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Encyclopedia > Food safety

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... For other uses, see Health (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ...

Contents

Basic Practices

The following are fundamental requirements to maintain sanitary hygiene while preparing food:

  1. Wear clean clothes and apron.
  2. Wash your hands with soap and water before and after cooking.
  3. Tie your hair back with elastic band or rubberband.
  4. Make sure that cooking utensils (including kitchenware) are fit and clean
  5. Keep the temperature of hot food above 140°F / 60°C and keep the temperature of cold food below 40°F / 4°C. Food should not sit at intermediary temperatures (defined as 40-140°F / 4-60°C) for more than 2 hours.
  6. Use an instant-read thermometer with a food-safe probe attached, to measure the internal temperature of cooked meats.
  7. Keep raw meat apart from cooked meat, and wash the cutting board and knife before reusing.
  8. Wash meat, fruit, and vegetables thoroughly before use. (although some sources (http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/html/chapter10.htm) suggest washing meat spreads bacteria, that would otherwise be killed in the cooking process.
  9. Do not cook or otherwise prepare and serve food if feeling unwell or being HIV and Hepatitis virus carriers. It's the best practice of employing health certified food and service workers.
  10. Another best practice is to employ police certified staff to work in the GMP/GSP regulated food and service sectors, which will prevent vandalism and assasins in a certain degree [1], [2].

This article is about the garment. ... Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers commonly found in the kitchen. ... This is a list of food preparation utensils, also known as kitchenware. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... This article is about the food. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Unwell is the second single from Matchbox Twentys third album, More Than You Think You Are. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... There are several meanings for GMP: Good Manufacturing Practice, a guideline for manufacturers of medications (including pharmaceuticals, biotechnology products, and active pharmaceutical ingredients) to assure that medications are of the required quality. ...

Hygienic accessories

To maintain food and cooking hygiene, the use of following items may also be necessary [3]

A roll of paper towel. ... This is a list of eating and serving utensils. ... Some dishware Dishware is a general term for objects—dishes—from which people eat or serve food, such as plates and bowls. ... Folded napkin A napkin or serviette is a rectangle of cloth or paper used at the table for wiping the mouth while eating. ...

Regulatory agencies

UK HACCP guidelines

The UK Food Standards Agency[4] publishes recommendations as part of its Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) programme. The relevant guidelines at http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/csctcooking.pdf state that: The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety, pharmaceutical safety, etc. ...

"Cooking food until the CORE TEMPERATURE is 75 °C or above will ensure that harmful bacteria are destroyed.
However, lower cooking temperatures are acceptable provided that the CORE TEMPERATURE is maintained for a specified period of time as follows :

  • 60°C for a minimum of 45 minutes
  • 65°C for a minimum of 10 minutes
  • 70°C for a minimum of 2 minutes"

UK Department Of Health

Previous guidance from a leaflet produced by the UK Department Of Health “Handling Cooked Meats Safely A Ten Point Plan” also allowed for:

  • "75°C for a minimum of 30 seconds
  • 80°C for a minimum of 6 seconds"

as well as the above. Secondary references for the above may be found at:

Note that recommended cooking conditions are only appropriate if initial bacterial numbers in the uncooked food are small. Cooking does not replace poor hygiene.


US Agencies

In the United States, federal regulations governing food safety are fragmented and complicated, according to a February 2007 report from the Government Accountability Office.[5] There are 15 agencies sharing oversight responsibilities in the food safety system, although the two primary agencies are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, and processed egg products, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is responsible for virtually all other foods. “FDA” redirects here. ...


Codex Alimentaurius

In 2003, Codex Alimentarius published a document on this subject which serves one of guidelines to food safety [6]. The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for food code or food book) is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety under the aegis of consumer protection. ...


Academic resources

Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... Elseviers logo. ... Elseviers logo. ... Elseviers logo. ... The International Association for Food Protection (IAFP), founded in 1911, is a non-profit association of food safety professionals. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... Springer is the name of several places in the United States: Springer, New Mexico Springer Township, North Dakota Springer, Oklahoma Springer is the name of: Springer Science+Business Media, a worldwide publishing group based in Germany (including Springer-Verlag) Axel Springer Verlag AG, famous conservative German publishing house Springer (EP...

Industrial resources

  • Internet Journal of Food Safety, ISSN: 1930-0670, International Association for Food Safety/Quality

See also

Main articles: Hygiene, Food, and Cooking

Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... The international biological hazard symbol Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... A biosecurity guarantee attempts to ensure that ecologies sustaining either people or animals are maintained. ... The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for food code or food book) is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety under the aegis of consumer protection. ... The Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (usually abbreviated as CRFSFS) is an American online peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Conference for Food Protection (CFP) is a non-profit organization that originated in 1971. ... Critical Control Point (CCP) is a point, step or procedure at which controls can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable (critical) levels. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... An environmental health specialist, also referred to as environmental health inspector, environmental health officer, environmental health professional, environmental Health Sanitarian, environmental health scientist and sanitarian is employed in environmental health and conducts research or performs investigations for the purpose of identifying, diminishing, and/or eliminating sources of pollutants and hazards... The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), an agency of the European Union, began operating in 2002. ... Food and cooking hygiene includes a number of routines which should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. ... Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. ... The Radura logo, used to show a food has been treated with radiation. ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms which inhabit, create or contaminate food. ... The law in the UK on food labeling is multifaceted and is spread over many reforms and parliamentary acts, making the subject complex. ... Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Food safety is a growing concern in Chinas vast food production system. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... The term Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) can refer to any collection of specific methods, which when applied to agriculture, produce results that are in harmony with the values of the proponents of those practices. ... Good Manufacturing Practice or GMP (also referred to as cGMP or current Good Manufacturing Practice) is a term that is recognized worldwide for the control and management of manufacturing and quality control testing of foods and pharmaceutical products. ... Good Safety Practice or GSP deals with good practices to improve occupational safety. ... Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety, pharmaceutical safety, etc. ... Food safety is linked to the presence of food-borne hazards in food at the point of consumption. ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... Food and Drugs Act (formal title An Act respecting food, drugs, cosmetics and therapeutic devices) is an Act of the Parliament of Canada regarding the production, import, export, transport across provinces and sale of food, drugs, contraceptive devices and cosmetics (including personal cleaning products such as soap and toothpaste). ... The Food Quality Protection Act[1] (FQPA) of 1996 is a United States federal law. ... The United States Meat Inspection Act of 1906 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. ... This is an article about the United States Food and Drug Act; for the Canadian version see Food and Drugs Act. ... The Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food is a statutory committee advising the British government. ... The Canadian Food Inspection Agency, or CFIA, which was created in April 1997, brought together inspection and related services previously provided through the activities of four federal government departments – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Health Canada and Industry Canada. ... The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) is a committee within the European Parliament. ... The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), an agency of the European Union, began operating in 2002. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition is the branch of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. ... FAO redirects here. ... The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ... The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... sex Canada (French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health. ... The International Association for Food Protection (IAFP), founded in 1911, is a non-profit association of food safety professionals. ... The International Life Sciences Insitute (ILSI) is a non-profit international organization founded in 1978 to address food safety, nutrition, and toxicology issues. ... Official logo of SENASA. The National Service of Agricultural Food Health and Quality (Spanish: Servicio Nacional de Sanidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria, SENASA) is an independent agency of the Argentine government charged with surveillance, regulation and certification of products of animal and plant origin and the prevention, eradication and control of... The State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA Simplified Chinese: ) is founded on the basis of the State Drug Administration. ... Former Under Secretary Catherine Woteki The Under Secretary for Food Safety is a position within the United States Department of Agriculture responsible for oversight of the policies and programs of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. ... A sealed pack of diced pork from Tesco. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Potentially Hazardous Food is a term used by food safety organizations to classify foods that require time-temperature control to keep them safe for human consumption. ... SAFE FOODS SAFE FOODS is a European Project (2004-2008) that deals with food safety. ... A portable night-time Tex-Mex street-food stand outside the Helsinki railway station, Finland. ...

References

  1. ^ Alexander Litvinenko poisoning
  2. ^ Munir Said Thalib
  3. ^ Food Standards Agency. Safer food, better business for caterers. Retrieved on 24 November 2007.
  4. ^ http://www.food.gov.uk/
  5. ^ GAO-07-449T, Federal Oversight of Food Safety
  6. ^ Codex Alimentarius. Codex Alimentarius and Food Hygiene. Retrieved on 15 October 2007.

On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federations Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Food Safety Lessons: Glossary (742 words)
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Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites.
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The delay between consumption of a contaminated food and appearance of the first symptoms of illness is called the incubation period.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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