notch | Occipital groove | Sigmoid sulcus | Mastoid antrum) | Petrous portion (Hiatus of the facial canal | Internal auditory meatus | Subarcuate fossa | Carotid canal | Aqueduct of cochlea | Jugular fossa | Inferior tympanic canaliculus | Mastoid canaliculus | Styloid process | Stylomastoid foramen | Jugular foramen | Petrosquamous suture) | Tympanic part (Suprameatal spine) The temporal bones (os temporales) are situated at the sides and base of the skull. ... The anterior root of the posterior end of the outer surface of the Squama temporalis, continuous with the lower border, is short but broad and strong; it is directed medialward and ends in a rounded eminence, the articular tubercle (eminentia articularis). ... The mastoid process (or mastoid bone) is a conical bump of the posterior portion of the temporal bone that is situated behind the ear in humans and many other vertebrates and serves as a site of neck muscle attachment (the Sternocleidomastoid, Splenius capitis, and Longissimus capitis). ... Mastoid antrum (or tympanic antrum) is a cavity in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, communicating posteriorly with the mastoid cells and anteriorly with the epitympanic recess of the middle ear via the aperture of the mastoid antrum. ... On the interior surface of the temporal bone, behind the rough surface of the apex, is the large circular aperture of the carotid canal, which ascends at first vertically, and then, making a bend, runs horizontally forward and medialward; it transmits into the cranium the internal carotid artery, and the... Medial to the opening for the carotid canal and close to its posterior border, in front of the jugular fossa, is a triangular depression; at the apex of this is a small opening, the aquaeductus cochleae (or cochlear aqueduct, or aqueduct of cochlea), which lodges a tubular prolongation of the... Between the styloid and mastoid processes is the stylomastoid foramen; it is the termination of the facial canal, and transmits the facial nerve and stylomastoid artery. ... Behind the carotid canal is the jugular foramen, a large aperture, formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal, and behind by the occipital; it is generally larger on the right than on the left side, and may be subdivided into three compartments. ...

sphenoid bone: Sphenoidal sinuses | Ethmoidal spine | Optic foramen | Sella turcica | Fossa hypophyseos | Dorsum sellae | Posterior clinoid processes | Carotid groove | Lingula sphenoidalis | Sphenoidal conchæ | Great wings (Spina angularis | Foramen rotundum | Foramen ovale | Foramen Vesalii | Foramen spinosum | Infratemporal crest | Sulcus tubae auditivae | Small wings | Superior orbital fissure | Anterior clinoid process | Optic foramen) | Pterygoid processes (Pterygoid fossa | Scaphoid fossa | Lateral pterygoid plate | Medial pterygoid plate | Pterygoid hamulus | Sphenoidal conchæ | Sphenoidal sinuses) Figure 1 : Sphenoid bone, upper surface. ... The superior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone (Fig. ... The Sella turcica (literally Turkish saddle) is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull. ... In the sphenoid bone, the anterior boundary of the sella turcica is completed by two small eminences, one on either side, called the middle clinoid processes, while the posterior boundary is formed by a square-shaped plate of bone, the dorsum sellæ, ending at its superior angles in two tubercles... Above the attachment of each great wing of the sphenoid bone is a broad groove, curved something like the italic letter f; it lodges the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is named the carotid groove. ... At th anterior and medial part of the Sphenoid is a circular aperture, the foramen rotundum, for the transmission of the maxillary nerve. ... At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is a hole that transmits the mandibular nerve, the otic ganglion, the accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins (from the cavernous sinus to the pterygoid plexus) and the lesser superficial petrosal nerve. ... The foramen spinosum is the foramen in the skull that permits the passage of the middle meningeal artery. ... The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone. ... In the sphenoid bone, the posterior border, smooth and rounded, is received into the lateral fissure of the brain; the medial end of this border forms the anterior clinoid process, which gives attachment to the tentorium cerebelli; it is sometimes joined to the middle clinoid process by a spicule of... The Pterygoid fossa, or the sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. ... The medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate; it curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the Tensor veli palatini glides. ...

ethmoid bone: Cribriform plate | Crista galli | Perpendicular plate | Labyrinth | Ethmoid sinus | Uncinate process | Middle nasal concha | Superior meatus | Superior nasal concha | Middle meatus Your skull is in your back (this is obviously not true, I was just testing the website to see if it really works) The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... The crista galli (Latin: crest of the cock) is a median ridge of bone that projects from the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. ... ethmoidal sinuses can be divided into 3: a) anterior b) middle c) posterior except the posterior ethmoidal sinus, all the ethmoidal sinuses will drain into middle meateus. ... An uncinate process is a hook shaped process on the lateral borders of the superior surface of the bodies of C3-C6 (T1). ...

Facial bones

maxilla: Incisive fossa | Maxillary sinus | Incisive fossa | Canine fossa | Infraorbital foramen | Anterior nasal spine | Alveolar canals | Orbitofrontal cortex | Infraorbital canal | Pterygopalatine canal | Zygomatic process | Agger nasi | Anterior lacrimal crest | Alveolar process | Incisive foramen | Incisive canals | Foramina of Scarpa | Premaxilla | Anterior nasal spine A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw. ... The maxillary sinus is the largest paranasal sinus. ... Lateral to the incisive fossa is another depression, the canine fossa; it is larger and deeper than the incisive fossa, and is separated from it by a vertical ridge, the canine eminence, corresponding to the socket of the canine tooth; the canine fossa gives origin to the Caninus. ... Medially, the anterior surface of the maxilla is limited by a deep concavity, the nasal notch, the margin of which gives attachment to the Dilatator naris posterior and ends below in a pointed process, which with its fellow of the opposite side forms the anterior nasal spine. ... The infratemporal surface of the maxilla is pierced about its center by the apertures of the alveolar canals, which transmit the posterior superior alveolar vessels and nerves. ... The orbitofrontal cortex is a region of association cortex the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... The agger nasi is a small ridge on the lateral side of the nasal cavity. ... The lateral margin of the lacrimal fossa is named the anterior lacrimal crest, and is continuous below with the orbital margin; at its junction with the orbital surface is a small tubercle, the lacrimal tubercle, which serves as a guide to the position of the lacrimal sac. ... The alveolar process (processus alveolaris), also referred to as the alveolar bone, is the bone found in the jaws of a mouth containing the socket of teeth. ... The premaxilla is a pair of small bones at the very tip of the jaws of many animals, usually bearing teeth, but not always. ... Medially, the anterior surface of the maxilla is limited by a deep concavity, the nasal notch, the margin of which gives attachment to the Dilatator naris posterior and ends below in a pointed process, which with its fellow of the opposite side forms the anterior nasal spine. ...

lacrimal bone: Posterior lacrimal crest The lacrimal bone (Os Lacrimale), the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit . ...

zygomatic bone: Zygomaticofacial foramen | Zygomaticotemporal foramen | Zygomaticoörbital foramina The zygomatic bone (also known as the zygoma; Os Zygomaticum; Malar Bone) is a paired bone of the human skull. ...

palatine bone: Pterygopalatine fossa | Pterygoid fossa | Horizontal plate | Posterior nasal spine | Perpendicular plate | Pterygopalatine canal | Sphenopalatine foramen | Pyramidal process | Orbital process | Sphenoidal process The palatine bone is a bone situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid. ... In the skull, the pterygopalatine fossa is the space between the lateral pterygoid plate (which is part of the sphenoid bone), and the palate. ... The Pterygoid fossa, or the sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. ...

mandible: Symphysis menti | Mental foramen | Mylohyoid line | Ramus mandibulae | Mandibular foramen | Mandibular canal The mandible (inferior maxillary bone) (together with the maxilla) is the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The external surface of the mandible is marked in the median line by a faint ridge, indicating the Symphysis menti or line of junction of the two pieces of which the bone is composed at an early period of life. ... The mental foramen is a foramen in the mandible. ... The Mandibular Foramen is an opening on the internal surface of the ramus for the mandibular vessels and nerve to pass. ...

others: nasal bone | inferior nasal conchae | vomer bone The Nasal Bones (Ossa Faciei & Ossa Nasalia) are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, the bridge of the nose. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nasal concha. ... The vomer bone is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull. ...

composite structures

Cranial sutures: Coronal | Lambdoidal | Occipitomastoid | Parietomastoid | Sphenofrontal | Sphenoparietal |Sphenosquamosal | Sphenozygomatic |Squamosal | Zygomaticotemporal | Zygomaticofrontal | Frontal/Metopic | Sagittal | Frontoethmoidal | Petrosquamous | Sphenoethmoidal | Sphenopetrosal Side view of the skull. ... The coronal suture (sutura coronalis) is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint that separates the frontal and parietal bones of the skull. ... The squamosal suture arches backward from the pterion and connects the temporal squama with the lower border of the parietal: this suture is continuous behind with the short, nearly horizontal parietomastoid suture, which unites the mastoid process of the temporal with the region of the mastoid angle of the parietal. ... The frontal suture (sutura frontalis) is a dense connective tissue structure that divides the two halves of the frontal bone of the skull in infants and children. ... The sagittal suture (sutura sagittalis) is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull. ...

Asterion | Nasion | Pterion | Dacryon | Inferior orbital fissure For other uses, see Asterion (disambiguation) In human anatomy, the asterion is a visible, so-called craniometric, point on the exposed skull, just behind the ear, where three cranial sutures meet: the lambdoid, parieto-mastoid, and occipito-mastoid sutures. ... The nasion (nay-zhun) is the intersection of the frontal and two nasal bones of the human skull. ... The point corresponding with the posterior end of the sphenoparietal suture is named the pterion; it is situated about 3 cm. ... The point of junction of the maxillary bone, lacrimal bone, and frontal bone is named the dacryon. ...



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m