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Encyclopedia > Football
Look up Football in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Some of the many different codes of football.

Football is the name given to a number of different, but related, team sports. The most popular of these world-wide is association football (also known as soccer). The English word "football" is also applied to American football, Australian rules football, Canadian football, Gaelic football, rugby football (rugby union and rugby league), and related games. Each of these codes (specific sets of rules) is to a greater or lesser extent referred to as "football" and sometimes "footy" by its followers. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (from wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... A football is a ball used to play one of the different sports known as football. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (591x719, 1085 KB) This is a collage of Image:International rules. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (591x719, 1085 KB) This is a collage of Image:International rules. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The English language word football may mean any one of several games, or the ball used in that game, depending on the national or regional origin/location of the person using the word. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... High marking is a key skill and spectator attribute of Aussie Rules Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Aussie Rules Football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of football... Canadian football is a sport in which two teams of twelve players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (100. ... Gaelic football (Irish: Peil or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, Gaelic or GAA (gah), is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ... A rugby union scrum. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ...


These games involve:

  • a large spherical or prolate spheroid ball, which is itself called a football.
  • a team scoring goals and/or points, by moving the ball to an opposing team's end of the field and either into a goal area, or over a line.
  • the goal and/or line being defended by the opposing team.
  • players being required to move the ball mostly by kicking and — in some codes — carrying and/or passing the ball by hand.
  • goals and/or points resulting from players putting the ball between two goalposts.
  • offside rules, in most codes, restricting the movement of players.
  • in some codes, points are mostly scored by players carrying the ball across the goal line.
  • in most codes players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a crossbar between the goalposts.
  • players in some codes receiving a free kick after they take a mark/make a fair catch.

Many of the modern games have their origins in England, but many peoples around the world have played games which involved kicking and/or carrying a ball since ancient times. A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... A football is a ball used to play one of the different sports known as football. ... A team comprises many group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. ... A tennis scoreboard. ... In Association Football (soccer), the word goal refers to both the result of a score and the physical structure that defines when a score has occurred. ... A tennis scoreboard. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A taekwondo sidekick. ... On the sporting field, goalposts are posts between which players must carry, kick or pass a ball or similar object in order to score points, or simply a goal. ... Offside, off-side or off side can mean: The offside rule that occurs in a number of field sports including most versions of football (see offside law (football)), ice hockey (see offside (hockey)) and, until recently, in field hockey. ... A close up on a door mounted crossbar Crossbar can refer to these things: A primitive fastener consisting of a post barring a door The horizontal member of many sports goals including those for hockey, soccer, and American football A structural member that crosses any two other elements A crossbar... A free-kick in football describes the situation where a player on the opposing team has committed a foul, and you are given the ball to play from the position where the offence took place. ... Look up mark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A fair catch is a play in American football and several other forms of football. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Football (word)

While it is widely believed that the word "football" (or "foot ball") originated in reference to the action of a foot kicking a ball, there is a rival explanation, which has it that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot.[1] These games were usually played by peasants, as opposed to the horse-riding sports often played by aristocrats. While there is no conclusive evidence for this explanation, the word football has always implied a variety of games played on foot, not just those that involved kicking a ball. In some cases, the word football has even been applied to games which have specifically outlawed kicking the ball The English language word football may mean any one of several games, or the ball used in that game, depending on the national or regional origin/location of the person using the word. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ...


History

Early history

Throughout the history of mankind, the urge to kick at stones and other such objects is thought to have led to many early activities involving kicking and/or running with a ball. Football-like games predate recorded history in all parts of the world, and thus the earliest forms of football are not known. Football, in the modern world, was an invention of the great player herself, Katie Charlotte Tasker. The first official football team was Shefield FC and later became the brilliant Sheffield Wednesday, consequently who Katie supportered. Balls are objects typically used in games. ...


Ancient games

Documented evidence of what is possibly the oldest activity resembling football can be found in a Chinese military manual written during the Warring States Period in about the 476 BC-221 BC. It describes a practice known as cuju, which involved kicking a leather ball through a hole in a piece of silk cloth strung between two 30 foot poles. Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC Years: 481 BC 480 BC 479 BC 478 BC 477 BC _ 476 BC _ 475 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Cuju (Chinese: ) is an ancient sport similar to footbal (soccer), played in China as well as Korea and Japan. ...

Kemari being played at the Tanzan Shrine, Sakurai, Japan.

Another Asian ball-kicking game, which was influenced by cuju, is kemari. This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto from about 600 AD. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie). The game appears to have died out sometime before the mid-19th century. (It was revived in 1903, and it can now be seen played for the benefit of tourists at a number of festivals.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x722, 243 KB) Taken at Tanzan Shrine I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x722, 243 KB) Taken at Tanzan Shrine I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Kemari is a sport that was popular in Japan in the Heian Age. ... Tanzan Shrine The Tanzan Shrine or Danzan Shrine, also known as the Tonomine Temple, is a Buddhist temple in Sakurai, Nara, Japan. ... Sakurai (桜井市; -shi) is a city located in Nara, Japan. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Kemari is a sport that was popular in Japan in the Heian Age. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Keepie uppie is the art of juggling with a football using feet, knees, chest, shoulders, and head. ...


Mesoamerican ballgames played with rubber balls are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to basketball or volleyball, and since their influence on modern football games is minimal, most do not class them as football. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ulama game. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ...


The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman writer Cicero describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a team game known as "επισκυρος" (episkyros) or pheninda that is mentioned by Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388-311BC) and later referred to by Clement of Alexandria. These games appears to have resembled rugby. The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in UK English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Harpastum, also known as Harpustum, was a form of football played in the Roman Empire. ... Antiphanes, the most important writer of the Middle Attic comedy with the exception of Alexis, lived from about 408 to 334 BC. He was apparently a foreigner who settled in Athens, where he began to write about 387. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ...


There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, and/or prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer named John Davis, went ashore to play a form of football with Inuit (Eskimo) people in Greenland.[2] There are later accounts of an Inuit game played on ice, called Aqsaqtuk. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. In 1610, William Strachey of the Jamestown settlement, Virginia recorded a game played by Native Americans, called Pahsaheman. In Victoria, Australia, indigenous people played a game called Marn Grook ("ball game"). An 1878 book by Robert Brough-Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, quotes a man called Richard Thomas as saying, in about 1841, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." It is widely believed that Marn Grook had an influence on the development of Australian rules football (see below). The word tradition comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... John Davis (1550?—1605) was one of the chief English navigators and explorers under Elizabeth I, especially in Polar regions. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... William Strachey (1572-1621) was an English writer and barrister, whose writings are among the primary sources for the history the English colonization of North America, and as one of the only narratives describing Powhatan society. ... Sketch of Jamestown c. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ... Indigenous Australians or Aborigines[1][2] are the first human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ... Marn Grook (also spelt marngrook) is an Australian Aboriginal ball game, which is claimed to have had an influence on the modern game of Australian rules football, most notably in the spectacular jumping and high marking exhibited by the players of both games. ... Robert Brough Smyth 1830-1899 was an Australian geologist and social commentator. ... Superfamilies and Families Phalangeroidea Burramyidae Phalangeridae Petauroidea Pseudocheiridae Petauridae Tarsipedidae Acrobatidae A possum is any of about 64 small to medium-sized arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea and Sulawesi. ... High marking is a key skill and spectator attribute of Aussie Rules Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Aussie Rules Football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of football...


These games and others may well go far back into antiquity and may have influenced later football games. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area...


Mediæval and early modern Europe

Further information: Mediæval football

The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. The game played in England at this time may have arrived with the Roman occupation, but there is little evidence to indicate this. Reports of a game played in Brittany, Normandy, and Picardy, known as La Soule or Choule, suggest that some of these football games could have arrived in England as a result of the Norman Conquest. The name mediæval football is a modern term sometimes used for a wide variety of localised games which were invented and played during the Middle Ages in Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Royal Shrovetide Football Match occurs annually on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the town of Ashbourne in Derbyshire, England. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... wazzup Categories: | ... La Soule, also known as choule, is a traditional team sport originating in Normandy, Brittany and Picardy. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...

An illustration of mob football.

These archaic forms of football, typically classified as "mob football", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams, who would clash in a heaving mass of people struggling to drag an inflated pig's bladder by any means possible to markers at each end of a town (sometimes instead of markers, the teams would attempt to kick the bladder into the balcony of the opponents' church). There is no evidence to support the legend that these games in England evolved from a more ancient and bloody ritual of kicking the "Dane's head". Shrovetide games have survived into the modern era in a number of English towns (see below). Image File history File links Mobfooty. ... Image File history File links Mobfooty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mediæval football. ... This article is about the pig genus. ...


The first detailed description of football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about 1174-1183. He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday: This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mardi gras. ...

After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: you can see their inner passions aroused as they watch the action and get caught up in the fun being had by the carefree adolescents.[3]

Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked.


In 1314 , Nicholas de Farndone, Lord Mayor of London issued a decree banning football (in the French used by the English upper classes at the time. A translation reads: "[f]orasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large foot balls [rageries de grosses pelotes de pee] in the fields of the public from which many evils might arise which God forbid: we command and forbid on behalf of the king, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future." This is the earliest reference to football. Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... Current Lord Mayor of London John Stuttard during the parade on November 11th, 2006 Michael Berry Savory, Previous Lord Mayor (2004–2005) The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the Mayor of the City of London and head of the Corporation of London. ...


The earliest mention of a ball game that involves kicking was in 1321, in Shouldham, Norfolk: "[d]uring the game at ball as he kicked the ball, a lay friend of his... ran against him and wounded himself".[4]. Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


In 1363, King Edward III of England issued a proclamation banning "...handball, football, or hockey; coursing and cock-fighting, or other such idle games", showing that "football" — whatever its exact form in this case — was being differentiated from games involving other parts of the body, such as handball. Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


King Henry IV of England gives the earliest documented use of the English word "football", in 1409, when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball".[5] Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ...


There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire. This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: "[t]he game at which they had met for common recreation is called by some the foot-ball game. It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet... kicking in opposite directions" The chronicler gives the earliest reference to a football field, stating that: "[t]he boundaries have been marked and the game had started.[6] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Cawston (2005 (unincorporated) Population approximately 900) This small community in the south Similkameen Valley was named for R.L. Cawston, a pioneer rancher and magistrate who settled in the area in the 1800s. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... In sports such as football (soccer), basketball and water polo, dribbling refers to the maneuvering of a ball around a defender through short skillful taps or kicks with either the legs (football/soccer), hands (basketball) or swimming strokes (water polo). ...


Other firsts in the mediæval and early modern eras: The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ...

  • "a football", in the sense of a ball rather than a game, was first mentioned in 1486.[7] This reference is in Dame Juliana Berners' Book of St Albans. It states: "a certain rounde instrument to play with ...it is an instrument for the foote and then it is calde in Latyn 'pila pedalis', a fotebal." [8]
  • a pair of football boots was ordered by King Henry VIII of England in 1526. [9]
  • women playing a form of football was in 1580, when Sir Philip Sidney described it in one of his poems: "[a] tyme there is for all, my mother often sayes, When she, with skirts tuckt very hy, with girles at football playes."[10]
  • the first references to goals are in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In 1584 and 1602 respectively, John Norden and Richard Carew referred to "goals" in Cornish hurling. Carew described how goals were made: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foote asunder; and directly against them, ten or twelue [twelve] score off, other twayne in like distance, which they terme their Goales".[11] He is also the first to describe goalkeepers and passing of the ball between players.
  • the first direct reference to scoring a goal is in John Day's play The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (performed circa 1600; published 1659): "I'll play a gole at camp-ball" (an extremely violent variety of football, which was popular in East Anglia). Similarly in a poem in 1613, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe".

Sketch of Juliana Berners Juliana Berners (or Barnes or Bernes) (b. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Philip Sidney. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... John Nordens map of London in 1593. ... Richard Carew (1555 - 1620) was a Cornish translator and antiquary. ... Pub Sign at St. ... There have been several well-known people called John Day: John Day (Old Testament scholar), D.D., Professor of Old Testament Studies in the University of Oxford, Fellow, Tutor in Theology, and Dean of Degrees, Lady Margaret Hall John Day (fl. ... Camping was a team ball game played in Medieval England and was a forerunner of football. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Drayton, 1628 Michael Drayton (1563 – December 23, 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. ...

Calcio Fiorentino

An illustration of the Calcio Fiorentino field and starting positions, from a 1688 book by Pietro di Lorenzo Bini.
An illustration of the Calcio Fiorentino field and starting positions, from a 1688 book by Pietro di Lorenzo Bini.
Main article: Calcio Fiorentino

In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as "calcio storico" ("historic kickball") in the Piazza della Novere or the Piazza Santa Croce. The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. In 1580, Count Giovanni de' Bardi di Vernio wrote Discorso sopra 'l giuoco del Calcio Fiorentino. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January 1739 (until it was revived in May 1930). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (955x676, 97 KB) Image taken from: Pietro di Lorenzo Bini (ed. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (955x676, 97 KB) Image taken from: Pietro di Lorenzo Bini (ed. ... Calcio Fiorentino was an early form of football that originated in 16th century Italy. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... This article is about the Christian feast. ... In Western Christianity, Lent is the forty-day period (or season) lasting from Ash Wednesday to Easter[1] or Holy Saturday. ...


Official disapproval and attempts to ban football

Numerous attempts have been made to ban football games, particularly the most rowdy and disruptive forms. This was especially the case in England and in other parts of Europe, during the Middle Ages and early modern period. Between 1324 and 1667, football was banned in England alone by more than 30 royal and local laws. The need to repeatedly proclaim such laws demonstrated the difficulty in enforcing bans on popular games. King Edward II was so troubled by the unruliness of football in London that on April 13, 1314 he issued a proclamation banning it: "Forasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large balls from which many evils may arise which God forbid; we command and forbid, on behalf of the King, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future." Numerous attempts have been made throughout history to ban various kinds of football games, particularly the most rowdy and disruptive forms. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September? 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ...


The reasons for the ban by Edward III, on June 12, 1349, were explicit: football and other recreations distracted the populace from practicing archery, which was necessary for war. This article is about the King of England. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... In Target Archery, the object is to hit targets such as this to score points. ...


By 1608, the local authorities in Manchester were complaining that: "With the ffotebale...[there] hath beene greate disorder in our towne of Manchester we are told, and glasse windowes broken yearlye and spoyled by a companie of lewd and disordered persons ..."[12] That same year, the word "football" was used disapprovingly by William Shakespeare. Shakespeare's play King Lear contains the line: "Nor tripped neither, you base football player" (Act I, Scene 4). Shakespeare also mentions the game in A Comedy of Errors (Act II, Scene 1): Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... This page is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is generally regarded as one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... Project Management- A comedy of errors, by Prasanna Kumar. ...

Am I so round with you as you with me,
That like a football you do spurn me thus?
You spurn me hence, and he will spurn me hither:
If I last in this service, you must case me in leather.

"Spurn" literally means to kick away, thus implying that the game involved kicking a ball between players.


King James I of England's Book of Sports (1618) however, instructs Christians to play at football every Sunday afternoon after worship.[13] The book's aim appears to be an attempt to offset the strictness of the Puritans regarding the keeping of the Sabbath.[14] James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ...


Establishment of modern codes of football

British public schools

While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools (known as private schools in other countries) are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes. First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport. Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools. Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools. Finally, it was at British public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" (or "carrying") games first became clear. During the early modern era students, former students and teachers at British public schools developed many unique codes of football. ... A public school, in current English, Welsh and Northern Ireland usage, is a (usually) prestigious independent school, for children usually between the ages of 11 or 13 and 18, which charges fees and is not financed by the state. ...


The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Horman in 1519. Horman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde". The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north of Windsor Castle... Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of a British public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Richard Mulcaster, a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as “the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football”.[15] Among his contributions are the earliest evidence of organised team football. Mulcaster's writings refer to teams ("sides" and "parties"), positions ("standings"), a referee ("judge over the parties") and a coach "(trayning maister)". Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football: Richard Mulcaster, one of the greatest British educational visionaries, is known best for his headmasterships and paedegogic writings. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north of Windsor Castle... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

[s]ome smaller number with such overlooking, sorted into sides and standings, not meeting with their bodies so boisterously to trie their strength: nor shouldring or shuffing one an other so barbarously ... may use footeball for as much good to the body, by the chiefe use of the legges.

In 1633, David Wedderburn, a teacher from Aberdeen, mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called "Vocabula". Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball ("strike it here"). There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players ("drive that man back"). Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby's Book of Games, written in about 1660.[16] Willughby, who had studied at Sutton Coldfield School, is the first to describe goals and a distinct playing field: "a close that has a gate at either end. The gates are called Goals". His book includes a diagram illustrating a football field. He also mentions tactics ("leaving some of their best players to guard the goal"); scoring ("they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win") and; the way teams were selected ("the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness"). He is the first to describe a "law" of football: "they must not strike [an opponent's leg] higher than the ball". Francis Willughby (November 22, 1635 - July 3, 1672) was an English ornithologist and ichthyologist. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...


English public schools also devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century.[17] In the earliest manifestations of these rules, players were "off their side" if they simply stood between the ball and the goal which was their objective. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at the each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby, Harrow and Cheltenham, during in the period of 1810-1850.[18] Offside, off-side or off side can mean: The offside rule that occurs in a number of field sports including most versions of football (see offside law (football)), ice hockey (see offside (hockey)) and, until recently, in field hockey. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Look up scrum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... It has been suggested that Houses of Harrow School be merged into this article or section. ... Cheltenham College chapel and library (Big Modern) Introduction Cheltenham College opened in July 1841, in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England. ...


By the early 19th century, (before the Factory Act of 1850), most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day. They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...


Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils. Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried (as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham), while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted (as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse). The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters, making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games. Marlborough College is a British boarding school in the county of Wiltshire, founded in 1843 for the education of the sons of Church of England clergy, although it now accepts both boys and girls of all beliefs. ... The Royal College of large men at Westminster (almost always known as Westminster School) is one of Britains top boys independent schools and one of the nine British public schools, as set out in the Public Schools Act 1868. ... Charterhouse School (Originally, Suttons Hospital in Charterhouse) is a famous boys English public school, located in Godalming in the county of Surrey. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A Cloister is part of cathedrals and abbeys architecture. ...

Rugby School
Rugby School

William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "showed a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time" by picking up the ball and running to the opponents' goal in 1823. This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal. Nevertheless, by 1841 (some sources say 1842), running with the ball had become acceptable at Rugby, as long as a player gathered the ball on the full or from a bounce, he was not offside and he did not pass the ball. Download high resolution version (850x503, 228 KB)Rugby School as seen from the close where according to legend Rugby football was invented. ... Download high resolution version (850x503, 228 KB)Rugby School as seen from the close where according to legend Rugby football was invented. ... Statue of William Webb Ellis outside Rugby School William Webb Ellis (November 24, 1806 - January 24, 1872) is often credited with the invention of Rugby football. ...


The boom in rail transport in Britain during the 1840s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before. Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules. Railway mania was the term given to the speculative frenzy in Britain in the 1840s. ...


Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are are still played at the schools which created them (see Surviving public school games below). Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The first football clubs

Main article: Oldest football clubs

During this period, the Rugby school rules appear to have spread at least as far, perhaps further, than the other schools' codes. For example, two clubs which claim to be the world's first and/or oldest football club, in the sense of a club which is not part of a school or university, are strongholds of rugby football: the Barnes Club, said to have been founded in 1839, and Guy's Hospital Football Club, in 1843. Neither date nor the variety of football played is well-documented, but such claims nevertheless allude to the popularity of rugby before other modern codes emerged. The title of the worlds oldest football club, or the oldest club in a particular country, is often disputed, or is claimed by several different clubs, across several different codes of football. ... The title of the worlds oldest football club, or the oldest club in a particular country, is often disputed, or is claimed by several different clubs, across several different codes of football. ... Barnes Rugby Football Club, a rugby union club from Barnes, is one of the oldest in the country. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Guys Hospital Football Club, founded in 1843 at Guys Hospital, in London, was the worlds first football club. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1845, three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football.[19] This further assisted the spread of the Rugby game. For instance, Dublin University Football Club — founded at Trinity College, Dublin in 1854 and later famous as a bastion of the Rugby School game — is the world's oldest documented football club in any code. 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Dublin University Football Club is Trinity College, Dublins Rugby Union club. ... Trinity College, Dublin, corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by sexy Sandie Moran, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Cambridge rules

Main article: Cambridge rules

In 1848, at Cambridge University, Mr. H. de Winton and Mr. J.C. Thring, who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School, called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury. An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa 1856 is held in the library of Shrewsbury School. The rules clearly favour the kicking game. Handling was only allowed for a player to take a clean catch entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal. The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities (but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football). The Cambridge Rules, were a code of football drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848 by H. de Winton and J. C. Thring. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... H. de Winton and J. C. (John Charles) Thring were the two footballer players from Cambridge University (formerly of Shrewsbury School) responsible for the first formal set of rules for association football. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of a British public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England (and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man). ... The striker (wearing red jersey) has run past the defender (in white jersey) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to stop the ball. ...


The first modern balls

Main article: football (ball)
Richard Lindon (seen in 1880) is believed to have invented the first footballs with rubber bladders.

In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders, more specifically pig's bladders, which were inflated. Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the ball to keep their shape. [20] However, in 1851, Richard Lindon and William Gilbert, both shoemakers from the town of Rugby (near the school), exhibited both round and oval-shaped balls at the Great Exhibition in London. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died due to lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.[21] Lindon also won medals for the invention of the "Rubber inflatable Bladder" and the "Brass Hand Pump". A football is a ball used to play one of the different sports known as football. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1408x2048, 171 KB) Owner: Simon Hawkesley owner of the Richard Lindon Building, Lawrence Sheriff Street, Rugby. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1408x2048, 171 KB) Owner: Simon Hawkesley owner of the Richard Lindon Building, Lawrence Sheriff Street, Rugby. ... Category: ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Category: ... William Gilbert (1799-1877) was a cobbler in Rugby, Warwickshire, England. ... Rugby is a market town in the county of Warwickshire in the West Midlands of England, on the River Avon. ... The Great Exhibition: Paxtons Crystal Palace enclosed full-grown trees in Hyde Park. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1855, the U.S. inventor Charles Goodyear — who had patented vulcanized rubber — exhibited a spherical football, with an exterior of vulcanized rubber panels, at the Paris Exhibition Universelle. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U.S.A. [22] 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Goodyear, as illustrated in an 1891 Scientific American article Charles Spencer Goodyear (December 29, 1800 - July 1, 1860) was the first American to vulcanize rubber, a process which he discovered in 1839 and patented on June 15, 1844. ... Vulcanization is the process of cross-linking elastomer molecules to make the bulk material harder, less soluble and more durable. ... Images of the Palais dIndustrie The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France. ...


Sheffield rules

Main article: Sheffield rules

By the late 1850s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. The Sheffield Rules were devised by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest in 1857. ...


Sheffield Football Club, founded in 1857 in the English city of Sheffield, by former Harrow School pupils Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football. However, the club initially played its own code of football: the Sheffield rules. There were some similarities to the Cambridge rules, but players were allowed to push or hit the ball with their hands, and there was no offside rule at all, so that players known as kick throughs could be permanently positioned near the opponents' goal. The code spread to a number of clubs in the area and was popular until the 1870s. Sheffield F.C. was one of the worlds first football clubs and is the oldest still-existing club to now play football (soccer), having been founded in 1857. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ...


Australian rules

An Australian rules football match at the Richmond Paddock, Melbourne, in 1866. (A wood engraving by Robert Bruce.)
An Australian rules football match at the Richmond Paddock, Melbourne, in 1866. (A wood engraving by Robert Bruce.)

Tom Wills began to develop Australian football in Melbourne during 1858. Wills had been educated in England, at Rugby School and had played cricket for Cambridge University. The extent to which Wills was directly influenced by British and Irish football games is unknown, but there were similarities between some of them and his game. There were pronounced similarities between Wills's game and Gaelic football (as it would be codified in 1887). It appears that Australian football also has some similarities to the indigenous Australian game of Marn Grook (see above). Download high resolution version (1000x698, 198 KB)An Australian rules football match at the Richmond Paddock, Melbourne, in about 1866. ... Download high resolution version (1000x698, 198 KB)An Australian rules football match at the Richmond Paddock, Melbourne, in about 1866. ... High marking is a key skill and spectator attribute of Aussie Rules Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Aussie Rules Football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of football... Yarra Park has become the premier sporting precinct of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, with the iconic Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) and numerous sporting fields and ovals, including the associated sporting complexes of Melbourne Park and Olympic Park. ... Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... Thomas Bewick. ... High marking is a key skill and spectator attribute of Aussie Rules Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Aussie Rules Football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of football... Thomas Wentworth Wills was an Australian sportsman who is credited along with Henry Harrison as one of the inventors of Australian rules football. ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms The central business district of Melbourne, viewed from the north Alternate meanings: Melbourne (disambiguation) Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia, with a population of 52,117 in the Central... For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ... A Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football is possible due to the games similarities and the presence of International Rules Football, a hybrid code developed to allow players from both codes to participate in tests. ... Gaelic football (Irish: Peil or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, Gaelic or GAA (gah), is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... Indigenous Australians or Aborigines[1][2] are the first human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ... Marn Grook (also spelt marngrook) is an Australian Aboriginal ball game, which is claimed to have had an influence on the modern game of Australian rules football, most notably in the spectacular jumping and high marking exhibited by the players of both games. ...


Melbourne Football Club was also founded in 1858 and is the oldest surviving Australian football club, but the rules it used during its first season are unknown. The club's rules of 1859 are the oldest surviving set of laws for Australian rules. They were drawn up at the Parade Hotel, East Melbourne on 17 May, by Wills, W.J. Hammersley, J.B. Thompson and Thomas Smith (some sources include H.C.A. Harrison). These men had similar backgrounds to Wills and their code also had pronounced similarities to the Sheffield rules, most notably in the absence of an offside rule. A free kick was awarded for a mark (clean catch). However, running while holding the ball was allowed and although it was not specified in the rules, a rugby ball was used. The club shared many members with the Melbourne Cricket Club, which was based at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, and cricket ovals — which vary in size and are much larger than the fields used in other forms of football — became the standard playing field for Australian rules. The 1859 rules did not include some elements which would soon become important to the game, such as the requirement to bounce the ball while running. The Melbourne Football Club (MFC), nicknamed The Demons, is an Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League, based in Melbourne, Victoria. ... East Melbourne is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... The Melbourne Cricket Club (MCC) is a sporting club based in Melbourne, Australia. ... “MCG” redirects here. ... Test cricket grounds (stadiums) by nation: Categories: Cricket grounds | Lists | Test cricket ...


Australian rules is sometimes said to be the first form of football to be codified but, as was the case in all kinds of football at the time, there was no official body supporting the rules, and play varied from one club to another. By 1866, however, several other clubs in the Colony of Victoria had agreed to play an updated version of the Melbourne F.C. rules, which were later known as "Victorian Rules" and/or "Australasian Rules". The formal name of the code later became Australian rules football (and, more recently, Australian football). By the end of the 19th century the code had spread to the other Australian colonies (although rugby football would remain more popular in New South Wales and Queensland) and other parts of the world. Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Australian States and Territories comprise the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  4,070,400 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... While Australian rules football is a major spectator sport only in Australia (except for occasional exhibition games staged in other countries), in the late 1980s small amateur competitions were attempted in countries such as New Zealand, Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, France, the USA, Canada, Germany, Japan, Papua New Guinea...


The Football Association

The first football international, Scotland versus England. Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football.
Main article: History of The Football Association

During the early 1860s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. In 1862, J. C. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" (these are also known as the Uppingham Rules). In early October 1863 another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster. Image File history File links England_v_Scotland_(1872). ... Image File history File links England_v_Scotland_(1872). ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... First international Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Scotland 11 - 0 Ireland (Glasgow, Scotland; 23 February 1901) Biggest defeat Uruguay 7 - 0 Scotland (Basel, Switzerland; 19 June 1954) World Cup Appearances 8 (First in 1954) Best result Round 1, all European Championship Appearances 2 (First... First international Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... Uppingham School is a co-educational public school situated in the small town of Uppingham in Rutland, England. ...


At the Freemason's Tavern, Great Queen Street, London on the evening of October 26, 1863, representatives of several football clubs in the London Metropolitan area met for the inaugural meeting of The Football Association (FA). The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited were sent to to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December 1863. After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published. However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently-published Cambridge Rules of 1863. The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with (carrying) the ball and hacking (kicking opposing players in the shins). The two contentious FA rules were as follows: This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The County of London (in red), super imposed upon todays Greater London area, to show the difference in size with post-1965 Borough boundaries The County of London was an administrative county of England from 1888 to 1965. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ...

IX. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark [to take a free kick] he shall not run.
X. If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. W. Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the "Laws of Football", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as football (later known in some countries as soccer). History Early history Blackheath Rugby Club (BRC) was founded in 1858 by old boys of Blackheath Propietary School who played a carrying game of football made popular by Rugby School. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Laws of the Game (LOTG for short, also known as the Laws of Football) are the rules governing the play of Association football (soccer). ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of football, but which are still recognisable in other games: for instance, a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark, which entitled him to a free kick, and; if a player touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line, his side was entitled to a free kick at goal, from 15 yards in front of the goal line. Look up mark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Rugby football

Main article: History of rugby union
A rugby scrum in 1871.

In Britain, by 1870, there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. There were also "rugby" clubs in Ireland, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until 1871, when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union (RFU). (Ironically, Blackheath now lobbied to ban hacking.) The first official RFU rules were adopted in June 1871. These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try, where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest. Football games of various types were played long before the 19th century but it was not until the middle of that century that rules were formulated and codified. ... A Match at Football: The Last Scrimmage. Wood engraving from the London Illustrated News, 1871 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A Match at Football: The Last Scrimmage. Wood engraving from the London Illustrated News, 1871 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... Look up hacking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ...


North American football codes

Main articles: History of American football and History of Canadian football.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students. American football is the most popular spectator sport in the United States. ... Canadian football is a sport in which two teams of twelve players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (100. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...

The "Tigers" of Hamilton, Ontario circa 1906. Founded 1869 as the Hamilton Foot Ball Club, they eventually merged with the Hamilton Flying Wildcats to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a team still active in the Canadian Football League.
The "Tigers" of Hamilton, Ontario circa 1906. Founded 1869 as the Hamilton Foot Ball Club, they eventually merged with the Hamilton Flying Wildcats to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a team still active in the Canadian Football League.[23]

The first game of rugby in Canada is generally said to have taken place in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded football club in Canada. Image File history File links The_Tigers_of_Hamilton_football_team. ... Image File history File links The_Tigers_of_Hamilton_football_team. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ... The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a Canadian Football League team based in Hamilton, Ontario. ... Lions Stampeders Eskimos Roughriders Blue Bombers Tiger-Cats Argonauts Alouettes The Canadian Football League (CFL), also known by its French name, Ligue canadienne de football (LCF), is a professional sports league located in Canada that plays Canadian football, and is the second most popular sports league in Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


In 1869, the first game played in the United States under rules based on the English FA (soccer) code occurred, between Princeton and Rutgers. This is also often considered to be the first US game of college football, in the sense of a game between colleges (although the eventual form of American football would come from rugby, not soccer). Princeton University is a coeducational private university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... A college football game between Colorado State University and the Air Force Academy. ...


Modern American football grew out of a match between McGill University of Montreal, and Harvard University in 1874. At the time, Harvard students are reported to have played the Boston Game — a running code — rather than the FA-based kicking games favored by US universities. This made it easy for Harvard to adapt to the rugby-based game played by McGill and the two teams alternated between their respective sets of rules. Within a few years, however, Harvard had both adopted McGill's rugby rules and had persuaded other US university teams to do the same. In 1876, at the Massasoit Convention, it was agreed by these universities to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules. However, a touch-down only counted toward the score if neither side kicked a field goal. The convention decided that, in the US game, four touchdowns would be worth one goal; in the event of a tied score, a goal converted from a touchdown would take precedence over four touch-downs. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. ... The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... A touchdown is the primary method of scoring in American and Canadian football, in which the ball carrier causes the football to break the plane of the end zone, or an eligible receiver catches a forward pass in the end zone, thus earning 6 points for his team (in both... A field goal (formerly goal from the field) in American football and Canadian football (collectively called gridiron football) is a goal that may be scored during general play (from the field). Execution of a field goal A field goal may be scored by a placekick or the very rare drop...


Princeton, Rutgers and others continued to compete using soccer-based rules for a few years before switching to the rugby-based rules of Harvard and its competitors. US colleges did not generally return to soccer until the early twentieth century.

Rutgers College Football Team, 1882

In 1880, Yale coach Walter Camp, devised a number of major changes to the American game, beginning with the reduction of teams from 15 to 11 players, followed by reduction of the field area by almost half, and; the introduction of the scrimmage, in which a player heeled the ball backwards, to begin a game. These were complemented in 1882 by another of Camp's innovations: a team had to surrender possession if they did not gain five yards after three downs (i.e. successful tackles). picture of 1882 Rutgers College Football team File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... picture of 1882 Rutgers College Football team File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Walter Chauncey Camp (April 7, 1859 – March 14, 1925) was a sports writer and football coach known as the Father of American Football. Along with John Heisman, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Glenn Scobey Warner, and George Halas, Camp was one of the most significant people in the history of American football. ...


Over the years Canadian football absorbed some developments in American football, but also retained many unique characteristics. One of these was that Canadian football, for many years, did not officially distinguish itself from rugby. For example, the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884 was the forerunner of the Canadian Football League, rather than a rugby union body. (The Canadian Rugby Union was not formed until 1965.) American football was also frequently described as "rugby" in the 1880s. Lions Stampeders Eskimos Roughriders Blue Bombers Tiger-Cats Argonauts Alouettes The Canadian Football League (CFL), also known by its French name, Ligue canadienne de football (LCF), is a professional sports league located in Canada that plays Canadian football, and is the second most popular sports league in Canada. ... The current Rugby Canada, the administrative body for rugby union in Canada, has its origins in the Rugby Union of Canada, founded in about 1929. ...


Gaelic football

Main article: History of Gaelic football

In the mid-19th century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid, remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry. One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed. Gaelic football (Irish: Peil or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, Gaelic or GAA (gah), is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... Caid was the name used for a collection of various ancient and traditional Irish football games. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


By the 1870s, Rugby and football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby (see the Developments in the 1850s section, above). The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. Trinity College, Dublin, corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by sexy Sandie Moran, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Football. The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, 1887. Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football. The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule (an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football). A stylised Celtic cross serves as the traditional logo of the GAA. The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael) is an organisation which is mostly focussed on promoting Gaelic Games - traditional Irish sports, such as hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, handball, and rounders. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... An offside (formerly off-side) rule is a part of many field sports, including most versions of football and ice hockey. ...


The split in Rugby football

An English cartoon from the 1890s lampooning the divide in rugby football which led to the formation of rugby league. The caricatures are of Rev. Frank Marshall, an arch-opponent of player payments, and James Miller, a long-time opponent of Marshall. The caption reads: Marshall: "Oh, fie, go away naughty boy, I don't play with boys who can’t afford to take a holiday for football any day they like!" Miller: "Yes, that’s just you to a T; you’d make it so that no lad whose father wasn’t a millionaire could play at all in a really good team. For my part I see no reason why the men who make the money shouldn’t have a share in the spending of it."
An English cartoon from the 1890s lampooning the divide in rugby football which led to the formation of rugby league. The caricatures are of Rev. Frank Marshall, an arch-opponent of player payments, and James Miller, a long-time opponent of Marshall. The caption reads:
Marshall: "Oh, fie, go away naughty boy, I don't play with boys who can’t afford to take a holiday for football any day they like!" Miller: "Yes, that’s just you to a T; you’d make it so that no lad whose father wasn’t a millionaire could play at all in a really good team. For my part I see no reason why the men who make the money shouldn’t have a share in the spending of it."
Further information: History of rugby league

The International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) was founded in 1886, but rifts were beginning to emerge in the code. Professionalism was beginning to creep into the various codes of football. Download high resolution version (615x745, 209 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (615x745, 209 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... The history of rugby league began with the schism of 1895 in the sport of Rugby football. ... The IRB logo. ... In professional sports, athletes receive payment for their performance, as opposed to amateur sports and college sports where they do not. ...


In Britain, by the 1890s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries. This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England. In 1895, following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU). The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport. The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Huddersfield is a large town in England near the confluence of the River Colne and the River Holme. ... The Rugby Football League (RFL) is the governing body for Rugby League in the United Kingdom. ...


The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. Within a few years the NRFU rules had started to diverge from the RFU, most notably with the abolition of the line-out. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled. Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. The separate Lancashire and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901, forming the Northern Rugby League, the first time the name rugby league was used officially in England. A rugby lineout. ... Ruck can refer to a contest for possession in different forms of football. ... A rugby union scrum. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ...


Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union. A rugby union scrum. ...


The globalisation of Association football

Main article: History of FIFA

The need for a single body to oversee Association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in Paris on May 21, 1904. Its first president was Robert Guérin. The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries. FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) is the international governing body of association football. ... The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA, French for International Federation of Association Football) is the international governing body of association football. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Guérin (born June 28, 1876 in France) was the president of FIFA from 1904 to 1906. ...


The reform of American football

Both forms of rugby and American football were noted at the time for serious injuries, as well as the deaths of a significant number of players. By the early 20th century in the USA, this had resulted in national controversy and American football was banned by a number of colleges. Consequently, a series of meetings was held by 19 colleges in 1905–06. This occurred reputedly at the behest of President Theodore Roosevelt. He was considered a fancier of the game, but he threatened to ban it unless the rules were modified to reduce the numbers of deaths and disabilities. The meetings are now considered to be the origin of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1,200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ...


One proposed change was a widening of the playing field. However, Harvard University had just built a concrete stadium and therefore objected to widening, instead proposing legalisation of the forward pass. The report of the meetings introduced many restrictions on tackling and two more divergences from rugby: the forward pass and the banning of mass formation plays. The changes did not immediately have the desired effect, and 33 American football players were killed during 1908 alone. However, the number of deaths and injuries did gradually decline. Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. ... In several forms of football a forward pass is when the ball is thrown from one player to another on the same team, ending closer to the opponents goal line. ...


Further divergence of the two rugby codes

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in 1906, with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In 1907, a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year. However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match. This situation endured until 1948, when at the instigation of the French league, the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) was formed at a meeting in Bordeaux. Rugby league is a popular team sport played in Australia. ... The Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) is the world governing body for the sport of rugby league. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


During the second half of 20th century, the rules changed further. In 1966, rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: a team could retain possession of the ball for no more than four tackles. The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six (in 1971), and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule. In American and Canadian football, a down refers to a period in which a play transpires. ... Playing rugby league requires the player to be fit. ...


With the advent of full-time professionals in the early 1990s, and the consequent speeding up of the game, the five metre off-side distance between the two teams became 10 metres, and the replacement rule was superseded by various interchange rules, among other changes.


The laws of rugby union also changed significantly during the 20th century. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul, and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised. To mark a ball in Rugby Union, the player must be inside that players twenty-two metre line. ... Touch is the area outside two touch-lines which define the sides of the playing area in a game of Rugby football. ... A rugby union scrum. ... A rugby union scrum. ... A rugby union scrum. ... A rugby lineout. ...


In 1995, rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. Although the original dispute between the two codes has now disappeared — and despite the fact that officials from both forms of rugby football have sometimes mentioned the possibility of re-unification — the rules of both codes and their culture have diverged to such an extent that such an event is unlikely in the foreseeable future.


Football today

Use of the word "football" in English-speaking countries

Further information: Football (word)

The word "football", when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above. Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football, primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world. Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region. The English language word football may mean any one of several games, or the ball used in that game, depending on the national or regional origin/location of the person using the word. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Globally, and not necessarily in native English speaking countries, the word "football" usually refers to association football as this is the most widely played code of football. The name "soccer" (or "soccer football") was originally a slang abbreviation of association football and is now the prevailing term in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand where other codes of football are dominant. Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Radcliffe Camera, Oxford - the Radders The Oxford -er is a colloquial, sometimes facetious, abbreviation, prevalent at Oxford University from about 1875, which is thought to have been borrowed from the slang of Rugby School. ...


Of the 45 national FIFA affiliates in which English is an official or primary language, only three (Canada, Samoa and the United States) actually use "soccer" in their organizations' official names, while the rest use football (although the Samoan Federation actually uses both). However, in some countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, use of the word "football" by soccer bodies is a recent change and has been controversial. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA, French for International Federation of Association Football) is the international governing body of association football. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Present day codes and "families" of football

Association football and games descended from it

An indoor soccer game at an open air venue in Mexico. The referee has just awarded the red team a free kick.
An indoor soccer game at an open air venue in Mexico. The referee has just awarded the red team a free kick.
  • Football, also known as football, soccer, footy and footie.
  • Indoor/basketball court varieties of Football:
    • Five-a-side football – played throughout the world under various rules including:
      • Futsal – the FIFA-approved five-a-side indoor game.
      • Minivoetbal – the five-a-side indoor game played in East and West Flanders where it is hugely popular.
      • Papi fut — the five-a-side game played in outdoor basketball courts (built with goals) in Central America.
    • Indoor soccer – the six-a-side indoor game as played in North America. Known in Latin America, where it is often played in open air venues, as fútbol rápido ("fast soccer").
  • Paralympic football – modified Football for athletes with a disability. Includes:
  • Beach soccer – football played on sand, also known as sand soccer.
  • Street football – encompasses a number of informal varieties of football.
  • Rush goalie – is a variation of football in which the role of the goalkeeper is more flexible than normal.
  • Headers and volleys – where the aim is to score goals against a goalkeeper using only headers and volleys.
  • Fouling football – all tackles except the use of weapons and (usually) kicks to the groin are allowed.
  • Crab football - players stand on their hands and feet and move around on their backs whilst playing soccer as normal
  • Swamp soccer - the game is played on a swamp or bog field

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 2853 KB) Summary Indoor Soccer Game (Fútbol Rápido) game on October the 9th, 2005 Universidad de las Américas - Puebla vs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 2853 KB) Summary Indoor Soccer Game (Fútbol Rápido) game on October the 9th, 2005 Universidad de las Américas - Puebla vs. ... An indoor soccer game in Mexico. ... A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Five-a-side football is a variation of football (soccer) in which each team fields five players (four outfield players and a goalkeeper), rather than the usual eleven. ... Futsal in Germany Futsal is an indoor version of football (soccer). ... The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA, French for International Federation of Association Football) is the international governing body of association football. ... Papi fut is a popular Central American variety of football played on specially-constructed outdoor courts also usable for regulation basketball. ... An indoor soccer game in Mexico. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Paralympic football consists of adaptations of the sport of football (soccer) for athletes with a disability. ... Blind can refer to: Look up blind on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious neurological disorders that cause physical disability in human development, specifically the human movement and posture. ... Beach Soccer is a variant of the sport of association football. ... Street footballers in Plymouth UK The term street football encompasses a number of informal varieties of association football (soccer). ... Rush goalie is a variation of football (soccer) in which the role of the goalkeeper is more flexible than normal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Crab soccer (American English), or crab football (British English), is an informal sport for two teams. ... Swamp soccer is a form of football, which is played in bogs or swamps. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ...

Rugby school football and games descended from it

  • Rugby football
  • American football – called "football" in the United States and Canada, and "gridiron" in Australia and New Zealand. Sometimes called "tackle football" to distinguish it from the touch versions.
    • Arena football – an indoor version of American football.
    • Nine-man football, eight-man football, six-man football - versions of tackle football, played primarily by smaller high schools that lack enough players to field full 11-man teams.
    • Touch football (American) – non-tackle American football.
      • Flag football – non-tackle American football, like touch football, in which a flag that is held by velcro on a belt tied around the waist is pulled by defenders to indicate a tackle.
  • Canadian football – called simply "football" in Canada; "football" in Canada can mean either Canadian or American football depending on context.
    • Canadian flag football – non-tackle Canadian football.
    • Nine-man football - similar to nine-man American football, but using Canadian rules; played by smaller schools in Saskatchewan that lack enough players to field full 12-man teams.

See also: Comparison of American football and rugby league, Comparison of American football and rugby union, Comparison of Canadian and American football, Comparison of rugby league and rugby union. A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... Rugby league nines is a version of rugby league played with 9 players on each side. ... Touch (with a capital T), is also known as Touch Football (particularly in Australia) and Touch Rugby in other countries. ... Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right). ... A rugby union scrum. ... Rugby sevens is a variant of rugby football in which only seven players per side feature. ... Image File history File links Fiji_Cook_Island_rugby. ... Image File history File links Fiji_Cook_Island_rugby. ... Rugby sevens is a variant of rugby football in which only seven players per side feature. ... The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Australia between March 15 and March 26, 2006. ... Tag Rugby is a game played by teams of seven players. ... Beach Rugby is a sport based off of Rugby Football and, more specifically, rugby league. ... Image:Touch rugby chile. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Arena football is a sport invented by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League. ... Nine-Man Football is a type of American Football played by small schools. ... Eight-man football is a type of American football, generally played by small high schools. ... Six-man football is a variant of high school American football that is played with six players per team, instead of 11. ... Touch football is a version of American football originally developed by the U.S. Navy in the 1940s in which the players tackle the individual carrying the ball only by touching him with one or two hands, based on whether one is playing the one-hand touch or two... An Intramural game of co-ed flag football at the University of Texas at Austin Flag football is a version of American football that is popular across the United States and Europe. ... Canadian football is a sport in which two teams of twelve players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (100. ... NFL/CFL Flag Football is a non-contact form of Canadian football. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th... A comparison of American football and rugby league can be made due to their shared origins, resulting in similarities and shared concepts in terms of scoring and advancing the ball. ... A Comparison of American football and rugby union is possible due to the games similarities and shared origins. ... Canadian and American football are very similar, as both have their origins in rugby football (usually known in North America simply as rugby.) As such, the rules of these sports are quite homogenous, although a comparison illustrates some key differences. ... In English rugby a schism developed between those who favoured strict amateurism and those who felt that players should be compensated for time taken off work to play rugby. ...


Irish and Australian varieties of football

International rules football test match in 2005 between Australia and Ireland at Telstra Dome, Melbourne, Australia.
International rules football test match in 2005 between Australia and Ireland at Telstra Dome, Melbourne, Australia.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the requirement to bounce or solo (toe-kick) the ball while running, handpassing by punching the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions. Image File history File linksMetadata International_rules. ... Image File history File linksMetadata International_rules. ... International Rules Football match at the Telstra Dome - Australia vs Ireland. ... Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket. ... {{Infobox_Stadium | stadium_name = Telstra Dome | nickname = The Dome, Docklands Stadium| image = | location = Docklands, Melbourne | broke_ground = 1996| opened = 2000| closed = N/A| demolished = N/A| owner = James Fielding Funds Management| operator = Melbourne Stadiums LimitedAccess One| surface = Grass| construction_cost = $250 million AUD|lbourne. ... Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ...

  • Australian rules football – officially known as "Australian football", and informally as "Aussie rules" or "footy". In some areas (erroneously) referred to as "AFL", which is the name of the main organising body and competition.
    • Auskick – a version of Australian rules designed by the AFL for young children.
    • Metro footy (or Metro rules footy) – a modified version invented by the USAFL, for use on gridiron fields in North American cities (which often lack grounds large enough for conventional Australian rules matches).
    • 9-a-side footy – a more open, running variety of Australian rules, requiring 18 players in total and a proportionally smaller playing area. (Includes contact and non-contact varieties.)
    • Rec footy – "Recreational Football", a modified non-contact touch variation of Australian rules, created by the AFL, which replaces tackles with tags.
    • Touch Aussie Rules - a non-contact variation of Australian Rules played only in the United Kingdom
    • Samoa rules – localised version adapted to Samoan conditions, such as the use of rugby football fields.
    • Masters Australian football (a.k.a. Superules) – reduced contact version introduced for competitions limited to players over 30 years of age.
    • Women's Australian rules football – played with a smaller ball and (sometimes) reduced contact version introduced for women's competition.
  • Gaelic football – Played predominantly in Ireland. Sometimes referred to as "football" or "gaah" (from the acronym for Gaelic Athletic Association).
  • International rules football – a compromise code used for games between Gaelic and Australian Rules players.

See also: Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football High marking is a key skill and spectator attribute of Aussie Rules Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Aussie Rules Football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of football... This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... NAB AFL Auskick logo. ... Metro Footy (or Metro Rules Footy) - a modified version of Australian rules football rules played on gridiron football fields in North American cities (such as Los Angeles, Detroit, Chicago and New York) where there arent grounds large enough to hold true Australian Rules matches. ... The United States Australian Football League (also known informally as the USAFL or US Footy) is governing body that was conceived in 1996 and organized in 1997. ... Gridiron football is a term that refers to both American football and Canadian football. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... 9-a-side Footy is a sport based on Australian rules football played informally by Aussie Rules clubs but not yet an official sport in its own right. ... Recreational Football. ... Touch Aussie Rules is a non-contact version of Australian rules football that is currently played in London, UK and organised by Aussie Rules UK. All skills are utilised in Touch Aussie Rules including kicking, marking, handballing and bouncing. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ... Masters Australian Football (also known as Superules) is a sport based on the game of Australian rules football for players 30 years and over. ... Melbourne University Mugars player jostles for best position in a overhead Marking contest while tackled Darebin Falcons player lies down. ... Gaelic football (Irish: Peil or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, Gaelic or GAA (gah), is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... A stylised Celtic cross serves as the traditional logo of the GAA. The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael) is an organisation which is mostly focussed on promoting Gaelic Games - traditional Irish sports, such as hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, handball, and rounders. ... Ladies Gaelic Football is the most prominent amateur team sport for women in Ireland. ... International Rules Football match at the Telstra Dome - Australia vs Ireland. ... A Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football is possible due to the games similarities and the presence of International Rules Football, a hybrid code developed to allow players from both codes to participate in tests. ...


Surviving Mediæval ball games

The ball is hit into the air at the 2006 Royal Shrovetide Football match. (Photographer: Gary Austin.)
The ball is hit into the air at the 2006 Royal Shrovetide Football match. (Photographer: Gary Austin.)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2043x1396, 1604 KB) www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2043x1396, 1604 KB) www. ...

British Shrove Tuesday games

For the parish in New Brunswick, see Alnwick, New Brunswick Alnwick (pronounced ) is a small market town in north Northumberland, in the north-east of England. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Ashbourne is a small picturesque market town in the Derbyshire Dales, England. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... The Royal Shrovetide Football Match occurs annually on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the town of Ashbourne in Derbyshire, England. ... Atherstone is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced //, //, or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Corfe Castle is a small village and ruined castle ( ) dating back to the 11th century, situated in a gap in the Purbeck Hills, five miles south of Wareham, in Dorset, England. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. ... The Haxey Hood Game is a traditionally played at Haxey in the English county of Lincolnshire on the afternoon of January 6 or Twelfth Day. ... This article is about the Christian feast. ... For the Irish sport of hurling, see Hurling Hurling the silver ball (Cornish: Hurlian) is an old sport found still in some parts of Cornwall, England. ... Location within the British Isles. ... Cornwall (Cornish: ) is a county in South West England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... Statistics Population: 4,214 (2001) [1] Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NZ354286 Administration District: Sedgefield Shire county: County Durham Region: North East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: County Durham Historic county: County Durham Services Police force: Durham Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: North... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime... Medieval ball game played in Scotland, perhaps most notably in Orkney, around Christmas and New Year. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... Duns was created a Burgh of Barony in 1490, and is a former county town of Berwickshire in the Scottish Borders. ... Berwickshire (Siorrachd Bhearaig in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Scottish Borders Council and a Lieutenancy area of Scotland, on the border with England. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ...

Outside the UK

Calcio Fiorentino was an early form of football that originated in 16th century Italy. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...

Surviving public school games

Harrow football players after a game at Harrow School.

ImageMetadata File history File links RendallsHarrowFootball. ... ImageMetadata File history File links RendallsHarrowFootball. ... Harrow Football is a football style game played exclusively at Harrow School. ... It has been suggested that Houses of Harrow School be merged into this article or section. ... The Field Game is one of Eton Colleges two brands of football, the other being the famous Eton Wall Game. ... The wallgame has been played since 1766 The Eton Wall Game originated at Eton College. ... Harrow Football is a football style game played exclusively at Harrow School. ... Match around 1840. ...

Recent inventions and hybrid games

Murder ball is a game involving two or more players who struggle to take a ball (or similar object) across a predefined plane for points. ... Cubbies (or Cuppies) is an informal variant on football originating spontaneously in different parts of the world. ... This is a game based on football, often played by school children in the UK. the objective is to score past the goal keeper using only headers and volleys, such that no shots are taken from the ground. ... Three-sided football is a variation of football with three teams instead of the usual two. ... Triskelion is a soccer-like ball game for three teams, apparently named after the triskelion of the Isle of Man. ... Keepie uppie is the art of juggling with a football using feet, knees, chest, shoulders, and head. ... A typical freestyle footbag. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with footbag. ... Freestyle football is the art of juggling with a football using feet, knees, chest, shoulders, and head while simultaneously performing creative, skillful moves and keeping the ball airborne. ... Austus is a sport which was started in Australia during World War Two when U.S. soldiers wanted to play football against the Australians. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Bossaball hang time : right before a smash Bossaball : Player about to kick the ball into the game. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ... Gymnastics is the best sport there is. ... A trampoline is a gymnastic and recreational device consisting of a piece of taut, strong fabric stretched over a steel frame using many coiled springs to provide a rebounding force which propels the jumper high into the air. ... Footvolley is a sport which combines field rules that are based on those of volleyball with ball-touch rules taken from football. ... Adults playing kickball. ... Speedball is a code of football, which was devised by combining elements of American football, soccer, and basketball. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... Universal football was a hybrid of Australian rules football and rugby league, trialled at the Sydney Showground in 1933. ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of over 4,200,000 people, and 151,920, in the city limits. ... Volata Volata is a ball game that was created by the fascist party in Italy as a subsitute for football and rugby Football was quite popular in Spain, Italy and Germany when fascists came to power in each of these countries during the 1920s and 1930s. ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Augusto Turati (April 16, 1888, Parma—August 27, 1955, Rome) was an Italian journalist and Fascist politician. ... Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair rugby is a team sport for athletes with a disability. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Wheelchair Rugby There are currently two rugby football games played by people in wheelchairs. ... Wheelchair rugby league is a version of wheelchair rugby based expressly on rugby league. ...

Tabletop games and other recreations

Subbuteo is a set of board games simulating team sports such as football, cricket, both codes of Rugby and hockey. ... Blow football is a childrens game, popular in the United Kingdom where the object is to blow through some kind of pipe causing a small lightweight ball to pass through the opponents goal, as in other forms of Football. ... Table football (Bonzini style table). ... For the British television show, see Fantasy Football League Fantasy football is a game in which the participants each assemble a team of real life players and then score points based on those players statistical performance on the field. ... Button football is a football (soccer) simulation game played on a table-top utilizing concave disks or buttons as players. ... A standard paper football. ... Blood Bowl is a board game created by Jervis Johnson for the British games company Games Workshop as a parody of American Football. ... Fantasy Football is a fantasy sports game in which participants (called owners), arranged into a league, each draft or acquire via auction a team of real-life American football players and then score points based on those players statistical performance on the field. ... Madden NFL is an American football video game series developed by Electronic Arts Tiburon for EA Sports. ... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of all official computer games released in the sport of Australian rules football: (name, publisher, date of release, platforms, original format) Australian Rules Football (Alternative Software, 1989) ZX Spectrum/Amiga/Atari ST/Amstrad/Commodore 64, Cassette & Disk Aussie Rules Footy (Mattel, 1991) NES, cartridge AFL... AFL Premiership 2005 is the 2005 edition of the Australian Rules Football game for the PlayStation 2. ... The AFL Dream Team is a yearly competition run on the Australian Football Leagues official site AFL.com. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sports historian Bill Murray, quoted by The Sports Factor, "Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport" (Radio National, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, May 31, 2002) and Michael Scott Moore, "Naming the Beautiful Game: It's Called Soccer" (Der Spiegel, June 7, 2006). See also: ICONS Online (no date) "History of Football" and; Professional Football Researchers Association, (no date) "A Freendly Kinde of Fight: The Origins of Football to 1633". Access date for all references: February 11, 2007.
  2. ^ Richard Hakluyt, Voyages in Search of The North-West Passage, University of Adelaide, December 29, 2003
  3. ^ Stephen Alsford, FitzStephen's Description of London, Florilegium Urbanum, April 5, 2006
  4. ^ Francis Peabody Magoun, 1929, "Football in Medieval England and Middle-English literature” (The American Historical Review, v. 35, No. 1).
  5. ^ Magoun, Ibid; Online Etymology Dictionary (no date), "football"
  6. ^ Magoun, Ibid.
  7. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary, Ibid
  8. ^ Magoun, Ibid.
  9. ^ Vivek Chaudhary, “Who's the fat bloke in the number eight shirt?” (The Guardian, February 18, 2004.)
  10. ^ Anniina Jokinen, Sir Philip Sidney. "A Dialogue Between Two Shepherds" (Luminarium.org, July 2006)
  11. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext06/srvcr10.txt
  12. ^ International Olympic Academy (I.O.A.) (no date), “Minutes 7th International Post Graduate Seminar on Olympic Studies”
  13. ^ John Lord Campbell, The Lives of the Lords Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England, vol. 2, 1851, p. 412
  14. ^ William Maxwell Hetherington, 1856, History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, Ch.1 (Third Ed.)
  15. ^ footballnetwork.org , 2003, “Richard Mulcaster”
  16. ^ Francis Willughby, 1660-72, Book of Games
  17. ^ Julian Carosi, 2006, "The History of Offside"
  18. ^ Carosi, Ibid.
  19. ^ Rugby chronology. Museum of Rugby. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  20. ^ Soccer Ball World - Early History (Accessed June 9, 2006)
  21. ^ The exact name of Mr Lindon is in dispute, as well as the exact timing of the creation of the inflatable bladder. It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs. However sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon, who was actually Richards Lindon's son, and created the ball in 1862 (ref: Soccer Ball World), whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in 1870 (ref: Guardian article). Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders. This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.
  22. ^ soccerballworld.com, (no date) "Charles Goodyear's Soccer Ball" Downloaded 30/11/06.
  23. ^ Canadian Football Timelines (1860 – present). Football Canada. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  24. ^ Sean Fagan, Breaking The Codes, RL1908.com, 2006

The University of Adelaide (colloquially Adelaide University or Adelaide Uni) is a public university located in Adelaide. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Category: ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ...

References

  • Mandelbaum, Michael (2004); The Meaning of Sports; Public Affairs, ISBN 1-58648-252-1
  • Green, Geoffrey (1953); The History of the Football Association; Naldrett Press, London
  • Williams, Graham (1994); The Code War; Yore Publications, ISBN 1-874427-65-8

See also

There are many players who have converted one football code to another or even changed from other sports at a professional or representational level. ...

External links

  • Wilfried Gerhardt, "The colourful history of a fascinating game" (from the FIFA website)

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