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Encyclopedia > Foot (length)
1 foot =
SI units
0.3048 m 304.8 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0.3333 yd 12 in

## Contents

### United States survey foot

The United States survey foot is defined as exactly 12003937 metres, approximately 0.30480061 m. It is used in connection with surveying and mapping. It is exactly 1,000,000 / 999,998 times the international foot and thus 610 nm greater than the international foot. [2] This article is about the unit of length. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: Î½Î¬Î½Î¿Ï‚, nanos, dwarf; Î¼ÎµÏ„ÏÏŽ, metrÏŒ, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ...

The small difference between the survey and international feet would not be detectable on a survey of a small parcel, but becomes significant for mapping, or when a state plane coordinate system is used, because the origin of the system may be hundreds of kilometers (miles) from the point of interest. In 1986 the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) released the North American Datum of 1983, which underlies the state plane coordinate systems. An NGS policy from 1991 has this to say about the units used with the new datum: The State Plane Coordinate System (SPS or SPCS) is a set of more than 100 geographic coordinate systems designed for specific regions of the United States. ... The U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey was established by President Thomas Jefferson in 1807 as the Survey of the Coast. ... The North American Datum is the official reference ellipsoid used for the primary geodetic network in North America. ...

In preparation for the adjustment of the North American Datum of 1983, 31 states enacted legislation for the State Plane Coordinate System of 1983 (SPCS 83). All states defined SPCS 83 with metric parameters. Within the legislation, the U.S. Survey Foot was specified in 11 states and the International Foot was specified in 6 states. In all other states the meter is the only referenced unit of measure in the SPCS 83 legislation. The remaining 19 states do not yet have any legislation concerning SPCS 83.[3]

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

## Historical origin

The foot as a measure was used in almost all western cultures and was usually divided into 12, sometimes 10 inches/thumbs or into 16 fingers/digits. The first known standard foot measure was from Sumer, where a definition is given in a statue of Gudea of Lagash from around 2575 BC. Some metrologists speculate that the imperial foot was adapted from an Egyptian measure by the Greeks, with a subsequent larger foot being adopted by the Romans. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... Lagash (Akkadian lagaÅ¡) or Sirpurla (Sumerian Å IR.BUR.LAKI; modern Tell al-Hiba), northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... (Redirected from 2575 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Some of the earliest records of the use of the foot come from the region of ancient Greece. The originators devised, or perhaps borrowed from Egypt, the degree of longitude, divided the circumference of the earth into 360 degrees, and subdivided the degree for shorter distances. One degree of longitude comprised 600 stadia. One stadion was divided into 600 feet. Thus the degree of longitude measured 360,000 feet. One mile was 10 stadia or 6000 feet. This is essentially the same mile that was (or still is) used in the Western hemisphere, but the modern foot is longer than the original. This could be explained by an ancient Egyptian measure of the degree of longitude made near Thebes compared to a redefinition of the length of the foot referencing the degree of longitude at the equator. The difference in the length of the geodesic foot measured at these two locations would give the modern mile, 6000 ancient Greek feet or 10 stadia, and 5280 equatorial feet.[citation needed]

The popular belief is that the original standard was the length of a man’s foot. This is most likely true, but when local authorities and national rulers began calibrating and defining measurements, the foot of no human being was probably used as the basis. In rural regions and without calibrated rulers, many units of measurement were in fact based on the length of some part of body of the person measuring (or for example the area that could be ploughed in a day). In that sense, the human foot was no doubt the origin of the measuring unit called a "foot" and was also for a long time the definition of its length. To prevent discord and enable trade, many towns decided on a standard length and displayed this publicly. In order to enable simultaneous use of the different units of length based on different parts of the human body and other "natural" units of length, the different units were redefined as multiples of each other, whereby their lengths no longer corresponded to the original "natural" standards. This process of national standardisation began in Scotland in 1150 and in England in 1303, but many different regional standards had existed in both these countries long before. For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ...

Some believe that the original measurement of the English foot was from King Henry I, who had a foot 12 inches long; he wished to standardise the unit of measurement in England. However this is unlikely, because there are records of the word being used approximately 70 years before his birth (Laws Æthelstan). This of course does not exclude the possibility that this old standard was redefined ("calibrated") according to the ruler's foot. In fact, there is evidence that this sort of process was common at least in earlier ages. In other words, a new important ruler could try to impose a new standard for an existent unit, but it is unlikely that any king's foot was ever as long as the modern unit of measurement. Henry I (c. ...

The average foot length is about 9.4 inches (240 mm) for current Europeans. Approximately 99.6% of British men have a foot that is less than 12 inches long. One attempt to "explain" the "missing" inches is that the measure did not refer to a naked foot, but to the length of footwear, which could theoretically add an inch or two to the naked foot's length. This is consistent with the measure being convenient for practical uses such as building sites. People almost always pace out lengths whilst wearing shoes or boots, rather than removing them and pacing barefoot. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Walking barefoot Going barefoot means not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ...

There are however historical records of definitions of the inch based on the width (not length) of a man's thumb that are very precise for the standards of the time. One of these was based on an average calculated using three men of different size, thereby enabling surprising accuracy and uniformity throughout a country even without calibrated rulers. It therefore seems likely that at least since about the 12th century the precise length of a foot was in fact based on the inch, not the other way around. Since this length was fairly close to the size of most feet, at least in shoes, this enabled the above-mentioned use of one's shoes in approximating lengths without measuring devices. This sort of imprecise measuring that in addition excessively multiplied the measuring error due to repeated use of a short "ruler" (the foot) was of course never used in surveying and in constructing more complicated buildings.

The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... Some human-referenced units of measurement Units of measurement were among the earliest tools invented by humans. ... A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. ... Weights and measures is a term used by legal authorities in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom for a function related to units of measurement in trade. ... English unit is the American name for a unit in one of a number of systems of units of measurement, some obsolete, and some still in use. ... This article is about post-1824 imperial units, see also English unit, U.S. customary units or Avoirdupois. ... U.S. customary units, also known in the United States as English units[1] (but see English unit) or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA, in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units â€” the modern metric system). ... â€œSIâ€ redirects here. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Bigfoot- Sasquatch Dimensions and Traits, Characteristics, Bigfoot Biology, height, weight, speed, life cycle, ... (4473 words) Foot prints are the standard stock in trade of sasquatch research, and their sometimes inhuman length assures almost immediate measurement, even by first time witnesses. The average length of its 59 foot prints is 15.5" and, thus, deviates by merely 0.1" from the larger population average. As is the case with the ball of the foot, the heel does not grow in proportion to the length of the foot but lags behind, as the human heel does.
 Foot (unit of length) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (938 words) Consequently, the international foot is defined to be equal to 0.3048 metres (equivalent to 30.48 centimetres). In some cases, the foot is denoted by a prime, which is often approximated by an apostrophe, and the inch by a double prime. Some metrologists speculate that the imperial foot was adapted from an Egyptian measure by the Greeks, with a subsequent larger foot being adopted by the Romans.
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