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Encyclopedia > Foot

The foot is a biological structure found in many animals that is used for locomotion. In many animals, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws or nails. Look up foot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diagram of an insect leg A leg is the part of an animals body that supports the rest of the animal above the ground and is used for locomotion. ...

Contents

General forms

An example of unguligrade feet, the hooves of a horse

In land animals, some arthropods and all vertebrates have complex foot organs. The arthropod foot is known as a tarsus, and is distal to the tibia. In primitive insects, the tarsus was a single segment, but in more highly evolved insects the tarsus is composed of up to five segments, generally bearing claws as well. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 123 KB) photo I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 123 KB) photo I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Unguligrade animals (termed ungulates) are those which walk on the tips of their toes, typically on hooves. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ...


The feet of terrestrial vertebrates, called tetrapods, first evolved in amphibians from the fins of their aquatic ancestors, fish that ventured out of the water as early as 370 million years ago, in the Upper Devonian Period, perhaps to avoid predation and exploit the greater resource availability on land. The fore- and hindlimbs of these earliest tetrapods evolved from the pectoral and pelvic fins of their fish ancestors, but early forms of feet such as those of Ichthyostega already contained the basic shape of the foot still possessed by tetrapods (although early tetrapods often had more than five digits, the most common form of foot in extant tetrapods).[1] Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Classes Synapsida Sauropsida Amphibia A tetrapod (Greek tetrapoda, four-legged) is a vertebrate animal having four feet, legs or leglike appendages. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... The Devonian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Silurian period (360 million years ago (mya)) to the beginning of the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous (408. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than does air. ... Species Ichthyostega (Greek: fish roof) is an early tetrapod genus living in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) period, 367-362. ...


The feet of terrestrial vertebrates are characterized as plantigrade, digitigrade, or unguligrade. In plantigrade animals, such as frogs, bears, and humans, the bottom of the entire foot supports the weight of the animal. In digitigrade animals, such as wolves and birds, the toes bear the animal's weight, while the upper regions of the foot, the ankle and wrist, remain elevated. Finally, in unguligrade animals, such as cows or horses, even the toes are elevated, the animal standing only atop its nails, which have evolved to bear weight and are called hooves. REDIRECT [[]] Human skeleton, showing plantigrade habit In mammals, plantigrade locomotion means walking with the podials and metatarsals flat on the ground. ... A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes. ... Unguligrade animals (termed ungulates) are those which walk on the tips of their toes, typically on hooves. ... Genera See text. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes. ... Wolves may refer to: Gray Wolf Other uses of Wolf: see Wolf (disambiguation) Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. Category: ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... A claw is a curved pointed growth found at the end of a toe or finger, or in arthropods, of the tarsus. ...

Foot
A human foot - Enlarge to view legend
Latin pes
Artery dorsalis pedis, medial plantar, lateral plantar
Nerve medial plantar, lateral plantar, deep fibular, superficial fibular
MeSH Foot

The human foot is of the plantigrade form. The bottom of the foot is called the sole and the area just behind the toes is called the ball. The skin at the sole of the foot is denser than any other skin on the human body. The evolution of man has seen the density of the sole of the foot increase as man developed the ability to walk using the legs only. Image File history File links Foot. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. ... The medial plantar artery (internal plantar artery), much smaller than the lateral, passes forward along the medial side of the foot. ... The lateral plantar artery (external plantar artery), much larger than the medial, passes obliquely lateralward and forward to the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The medial plantar nerve (internal plantar nerve), the larger of the two terminal divisions of the tibial nerve, accompanies the medial plantar artery. ... The Lateral Plantar Nerve (external plantar nerve) supplies the skin of the fifth toe and lateral half of the fourth, as well as most of the deep muscles, its distribution being similar to that of the ulnar nerve in the hand. ... The Deep fibular nerve (deep peroneal nerve) begins at the bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve, between the fibula and upper part of the Fibularis (Peronæus) longus, passes infero-medially, deep to Extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the... The Superficial Fibular/Peroneal Nerve (musculocutaneous nerve of the leg) innervates the Peronei longus and brevis and the skin over the greater part of the dorsum of the foot. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For the slang term related to genital anatomy, see testicle. ...


Bones

The bones of the human foot
The bones of the human foot

The major bones in the human foot are:

  • Phalanges: The bones in the toes are called phalanges.
  • Metatarsals: The bones in the middle of the foot are called metatarsal bones.
  • Cuneiforms: There are three bones in the middle of the foot, towards the centre of the body, called cuneiforms.
  • Cuboid: The bone sitting adjacent to the cuneiforms on the outside of the foot is called the cuboid.
  • Navicular: This bone sits behind the cuneiforms.
  • Talus: Also called the ankle bone, the talus sits directly behind the navicular.
  • Calcaneus: Also called the heel bone, the calcaneus sits under the talus and behind the cuboid.

The foot also contains sesamoid bones in the distal portion of the first metatarsal bone. The phalanges in a human hand Illustration of the phalalnges The name Phalanges is commonly given to the bones that form fingers and toes. ... This article is about the body part. ... The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities. ... There are three cuneiform bones in the human foot: the medial cuneiform, the intermediate cuneiform and the lateral cuneiform. ... The cuboid bone is one of seven Tarsal bones. ... The navicular bone occurs in human and horse anatomy. ... See talus for other meanings of the word The talus bone or astragalus of the ankle joint connects the leg to the foot. ... The calcaneus is the large bone making up the heel of the human foot. ... In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. ... The first metatarsal bone is remarkable for its great thickness, and is the shortest of the metatarsal bones. ...


Articulations

The articulations of the foot are: Articulation may refer to several topics: In speech, linguistics, and communication: Topic-focus articulation Articulation score Place of articulation Manner of articulation In music: Musical articulations (staccato, legato, etc) In education: Articulation (education) In sociology: Articulation (sociology) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...

  1. ankle
  2. intertarsal articulations
  3. metatarsophalangeal articulations
  4. interphalangeal articulations of foot

For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location. ... Intertarsal articulations are the joints of the tarsus. ... The metatarsophalangeal articulations are of the condyloid kind, formed by the reception of the rounded heads of the metatarsal bones in shallow cavities on the ends of the first phalanges. ... The interphalangeal articulations of the foot (articulations of the phalanges) are ginglymoid joints, and each has a plantar and two collateral ligaments. ...

Muscles

Main article: Muscles of foot

The muscles of the foot include: This is a table of muscles of the human anatomy. ...

The extensor digitorum brevis muscle is a muscle on the upper surface of the foot that helps extend digits 2, 3, and 4. ... The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the top of the foot that helps to extend the big toe. ... The Abductor hallucis lies along the medial border of the foot and covers the origins of the plantar vessels and nerves. ... The Flexor digitorum brevis lies in the middle of the sole of the foot, immediately above the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, with which it is firmly united. ... For the muscle of the foot, see Abductor digiti quinti muscle (foot) The Abductor digiti quinti (Abductor minimi digiti) is situated on the ulnar border of the palm of the hand. ... The Quadratus plantæ (Flexor accessorius) is separated from the muscles of the first layer by the lateral plantar vessels and nerve. ... The lumbrical muscles are intrinsic muscles in the fingers that allow flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joints, while maintaining extension at the interphalangeal joints. ... The Flexor hallucis brevis arises, by a pointed tendinous process, from the medial part of the under surface of the cuboid bone, from the contiguous portion of the third cuneiform, and from the prolongation of the tendon of the Tibialis posterior which is attached to that bone. ... The Adductor hallucis (Adductor obliquus hallucis) arises by two heads—oblique and transverse. ... Flexor digiti minimi brevis can refer to: Flexor digiti minimi brevis (hand) Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle (foot) Category: ... Interossei dorsales can refer to: Dorsal interossei muscles (hand) Dorsal interossei muscles (foot) Category: ... The plantar interossei, three in number, lie beneath rather than between the metatarsal bones, and each is connected with but one metatarsal bone. ...

Arches

Main article: Arches of the foot

In order to allow it to support the weight of the body in the erect posture with the least expenditure of material, the foot is constructed of a series of arches formed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones, and strengthened by the ligaments and tendons of the foot. ...

Culture

In different cultures, feet are perceived and treated differently.

  • In China, between the 10th and 20th centuries the practice of female foot binding was used to stop the growth of feet, resulting in an aesthetically preferred though deformed foot.
  • In Middle Eastern societies, female feet are considered to be beautiful organs that need constant care. Among the popular activities related to the feet in the Middle East are henna drawing and wearing of anklets.
  • Within several Christian denominations, foot washing is a religious ritual originating in Jesus' washing of the disciples' feet at the Last Supper.
  • Foot fetishism is a sexual interest and preoccupation with feet and hosiery. Playing footsie means people rubbing each other's feet, and can have sexual connotations, while a foot job is a sex act involving the feet.

Lotus Feet redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Look up henna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anklet and toering An anklet, ankle chain, or ankle bracelet, is an ornament worn around the ankle. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Feet washing is a religious rite observed as an ordinance by several Christian denominations. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... Foot fetishism is a pronounced fetishistic sexual interest in human feet. ... Hosiery describes undergarments worn directly on the feet and legs. ... Insert non-formatted text here This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Foot job is much like a handjob, but the foot is used to stimulate the penis in the same way. ...

Customs

The soles of a male (left) and female (right) foot.
The soles of a male (left) and female (right) foot.

Customs about footwear while indoors vary significantly from place to place and usually depend on climate, weather, and other factors: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The sole is the bottom of the human foot. ... High-heeled shoe Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet. ...

  • It is customary to remove one's footwear when entering a home:
  • In some cultures, bare feet may be considered unsightly or offensive. In Thailand, it is considered extremely offensive to show someone the sole of your foot, although the practice of going barefoot is common, due to various reasons including hot climate and tradition.
  • In many religious subgroups of Uzbekistan, touching another's foot is a sign of affection. However, more conservative families consider this to be an act of promiscuity.
  • Regardless of covering, according to Thai normshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Thailand#Customs feet are the least respected parts of the body; they should not be in a higher position than someone's head and should not face someone or an image of Buddha.
  • The feet are one of the most common places to be tickled on the human body. The soles generally tend to be sensitive to tickling.

For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Walking barefoot Going barefoot means not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ... The Culture of Thailand is heavily influenced by Buddhism. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... A young girl tickles her sibling, evoking a pleasurable response in the child being tickled. ... The sole is the bottom of the human foot. ... A young girl tickles her sibling, evoking a pleasurable response in the child being tickled. ...

Customary measurement

One way to measure short distances on the ground is by placing one foot directly in front of the other; this led to the adoption of the foot as a unit of length, even though not all human feet correspond to this measure. A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Myths

It is a myth that the Imperial "foot" (304.8 mm) is about the length of the average European male foot. The average today is less than 270 mm and 90% of the population is within 20 mm of that. Very few men today have feet that are a "foot" long: most are more than 35 mm shorter. In the past, the average length would have been less.[citation needed] Even the overall length of most shoes remains well short of one "foot". Tradition has it that the Imperial foot was based upon the size of Hercules' foot. The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ...


Medical aspects

Due to their position and function, feet are exposed to a variety of potential infections and injuries, including athlete's foot, bunions, ingrown toenails, Morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis, plantar warts and stress fractures. In addition, there are several genetic conditions that can affect the shape and function of the feet, including a club foot or flat feet. Athletes foot or Tinea pedis[1] is a parasitic fungal infection of the epidermis of the foot. ... A bunion (hallux valgus) is a sometimes painful structural deformity of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe. ... Onychocryptosis, commonly known as ingrown nails (unguis incarnatus) or ingrowing nails, is a common form of nail disease. ... Mortons Neuroma. ... Plantar fasciitis, formerly known as policemans heel, is a painful inflammatory condition caused by excessive wear to the plantar fascia of the foot or biomechanical faults that cause abnormal pronation of the foot. ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... This article is about stress wienerfractures in bones. ... Club foot. ... Flatfoot redirects here. ...


A doctor who specializes in the treatment of the feet practices podiatry and is called a podiatrist. A pedorthist specializes in the use and modification of footwear to treat problems related to the lower limbs. Podiatry, more appropriately podiatric medicine is a field of healthcare devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and the knee, leg and hip (collectively known as the lower extremity). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with podiatry. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Reflexology is an alternative therapy which involves the stimulation of the nerves and skin of the feet to improve a person's health. This is an example of a reflexology chart, correlating areas of the feet with organs in the zones of the body. ... Alternative medicine is defined as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Complementary medicine is defined as any of the practices (as acupuncture) of alternative medicine accepted...


Notes

  1. ^ Klenerman and Wood, Human Foot, 1-4

References

  • Klenerman, Leslie, and Wood, Bernard. The Human Foot: A Companion to Clinical Studies. 2006, Springer. ISBN 185233925X.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Foot
Look up Foot in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The peroneal retinacula (singular: peroneal retinaculum) are fibrous bands which bind down the tendons of the Peronæi longus and brevis as they run across the lateral side of the ankle. ... The inferior extensor retinaculum of the foot (cruciate crural ligament, lower part of anterior annular ligament) is a Y-shaped band placed in front of the ankle-joint, the stem of the Y being attached laterally to the upper surface of the calcaneus, in front of the depression for the... The superior extensor retinaculum of the foot (transverse crural ligament) of the ankle is the upper part of the anterior annular ligament. ...

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